Abraham, A. 1978. Mende Government and Politics under Colonial Rule. Freetown: Sierra Leone University Press.
Allen, P.M. 1968. ‘The stratigraphy of a geosynclinal succession in Western Sierra Leone, West Africa’, Geological Magazine 105: 62–73.
Albrecht, P. 2010. ‘Transforming internal security in Sierra Leone: Sierra Leone police and broader justice sector reform’, DIIS Report 2010:7. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies.
Albrecht, P. & Jackson, P.. 2009. Security System Transformation in Sierra Leone, 1997–2007. Birmingham and London: Global Facilitation Network for Security Sector Reform and International Alert.
Albrecht, P. & Jackson, P.. 2014. Securing Sierra Leone, 1997–2013: defence, diplomacy and development in action. RUSI Whitehall Paper No. 82. Abingdon: Routledge.
Albrecht, P. & Moe, L.W.. 2015. ‘The simultaneity of authority in hybrid orders’, Peacebuilding 3, 1: 1–16.
Albrecht, P., Garber, O., Gibson, A. & Thomas, S.. 2014. ‘Community policing in Sierra Leone – Local Policing Partnership Boards’, DIIS Report 2014: 16. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies.
Baker, B. 2005. ‘Who do people turn to for policing in Sierra Leone?’, Journal of Contemporary Africa Studies 23, 3: 371–90.
Baker, B. 2008. ‘Community policing in Freetown, Sierra Leone: foreign import or local solution?’, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 2, 1: 23–42.
Boege, V. 2011. ‘Potentials and limits of traditional approaches to peacebuilding’, Berghof Handbook II: Advancing Conflict Transformation. Berghof: Berlin Research Centre, 431–57.
Brogdon, M. & Nijhar, P.. 2005. Community Policing – National and International Models and Approaches. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.
Buur, L. & Kyed, H.M.. 2007. State Recognition and Democratization in Sub-Saharan Africa: a new dawn for traditional authorities? New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Chaves, I.N. & Robinson, J.. 2011. ‘The architecture of a fragile state: the case of Sierra Leone’, paper prepared for ICG Growth in Fragile State Workshop, 6–7 July 2011.
Clements, K.P., Boege, V., Brown, A., Foley, W. & Nolan, A.. 2007. ‘State building reconsidered: the role of hybridity in the formation of political order’, Political Science 59, 1: 45–56.
Commonwealth Police Development Task Force (CPDTF). 1999. ‘Sierra Leone police – re-introduction of effective operational policing’, unpublished internal paper.
Conteh-Morgan, E. & Dixon-Fyle, M.. 1999. Sierra Leone at the End of the Twentieth Century. New York, NY: Peter Lang.
Denney, L. 2011. ‘Reducing poverty with teargas and batons: the security-development nexus in Sierra Leone’, African Affairs 110, 439: 275–94.
Denney, L. 2013. ‘Liberal chiefs or illiberal development? The challenge of engaging chiefs in DFID's security sector reform programme in Sierra Leone’, Development Policy Review 31, 1: 5–25.
Denney, L. 2014. Justice and Security Reform: development agencies and informal institutions in Sierra Leone. Oxford: Routledge.
van Dijk, R. & Van Nieuwaal van Rouveroy, E.A.B.. 1999. ‘Introduction: the domestication of chieftaincy: the imposed and the imagined’, in van Rouveroy van Nieuwaal, E.A.B. & van Dijk, R., eds. African Chieftaincy in a New Socio-Political Landscape. Leiden: African Studies Centre, 1–20.
Ekeh, P.P. 1975. ‘Colonialism and the two publics: a theoretical statement, Comparative Studies in Society and History 17, 1: 91–112.
Englebert, P. 2002. ‘Patterns and theories of traditional resurgence in tropical Africa’, Mondes en développement 30: 118–51.
Fanthorpe, R. 1998. ‘Locating the politics of a Sierra Leonean chiefdom’, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 68, 4: 558–84.
Fanthorpe, R. 2001. ‘Neither citizen nor subject? ‘Lumpen’ agency and the legacy of native administration in Sierra Leone’, African Affairs 100, 400: 363–86.
