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Africa and the Ideology of Eurafrica: Neo-Colonialism or Pan-Africanism?

  • Guy Martin
Extract

This article is an inquiry into the major causes of the continued state of underdevelopment and dependency of Africa in spite of its enormous wealth and tremendous economic potential. It constitutes a follow-up to earlier, historical queries on the present state of African economies:

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page 221 note 1 Rodney, Walter, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa (London and Dar es Salaam, 1972), p. 29, author's emphasis.

page 222 note 1 Althusser, Louis, Pour Marx (Paris, 1975), p. 238 – my translation from the French, as elsewhere in this article.

page 222 note 2 Quoted in Liniger-Goumaz, Max, L'Eurafrique: utopie ou réalité? (Yaoundé, 1972), p. 28.

page 223 note 1 Hopkins, A. G., An Economic History of West Africa (London and New York, 1973), p. 164.

page 223 note 2 Rodney, op. cit. p. 103.

page 223 note 3 Ki-Zerbo, Joseph estimates that as many as 100 million slaves might have been taken out of Africa between the 15th and the 16th centuries; Histoire de l'Afrique noire (Paris, 1978), p. 218.

page 223 note 4 Hopkins, op. cit. p. 129.

page 223 note 5 Rodney, op. cit. p. 85.

page 223 note 6 Luxemburg, Rosa, L'Accumulation du capital (Paris, 1976), Vol. II, p. 153.

page 224 note 1 Lenin, V. I., Imperialism: the highest stage of capitalism (New York edn. 1970), p. 89.

page 224 note 2 Woddis, Jack, Introduction to Neo-Colonialism (New York, 1967), p. 14.

page 224 note 3 Débats parlementaires: séance de la Chambre des Députés (Paris), 28 07 1885.

page 225 note 1 Poquin, J. J., Les Relations économiques extérieures des pays d'Afrique noire de l'Union française, 1925–1955 (Paris, 1957), p. 145.

page 225 note 2 Emmanuel, Arghiri, Unequal Exchange (New York and London, 1972), p. xxxi.

page 225 note 3 Suret-Canale, Jean, Afrique noire occidentale et centrale, Vol. II, L'ére coloniale, 1900–1945 (Paris, 1964), p. 250.

page 225 note 4 Rodney, op. cit. p. 258.

page 226 note 1 Ibid. p. 237.

page 226 note 2 Quoted in Liniger-Goumaz, op. cit. p. 27.

page 227 note 1 ‘All-African People's Conference, Cairo, March 23–31, 1961: Resolution on Neo-Colonialism’, in Colin Legum, Pan-Africanism: a short political guide (London, 1962), p. 254.

page 227 note 2 Fanon, Frantz, The Wretched of the Earth (New York edn. 1968), p. 152.

page 227 note 3 Nkrumah, Kwame, Neo-Colonialism: the last stage of imperialism (London, 1965), p. ix.

page 227 note 4 Galtung, Johan, The European Community: a superpower in the making (London and Oslo, 1973), p. 42.

page 227 note 5 Nkrumah, op. cit. p. xiii.

page 228 note 1 On this process, see Foltz, William J., From French West Africa to the Mali Federation (New Haven, 1964);de Benoist, J. R., La Balkanisation de l' Afrique occidentale française (Dakar, 1979); and Ndiaye, Guedel, L' Échec de la fédération du Mali (Dakar, 1980).

page 228 note 2 This section deliberately leaves out the political and economic analyses of the provisions, results, and impact of the Yaoundé I and II and Lomé I Conventions, which are examined in detail in Martin, Guy, ‘The Political Economy of African-European Relations from Yaoundé I to LoméII, 1963–1980: a case study in neo-colonialism and dependency’, Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1982.

page 228 note 3 The 19 A.A.M.S. were: (a) former French West African colonies: Benin, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Togo, and Upper Volta; (b) former Central African colonies: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, and Gabon; (c) the former French colony of Madagascar; (d) former Belgian colonies: Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaïre; and (e) others: Mauritius and Somalia.

