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State—Subject Communication in Zaïre: Domination and the Concept of Domain Consensus

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 November 2008


One of the principal tasks of administration in Zaïre is to establish a stable domain consensus, a concept that has been defined as follows: a set of expectations both for members of an organization and for others with whom they interact, about what that organization will and will not do. It provides, although imperfectly, an image of the organization's role in a larger arena, which in turn serves as a guide for the ordering of action in certain directions and not in others.1

Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1980

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page 469 note 1 Thompson, James D., Organizations in Action (New York, 1967), p. 27.Google Scholar

page 469 note 2 Bendix, Reinhard, Max Weber (Garden City, N.Y., 1962), p. 292,Google Scholar my emphasis.

page 469 note 3 See Etzioni, Amitai, A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations (New York, 1961).Google Scholar

page 470 note 1 Apter, David E., The Politics of Modernization (Chicago, 1967), pp. 236 and 266.Google Scholar

page 470 note 2 Ibid. p. 237, and Ilchman, Warren F. and Uphoff, Norman T., The Political Economy of Change (Berkeley, 1969), pp. 7380.Google Scholar

page 471 note 1 Goubert, Pierre, L'Ancien régime (Paris, 1973), p. 30.Google Scholar For a detailed and comparative analysis of Zaïre as an absolutist state, see Callaghy, Thomas M., ‘State Formation and Absolutism in Comparative Perspective: seventeenth-century France and Mobutu Sese Seko's Zaïre’, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1979.Google Scholar

page 472 note 1 Seko, Mobutu Sese, Paroles du Président (Kinshasa, 1968), p. 47.Google Scholar

page 472 note 2 See Bolela, Albert-Oscar, ‘Droit et devoirs du journaliste en République du Zaïre’, in Zaïre-Afrique (Kinshasa), 63, 03 1972, pp. 149–58.Google Scholar

page 472 note 3 Administrative correspondence, Kinshasa, 15 August 1974.

page 473 note 1 Administrative correspondence to all Regional Commissioners, Kinshasa, 28 November 1973.

page 473 note 2 Poster distributed in Bas-Zaïre during March 1967.

page 474 note 1 ‘Rapport d'activtés de la sous-région du MPR/Cataractes de 1967 à 1972’, Mbanza-Ngungu, 28 March 1972.

page 474 note 2 Administrative correspondence, Kimvula, July 1970.

page 474 note 3 ‘Rapport d'activités’, op. cit. and ‘Aide mémoire à l'intention des citoyens commissaires de sous-région et de la zone’, Bukavu, 9 December 1972.

page 474 note 4 Sub-regional monthly reports, Mbanza-Ngungu, February–September 1973.

page 475 note 1 ‘Compte-rendu de la réunion tenue le 20 juin 1972’, Bukavu.

page 475 note 2 Administrative correspondence, Inkisi, 28 September 1973.

page 475 note 3 ‘Synthèse des entretiens avec les différentes couches de la population du Nord-Kivu’, Bukavu, 23 February 1975.

page 476 note 1 Zaïre-Afrique, 98, October 1975, p. 58.

page 476 note 2 Administrative correspondence, Kimvula, 2 June 1974; administrative reports, September–November 1974; and personal observation.

page 477 note 1 ‘Avis au public’, Mbanza-Ngungu, 2 October 1973.

page 477 note 2 Administrative announcement, Mbanza-Ngungu, 10 March 1975.

page 477 note 3 Department of Culture and the Arts, L'Animation culturelle dans la révolution: recueil de chants patriotiques du MPR (Kinshasa, 1974).Google Scholar

page 478 note 1 Administrative correspondence, 1973–4.

page 478 note 2 L'Animation culturelle dans la révolution, pp. 19 and 27.

page 478 note 3 Administrative reports, 14 and 17 February 1975.

page 479 note 1 Administrative correspondence, Matadi, 26 Jaunary 1972; and personal observation in Shaba, Kivu, Bas-Zaïre, and Kinshasa, 1974–5.

