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The effects of almond consumption on fasting blood lipid levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

  • Kathy Musa-Veloso (a1), Lina Paulionis (a1), Theresa Poon (a1) and Han Youl Lee (a1)

A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was undertaken to determine the effects of almond consumption on blood lipid levels, namely total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), TAG and the ratios of TC:HDL-C and LDL-C:HDL-C. Following a comprehensive search of the scientific literature, a total of eighteen relevant publications and twenty-seven almond-control datasets were identified. Across the studies, the mean differences in the effect for each blood lipid parameter (i.e. the control-adjusted values) were pooled in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. It was determined that TC, LDL-C and TAG were significantly reduced by −0·153 mmol/l (P < 0·001), −0·124 mmol/l (P = 0·001) and −0·067 mmol/l (P = 0·042), respectively, and that HDL-C was not affected (−0·017 mmol/l; P = 0·207). These results are aligned with data from prospective observational studies and a recent large-scale intervention study in which it was demonstrated that the consumption of nuts reduces the risk of heart disease. The consumption of nuts as part of a healthy diet should be encouraged to help in the maintenance of healthy blood lipid levels and to reduce the risk of heart disease.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: K. Musa-Veloso, fax +1 905 542 1011, email
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Journal of Nutritional Science
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