Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

A Study of Creep Behavior of TSV-Cu Based on Nanoindentaion Creep Test

  • W. Wu (a1), F. Qin (a1), T. An (a1) and P. Chen (a1)
Abstract

Through-Silicon-Via (TSV) is considered to be the most potential solution for 3D electronic packaging, and the mechanical properties of TSV-Cu are critical for TSV reliability improving. In this paper, to make deeply understand the creep behavior of TSV-Cu, nanoindentation creep tests were conducted to obtain its creep parameters. At first, the TSV specimens were fabricated by means of a typical TSV manufacturing process. Then a combination programmable procedure of the constant indentation strain rate method and the constant load method was employed to study the creep behavior of TSV-Cu. To understand the influence of the previous loading schemes, including the different values of the indentation strain and the maximum depths, the nanoindentation creep tests under different loading conditions were conducted. The values of creep strain rate sensitivity m were derived from the corresponding displacement-holding time curves, and the mean value of m finally determined was 0.0149. The value of m is considered no obvious correlation with the different indentation strain rates and the maximum depths by this method. Furthermore, the mechanism for the room temperature creep was also discussed, and the grain boundaries might play an significant role in this creep behavior.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author (antong@bjut.edu.cn)
References
Hide All
1. Moore, G., “Cramming more components integrated circuits,” Electronics, 38, pp. 5659 (1965).
2. Cale, T. S., Liu, J. Q. and Gutmann, R. J., “Three-dimensional integration in microelectronics: Motivation, processing, and thermomechanical modeling,” Chemical Engineering Communications, 195, pp. 847888 (2008).
3. Lau, J. H., “Overview and outlook of through-silicon via (TSV) and 3D integrations,” Microelectronics International, 28, pp. 822 (2011).
4. Khan, N. et al., “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, 33, pp. 39 (2010).
5. Tu, K. N., “Reliability challenges in 3D IC packaging technology,” Microelectronics Reliability, 51, pp. 517523 (2011).
6. Okoro, C. et al., “Influence of annealing conditions on the mechanical and microstructural behavior of electroplated Cu-TSV,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 20, 045032 (2010).
7. Andricacos, P. C., Uzoh, C., Dukovic, J. O., Horkans, J. and Deligianni, H., “Damascene copper electroplating for chip interconnections,” IBM Journal of Research and Development, 42, pp. 567574 (1998).
8. Murarka, S. P., “Multilevel interconnections for ULSI and GSI era,” Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 19, pp. 87151 (1997).
9. Heryanto, A. and Putra, W. N., “Trigg A. Effect of Copper TSV Annealing on Via Protrusion for TSV Wafer Fabrication,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 41, pp. 25332542 (2012).
10. Wang, H. et al., “Effect of thermal treatment on the mechanical properties of Cu specimen fabricated using electrodeposition bath for through-silicon-via filling,” Microelectronic Engineering, 114, pp. 8590 (2014).
11. Ege, E. S. and Shen, Y. L., “Thermomechanical Response and Stress Analysis of Copper Interconnects,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 32, pp. 10001011 (2003).
12. Shen, Y. L. and Ramamurty, U., “Constitutive response of passivated copper films to thermal cycling,” Journal of Applied Physics, 93, pp. 18061812 (2003).
13. Dixit, P., Xu, L., Miao, J., Pang, J. H. L. and Preisser, R., “Mechanical and microstructural characterization of high aspect ratio through-wafer electroplated copper interconnects,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 17, pp. 17491757 (2007).
14. Han, Y. D. et al., “Temperature dependence of creep and hardness of Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 39, pp. 223229 (2010).
15. Liu, Y., Huang, C., Bei, H., He, X. and Hu, W., “Room temperature nanoindentation creep of nanocrystalline Cu and Cu alloys,” Materials Letters, 70, pp. 2629 (2012).
16. Chang, S. Y., Chang, T. K. and Lee, Y. S., “Nanoindentating mechanical responses and interfacial adhesion strength of electrochemically deposited copper film,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 152, pp. c657-c663 (2005).
17. Li, H. and Ngan, A. H. W., “Size effects of nanoindentation creep,” Journal of Materials Research, 19, pp. 513522 (2004).
18. Goodall, R. and Clyne, T. W., “A critical appraisal of the extraction of creep parameters from nanoindentation data obtained at room temperature,” Acta Materialia, 54, pp. 54895499 (2006).
19. Mayo, M. J. and Nix, W. D., “A micro-indentation study of superplasticity in Pb, Sn, and Sn-38 wt% Pb,” Acta Metallurgica, 36, pp. 21832192 (1988).
20. Raman, V. and Berriche, R., “An investigation of the creep processes in tin and aluminum using a depth-sensing indentation technique,” Journal of Materials Research, 7, pp. 627638 (1992).
21. Lucas, B. N. and Oliver, W. C., “Indentation power-law creep of high-purity indium,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 30, pp. 601610 (1999).
22. Antunes, J. M., Fernandes, J. V., Menezes, L. F. and Chaparro, B. M., “A new approach for reverse analyses in depth-sensing indentation using numerical simulation,” Acta Materialia, 55, pp. 6981 (2007).
23. Ma, H. and Suhling, J. C., “A review of mechanical properties of lead-free solders for electronic packaging,” Journal of Materials Science, 44, pp. 11411158 (2009).
24. Chang, S. Y., Lee, Y. S. and Chang, T. K., “Nanomechanical response and creep behavior of electroless deposited copper films under nanoindentation test,” Materials Science and Engineering A, 423, pp. 5256 (2006).
25. Frost, H. J. and Ashby, M. F., Deformation mechanism maps–the plasticity and creep of metals and ceramics, Pergamon, Oxford (1982).
26. Moffat, T. P, Wheeler, D., Edelstein, M. D. and Josell, D., “Superconformal Film Growth: Mechanism and Quantification,” IBM Journal of Research and Development, 49, pp. 1936 (2005).
27. Wang, C. L., Zhang, M. and Nieh, T. G., “Nanoindentation creep of nanocrystalline nickel at elevated temperatures,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 42, pp. 115405115412 (2009).
28. Dean, J., Bradury, A., Aldrich-Smith, G. and Clyne, T., “A procedure for extracting primary and secondary creep parameters from nanoindentation data,” Mechanics of Materials, 65, pp. 124134 (2013).
29. Shen, L., Cheong, W. C. D., Foo, Y. L. and Chen, Z., “Nanoindentation creep of tin and aluminium: A comparative study between constant load and constant strain rate methods,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, 532, pp. 505510 (2012).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Mechanics
  • ISSN: 1727-7191
  • EISSN: 1811-8216
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-mechanics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed