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Miners' magic: artisanal mining, the albino fetish and murder in Tanzania*

  • Deborah Fahy Bryceson (a1), Jesper Bosse Jønsson (a2) and Richard Sherrington (a3)
Abstract
ABSTRACT

A series of murders of albinos in Tanzania's north-west mining frontier has been shrouded in a discourse of primitivism by the international and national press, sidestepping the significance of the contextual circumstances of an artisanal mining boom firmly embedded in a global commodity chain and local profit maximisation. The murders are connected to gold and diamond miners' efforts to secure lucky charms for finding minerals and protection against danger while mining. Through the concept of fetish creation, this article interrogates the agency of those involved in the murders: the miners who purchase the albino charms, the waganga healers renowned for their healing, divination and sorcery skills who prescribe and sell the charms, and the albino murder victims. The agrarian background, miners' ambitions and a clash of values comprise our starting point for understanding the victimisation of albinos.

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Corresponding author
Email: dfbryceson@bryceson.net
Email: jbj@geo.ku.dkand
Email: ris23@cam.ac.uk
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Deborah Fahy Bryceson, a sociologist/geographer and graduate of the University of Dar es Salaam, lived in Tanzania between 1971 and 1981 and has continued since then to work with University of Dar es Salaam colleagues on Tanzanian rural and urban subject matter. Jesper Bosse Jønsson, a geographer, has worked in Tanzania for ten years on rural livelihoods and unfolding developments in mining, both as an academic and NGO representative. Richard Sherrington, an anthropologist, has researched development and mining issues in Tanzania since 2000, specifically artisanal diamond mining in Mwanza and Shinyanga. We are grateful to Ray Abrahams, Simeon Mesaki and Koen Stroeken for elucidating comments during the article's preparation and to unnamed referees for their criticisms of our paper.

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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R Abrahams . 1981. The Nyamwezi Today: a Tanzanian people in the 1970s. Cambridge University Press.

D. F. Bryceson 2002. ‘The scramble in Africa: reorienting rural livelihoods’, World Development 30, 5: 725–39.

D. F. Bryceson & J. B. Jønsson . 2010. ‘Gold digging careers in rural East Africa: small-scale miners’ livelihood choices', World Development 38, 3: 379–92.

P. Caplan 2010. ‘“Child sacrifice” in Uganda? The BBC, “witchdoctors” and anthropologists’, Anthropology Today 26, 2: 47.

E. Colson 2000. ‘The father as witch’, Africa 70, 3: 333–58.

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H. Cory 1949. ‘The ingredients of magic medicines’, Africa 19, 1: 1332.

D. Graeber 2005. ‘Fetishism as social creativity or, fetishes are gods in the process of construction’, Anthropological Theory 5, 4: 407–38.

J-B. Jønsson & D. F. Bryceson . 2009. ‘Rushing for gold: mobility and small-scale mining in East Africa’, Development and Change 40, 2: 249–79.

J.-B. Jønsson & N. Fold . 2009. ‘Handling uncertainty: policy and organizational practices in Tanzania's small-scale gold mining sector’, Natural Resources Forum 33, 3: 211–20.

R. A. King & C. G. Summers . 2005. ‘Albinism and Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome’, Management of Genetic Syndromes 10.1002/0471695998.mgs005.

N. Scheper-Hughes 2000. ‘The global traffic in human organs’, Current Anthropology 41, 2: 191224.

K. Stroeken 2001. ‘Defy the gaze: exodelics for the bewitched in Sukumaland and beyond’, Dialectical Anthropology 26, 3–4: 285–.309

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R. E. S. Tanner 1956a. ‘The sorcerer in Northern Sukumaland, Tanganyika’, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 12: 437–43.

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H. Whitehouse 2002. ‘Modes of religiosity: towards a cognitive explanation of the sociopolitical dynamics of religion’, Method & Theory in the Study of Religion 14, 3–4: 293–.315

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The Journal of Modern African Studies
  • ISSN: 0022-278X
  • EISSN: 1469-7777
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-modern-african-studies
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