page 479 note 2 Administrative report, Mbanza-Ngungu, 17 February 1975.

page 480 note 1 Naipaul, V. S., ‘A New King for the Congo’, in New York Review of Books, 25 06 1975.Google Scholar

page 481 note 1 Stinchcombe, Arthur, Constructing Social Theories (New York, 1968), p. 162.Google Scholar

page 482 note 1 Tocqueville, Alexis de, The Old Régime and the French Revolution (Garden City, N.Y., 1955 edn.), p. 50.Google Scholar

page 482 note 2 A quote from Mobutu on the first page of a major M.P.R. document, ‘Rapport d'activités, 1967–1972’, Kinshasa, 1972.

page 483 note 1 Confidential police report, Mbanza-Ngungu, 19 May 1972.

page 483 note 2 Police reports, February 1972; C.N.D. report, Songololo, 1 October 1971; and sub-region monthly report, September 1973.

page 483 note 3 Administrative cable, 18 February 1974; special administrative report on the socio-economic situation of Nord-Kivu Sub-Region, Goma, 9 July 1973; administrative report, 3 May 1974; sub-region monthly report, July 1974; and administrative correspondence, June 1969.

page 484 note 1 Annual report, Luozi Zone, 1974; ‘Procès-verbal de remise-reprise’, Masisi, 17 May 1975; and anual report, Masisi Zone, 14 January 1975.

page 484 note 2 ‘Décision No. 3072/01/i.m.4.2. du 31 janvier 1973 portant renforcement des mesures de securité dans les Cataractes’; and secret gendarmerie orders, Mbanza-Ngungu, 1973–1974.

page 485 note 1 Administrative correspondence, 28 January, 1970.

page 485 note 2 Ibid. Gombe-Sud, 26 March 1972.

page 485 note 3 Ibid. Kimvula, 13 December 1971.

page 485 note 4 Administrative report, Mbanza-Ngungu, 24 June 1968.

page 485 note 5 Administrative correspondence, Mbanza-Ngungu, October 1973.

page 486 note 1 Ibid. 9 December 1971.

page 486 note 2 Administrative report, Malele, August 1970.

page 486 note 3 Administrative correspondence, 7 and 29 October 1971.

page 486 note 4 Ibid. Zamaba, 9 April 1973.

page 488 note 1 Administrative report on the ratissage by the Assistant Sub-Regional Commissioner, Mbanza-Ngungu, 28 May 1973.

page 489 note 1 This account is based on the Sub-Regional Commissioner's brief report on the ratissage, Mbanza-Ngungu, 6 May, 1973; a letter from the Commander of the gendarmerie to the Sub-Regional Commissioner, Kimpese, 8 May 1973 and the private letter from the ‘Observer’, Kimpese, 12 May 1973.

page 489 note 2 ‘Observer letter’, Kimpese, 12 May 1973.

page 489 note 3 Administrative correspondence, 19 September and 21 December 1973.

page 490 note 1 Speech by State Commissioner Kithima, ‘La Philosophie de salongo’, Kinshasa, 3 May 1973.

page 490 note 2 Speech by State Commissioner Engulu, ‘La Territoriale et la radicalisation du MPR’, Kinshasa, 5 September 1974 and Muhima, Sebisogo, ‘Le rôle du “Salongo” (travail manuel) dans les écoles’, in Zaïre-Afrique, 95, 05 1975, p. 273.Google Scholar

page 491 note 1 Cataractes Sub-Region monthly report, May 1973; annual report, Songololo Zone, 1974; and ‘Arrêté No. 01/RTE/75 du 3 juin 1975’, Bukavu, my emphasis.

page 491 note 2 ‘Arrêté No. 909/CAB(REGICOM)40/BZ/72 portant imposition de cultures’, 28 December 1972; and administrative correspondence, January 1973–December 1974.

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