Fanthorpe, R. 2005. ‘On the limits of liberal peace: chiefs and democratic decentralization in post-war Sierra Leone’, African Affairs 105, 418: 27–49.
Ferguson, J. & Gupta, A.. 2002. ‘Spatializing states: towards an ethnography of neoliberal governmentality’, American Ethnologist 29, 4: 981–1002.
Ferme, M. C. 2001. The Underneath of Things: violence, history and the everyday in Sierra Leone. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Fulton, R. M. 1972. ‘The political functions of Poro in Kpelle society’, American Anthropologist 74, 5: 1218–33.
Fyfe, C. 1962. A History of Sierra Leone. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Government of Sierra Leone (GOSL). 1991. The Constitution of Sierra Leone. Freetown: Government of Sierra Leone.
GOSL 2004. The Local Government Act. Freetown: Government of Sierra Leone.
GOSL 2009. The Chieftaincy Act. Freetown: Government of Sierra Leone.
Groenewald, H. & Peake, G.. 2004. Police Reform through Community-based Policing: philosophy and guidelines for implementation. New York, NY: The International Peace Academy.
Hardin, K.L. 1993. The Aesthetics of Action: continuity and change in a West African town. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Harper, E. 2011. Customary Justice: from program design to impact evaluation. Rome: International Development Law Organisation (IDLO).
Jackson, P.B. 2005. ‘Chiefs, money and politicians: rebuilding local government in Sierra Leone’, Public Administration and Development 25, 1: 49–58.
Jackson, P.B. 2007. ‘Reshuffling an old deck of cards? the politics of local government reform in Sierra Leone’, African Affairs 106, 422: 95–111.
Jackson, P. & Albrecht, P.. 2011. Reconstructing Security After Conflict: security sector reform in Sierra Leone. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Krogstad, E.G. 2012. ‘Security, development, and force: revisiting police reform in Sierra Leone’, African Affairs 111, 443: 261–80.
Kraushaar, M. & Lambach, D.. 2009. ‘Hybrid political orders: the added value of a new concept. ACPACS Occasional Paper No. 14.
Kyed, H.M. 2007. ‘State recognition of traditional authority – authority, citizenship and state formation in rural post-war Mozambique’. Ph.D. thesis, Roskilde University Centre.
Kyed, H.M. 2009. ‘The politics of legal pluralism: state policies on legal pluralism and their local dynamics in Mozambique’, Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 41, 59: 87–120.
Kyed, H.M. & Buur, L.. 2006. ‘New sites of citizenship: recognition of traditional authority and group-based citizenship in Mozambique’, Journal of Southern African Studies 32, 3: 563–81.
Lemay-Hébert, N. & Kühn, F.. 2015. ‘Letter from the Editors: taking the hybridity agenda further’, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 9, 1: 1–3.
Mac Ginty, R. 2010. ‘Hybrid peace: the interaction between top-down and bottom-up peace’, Security Dialogue 41, 4: 391–412.
Mac Ginty, R. 2011. International Peacebuilding and Local Resistance: hybrid forms of peace. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mamdani, M. 1996. Citizens and Subject – Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Millar, G. 2014a. ‘Disaggregating hybridity: why hybrid institutions do not produce predictable experiences of peace’, Journal of Peace Research 51, 3: 501–14.
Millar, G. 2014b. An Ethnographic Approach to Peacebuilding: understanding local experiences in transitional states. Oxford: Routledge.
Minikin, V. 1973. ‘Indirect political participation in Two Sierra Leone chiefdoms’, Journal of Modern African Studies 11, 1: 129–135.
van Nieuwaal van Rouveroy, E. A. B. 1996. ‘States and chiefs: are chiefs mere puppets?’, Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 28, 37–38: 39–78.
Ntsebeza, L. 1999. Land Tenure Reform, Traditional Authorities and Rural Local Government in Post-Apartheid South Africa: case studies from the Eastern Cape. Cape Town: School of Government, University of Western Cape.
Oomen, B. 2005. Chiefs in South Africa: law, power and culture in the post-apartheid era. Oxford: James Currey.
