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    Fujii, Tetsu Buenconsejo, N. S. and Koyama, Shigeru 1989. Development of a fiber anemometer for direct measurement of low average velocity inside ducts. Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 60, Issue. 5, p. 939.

    Tetsu, Fujii Shigeru, Koyama and Buenconsejo, N.S. 1988. Laminar free convection flow rate in a vertical tube. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 31, Issue. 4, p. 831.

    Pera, Luciano and Gebhart, Benjamin 1973. On the stability of natural convection boundary layer flow over horizontal and slightly inclined surfaces. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 16, Issue. 6, p. 1147.

    Rotem, Zeev and Claassen, Lutz 1969. Natural convection above unconfined horizontal surfaces. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 39, Issue. 01, p. 173.

    Rotem, Zeëv and Claassen, Lutz 1969. Free convection boundary-layer flow over horizontal plates and discs. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 47, Issue. 5, p. 461.

    Tritton, D. J. 1963. The use of a fibre anemometer in turbulent flows. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 16, Issue. 02, p. 269.


Turbulent free convection above a heated plate inclined at a small angle to the horizontal

  • D. J. Tritton (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2006

An investigation has been made of the structure of the motion above a heated plate inclined at a small angle (about 10°) to the horizontal. The turbulence is considered in terms of the similarities to and differences from the motion above an exactly horizontal surface. One effect of inclination is, of course, that there is also a mean motion.

Accurate data on the mean temperature field and the intensity of the temperature fluctuations have been obtained with platinum resistance thermometers, the signals being processed electronically. More approximate information on the velocity field has been obtained with quartz fibre anemometers. These results have been supplemented qualitatively by simultaneous observations of the temperature and velocity fluctuations and also by smoke experiments.

The principal features of the flow inferred from these observations are as follows. The heat transfer and the mean temperature field are not much altered by the inclination, though small, not very systematic, variations may result from the complexities of the velocity field. This supports the view that the mean temperature field is largely governed by the large-scale motions. The temperature fluctuations show a systematic variation with distance from the lower edge and resemble those above a horizontal plate when this distance is large. The largescale motions of the turbulence start close to the lower edge, but the smaller eddies do not attain full intensity until the air has moved some distance up the plate. The mean velocity receives a sizable contribution from a ‘through-flow’ between the side-walls. Superimposed on this are developments that show that the momentum transfer processes are complex and certainly not capable of representation by any simple theory such as an eddy viscosity. On the lower part of the plate there is surprisingly large acceleration, but further up the mixing action of the small eddies has a decelerating effect.

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Journal of Fluid Mechanics
  • ISSN: 0022-1120
  • EISSN: 1469-7645
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-fluid-mechanics
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