page 229 note 1 Nkrumah, Kwame, ‘Address to the Ghana National Assembly, May 30, 1961’, in Legum, op. cit. p. 119.

page 229 note 2 ‘Text of Joint Communiqué by President Nkrumah of Ghana and President Brezhnev of the Soviet Union, July 24, 1961’, in Rivkin, Arnold, Africa and the European Common Market: a perspective (Denver, 1964), p. 35.

page 230 note 1 Matthews, Jacqueline D., Association System of the European Community (New York, 1977), p. 41.

page 230 note 2 Shaw, Timothy M., ‘EEC-ACP Interactions and Images as Redefinitions of Eurafrica: exemplary, exclusive and/or exploitative?’, in Journal of Common Market Studies (Oxford), XVIII, 2, 12 1979, p. 146.

page 230 note 3 Cheysson, Claude, ‘Preface’ to Michael Noelke, Europe-Third World Interdependence (Brussels, 1979), p. 7.

page 231 note 1 Dolan, Michael B., ‘The Lomé Convention and Europe's Relationship with the Third World: a critical analysis”, in Journal of European Integration (Montreal), 1, 3, 1978, p. 393.

page 231 note 2 For a standard presentation of the neo-classical theory of international development, see Kindleberger, C. P. and Lindert, P. H., International Economics (Homewood, Ill., 1978edn.), pp. 13103.

page 232 note 1 See Vernon, Raymond, Sovereignty at Bay (New York, 1971), pp. 65112, and ‘International Investment and International Trade in the Product Cycle’, in Dunning, John H. (ed.), International Investment (Harmondsworth, 1972), pp. 305–25.

page 232 note 2 Vernon, ‘International Investment and International Trade in the Product Cycle’, pp. 318–19.

page 233 note 1 Väyrynen, Raimo, Interdependence vs. Self-Reliance (Tampere, 1978), p. 19.

page 234 note 1 Rweyemamu, Justinian, Underdevelopment and Industrialisation in Tanzania (Nairobi, 1973), p. 38.

page 234 note 2 U.N./E.C.A., Survey of Economic and Social Condition in Africa, 1979–1980 (Addis Ababa, 1981), pt. I, p. 83.

page 235 note 1 Cf. Seneviratne, G., Economic Co-operation among Developing Countries (New York, 1980).

page 236 note 1 For such views, see Organisation of African Unity, What Kind of Africa by the Year 2000? (Addis Ababa, 1979), and United Nations, General Assembly, Lagos Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Monrovia Strategy for the Economic Development of Africa (New York, 1980).

page 236 note 2 For a comprehensive survey and assessment, see Mytelka, Lynn K., ‘Francophone African Regional Organisation,’ in The Journal of Modern African Studies (Cambridge), 12, 2, 06 1974, pp. 297320.

page 237 note 1 See, for instance, Kouvahé Amoko, H., ‘La Promotion des échanges commerciaux au sein de la CEAO’, Institut des Relations Internationales du Cameroun, Yaoundé, July 1981.

page 237 note 2 Green, Reginald H. and Seidman, Ann, Unity or Poverty? The Economics of Pan-Africanism (Harmondsworth, 1968), p. 217.

page 237 note 3 On this point, see the interesting work by Diop, Cheikh Anta, Les Fondements économiques et culturels d' un état fédéral d' Afrique noire (Paris, 1974).

page 237 note 4 Nkrumah, Kwame, Africa Must Unite (London, 1963), p. 187.

page 238 note 1 Ibid. pp. 150–72 and 216–22.

page 238 note 2 Engels, Friedrich, ‘The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State’, in Feuer, Lewis S. (ed.), Basic Writings on Politics and Philosophy: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Garden City, N.Y., 1959), p. 394.

* Chargé de cours, Institut des Relations Internationales du Cameroun, Université de Yaoundé

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The Journal of Modern African Studies
  • ISSN: 0022-278X
  • EISSN: 1469-7777
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