Parsons, R.T. 1964. Religion in an African Society. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Pratten, D. and Sen, A.. 2010. Global Vigilantes. London: Hurst.
Ray, D.I. and van Nieuwaal van Rouveroy, E.A.B.. 1996. ‘The new relevance of traditional authorities in Africa’, paper presented to the conference ‘Major Themes; Reflection on Chieftaincy in Africa; Future Directions’, Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 28, 37–38: 1–38.
Richards, P. 1996. Fighting for the Rain Forest: war, youth and resources in Sierra Leone. Oxford: James Currey.
Richards, P. 2005. ‘War as smoke and mirrors: Sierra Leone 1991–2, 1994–5, 1995–6’, Anthropological Quarterly 78, 22: 377–402.
Richards, P. 2006. ‘Forced labour and civil war. Agrarian underpinnings of the Sierra Leone conflict’, in Kaarsholm, P., ed. Political Culture and Development in Africa. Oxford: James Currey, 181, 200.
Richmond, O.P. 2011. A Post-Liberal Peace. London: Routledge.
Sawyer, E. 2008. ‘Remove or reform? A case for (restructuring) chiefdom governance in post-conflict Sierra Leone’, African Affairs 107, 428: 387–403.
Sayers, E.F. 1927. ‘Notes on the clan or family names common in the area inhabited by Temne-speaking people’, Sierra Leone Studies 12: 14–108.
Sesay, M. 1995. ‘State capacity and the politics of economic reform in Sierra Leone', Journal of Contemporary African Studies 13, 2: 165–82.
Sesay, M.G. and Hughes, C.. 2005. Go Beyond First-aid: democracy assistance and the challenge of institution building in post-conflict Sierra Leone. The Hague: Clingendael, Netherlands Institute of International Relations.
Sierra Leone Police (SLP). 2005. Proposed Guidelines and Codes of Conduct for Operations of the Local Policing Partnership Boards of Sierra Leone. Freetown: Sierra Leone Police.
Skalník, P. 2005. ‘Chiefdoms on the March: Towards a New Indirect Rule in Africa’, paper presented to the conference ‘Beside the State: New Forms of Political Power in Post-1990s Africa’, Milan, 15–16 December 2005.
SLP. 2011. The Sierra Leone Police Local Policing Partnership Board Constitution. Freetown: Sierra Leone Police.
SLP. 2014. Handbook: Local Policing Partnership Boards. Freetown: Sierra Leone Police.
Spear, T. 2003. ‘Neo-traditionalism and the limits of invention in British colonial Africa’, Journal of African History 44: 3–27.
Tangri, R. 1976. ‘Conflict and violence in contemporary Sierra Leone chiefdoms’, Journal of Modern African Studies 14, 2: 311–21.
Tangri, R. 1978. ‘Central-Local Politics in Contemporary Sierra Leone’, African Affairs 77, 307: 165–73.
Ubink, J. & von Rooij, B.. 2011. ‘Towards customary legal empowerment: an introduction’, in Ubink, J. & McInerney, T., eds. Customary Justice: perspectives on legal empowerment. Leiden: University of Leiden, Faculty of Law; Rome: International Development Law Organisation (IDLO), 7–27.
Vandenberghe, F. 1999. ‘The real is relational: an inquiry into Pierre Bourdieu's constructivist epistemology’, Sociological Theory 17, 1: 32–67.
Anonymous civil servant, Ministry of Internal Affairs, November 2008, Freetown.
Brima Acha Kamara, Inspector-General of Police (Sierra Leone) (2003–2010), SLP, May 2009, Freetown.
Elizabeth Turay, Assistant Inspector-General, July 2013, SLP, Freetown.
Ibrahim ‘Kalilu’ Kamara, PRO and LPPB member, March 2009, Peyima.
Keith Biddle, Inspector-General of Police (Sierra Leone) (1999–2003), numerous interviews, conversations in the UK and France and email exchanges between 2008 and 2015, France and the UK.
Kellie Conteh, National Security Coordinator (1999–2012), August 2008, Freetown.
Mustapha Kambeh, Chief Superintendent, March 2009, SLP, Motema.
Thomas Lahai, Chief Superintendent, July 2013, SLP, Freetown.