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Non-equilibrium dynamics of dense gas under tight confinement

  • Lei Wu (a1), Haihu Liu (a2), Jason M. Reese (a3) and Yonghao Zhang (a1)
Abstract

The force-driven Poiseuille flow of dense gases between two parallel plates is investigated through the numerical solution of the generalized Enskog equation for two-dimensional hard discs. We focus on the competing effects of the mean free path ${\it\lambda}$ , the channel width $L$ and the disc diameter ${\it\sigma}$ . For elastic collisions between hard discs, the normalized mass flow rate in the hydrodynamic limit increases with $L/{\it\sigma}$ for a fixed Knudsen number (defined as $Kn={\it\lambda}/L$ ), but is always smaller than that predicted by the Boltzmann equation. Also, for a fixed $L/{\it\sigma}$ , the mass flow rate in the hydrodynamic flow regime is not a monotonically decreasing function of $Kn$ but has a maximum when the solid fraction is approximately 0.3. Under ultra-tight confinement, the famous Knudsen minimum disappears, and the mass flow rate increases with $Kn$ , and is larger than that predicted by the Boltzmann equation in the free-molecular flow regime; for a fixed $Kn$ , the smaller $L/{\it\sigma}$ is, the larger the mass flow rate. In the transitional flow regime, however, the variation of the mass flow rate with $L/{\it\sigma}$ is not monotonic for a fixed $Kn$ : the minimum mass flow rate occurs at $L/{\it\sigma}\approx 2{-}3$ . For inelastic collisions, the energy dissipation between the hard discs always enhances the mass flow rate. Anomalous slip velocity is also found, which decreases with increasing Knudsen number. The mechanism for these exotic behaviours is analysed.

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Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Email address for correspondence: lei.wu.100@strath.ac.uk
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