Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-n9lxd Total loading time: 0.543 Render date: 2022-09-25T22:27:11.225Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Diverse new microvertebrate assemblage from the Upper Triassic Cumnock Formation, Sanford Subbasin, North Carolina, USA

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 May 2016

Andrew B. Heckert
Affiliation:
Department of Geology, Appalachian State University, ASU Box 32067, Boone, NC 28608-2067, USA,
Jonathan S. Mitchell
Affiliation:
Department of Geology, Appalachian State University, ASU Box 32067, Boone, NC 28608-2067, USA, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, 1025 E 57th St, Chicago, IL 60637, USA,
Vincent P. Schneider
Affiliation:
North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, 11 West Jones Street, Raleigh, NC 27601-1079, USA,
Paul E. Olsen
Affiliation:
Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, 61 Rt. 9W Palisades, NY 10964-1000, USA,

Abstract

The Moncure microvertebrate locality in the Cumnock Formation, Sanford sub-basin, North Carolina, dramatically increases the known Late Triassic age vertebrate assemblage from the Deep River Basin. The ∼50,000 recovered microvertebrate fossils include osteichthyans, amphibians, and numerous lepidosauromorph, archosauriform, and synapsid amniotes. Actinopterygian fossils consist of thousands of scales, teeth, skull, and lower jaw fragments, principally of redfieldiids and semionotids. Non-tetrapod sarcopterygians include the dipnoan Arganodus sp., the first record of lungfish in the Newark Supergroup. Temnospondyls are comparatively rare but the preserved centra, teeth, and skull fragments probably represent small (juvenile) metoposaurids. Two fragmentary teeth are assigned to the unusual reptile Colognathus obscurus (Case). Poorly preserved but intriguing records include acrodont and pleurodont jaw fragments tentatively assigned to lepidosaurs. Among the archosauriform teeth is a taxon distinct from R. callenderi that we assign to Revueltosaurus olseni new combination, a morphotype best assigned to cf. Galtonia, the first Newark Supergroup record of Crosbysaurus sp., and several other archosauriform tooth morphotypes, as well as grooved teeth assigned to the recently named species Uatchitodon schneideri. Synapsids represented by molariform teeth include both “traversodontids” assigned to aff. Boreogomphodon and the “dromatheriid” Microconodon. These records are biogeographically important, with many new records for the Cumnock Formation and/or the Newark Supergroup. In particular, Colognathus, Crosbysaurus, and Uatchitodon are known from basins of Adamanian age in the southwestern U.S.A. These new records include microvertebrate taxa more typical of non-Newark basins (abundant archosauriforms, temnospondyls, lungfish) as well as more typical Newark osteichthyans and synapsid-rich faunal elements.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Paleontological Society 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Alcober, O. 2000. Redescription of the skull of Saurosuchus galilei (Archosauria: Rauisuchidae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20:302316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, J. S., Reisz, R. R., Scott, D., Fröbisch, N. B., and Sumida, S. S. 2008. A stem batrachian from the early Permian of Texas and the origin of frogs and salamanders. Nature, 453:515518.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arambourg, C. and Bertin, L. 1958. On the fossil fishes found by Mr. Gardner in the Province of Ceara, in the north of Brazil. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, 30:8284.Google Scholar
Baszio, S. 2008. Information from microvertebrate localities: Potentials and limits, p. 38. InSankey, J. T. and Baszio, S.(eds.), Life of the Past. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.Google Scholar
Bengston, P. 1988. Open nomenclature. Palaeontology, 31:223227.Google Scholar
Benton, M. J. 1985. Classification and phylogeny of the diapsid reptiles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 84:97164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benton, M. J. 2005. Vertebrate Palaeontology. Unwin Hyman, London, 455 p.Google Scholar
Berg, L. S. 1940. Classification of fishes both recent and fossil. Transactions of the Zoological Academy of Sciences, U.S.S.R., 5:85517.Google Scholar
Blagoderov, V., Grimaldi, D. A., and Fraser, N. C. 2007. How time flies for flies: Diverse Diptera from the Triassic of Virginia and early radiation of the order Diptera. American Museum Novitates, 3572, 39 p.Google Scholar
Bock, W. 1959. New eastern American Triassic fishes and Triassic correlations. Geological Center Research Series, 1, 184 p.Google Scholar
Broom, R. 1905. Notice of some new fossil reptiles from the Karroo beds of South Africa. Records of the Albany Museum, 1:331337.Google Scholar
Brusatte, S. L., Benton, M. J., Desojo, J. B., and Langer, M. C. 2010. The higher-level phylogeny of Archosauria (Tetrapoda: Diapsida). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 8:347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, M. R. and Kimball, K. K. 1923. The Deep River coal field of North Carolina. North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey Bulletin, 33, 195 p.Google Scholar
Case, E. C. 1921. A new species of Ceratodus from the Upper Triassic of Western Texas. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 101:12.Google Scholar
Case, E. C. 1928. Indications of a cotylosaur and of a new form of fish from the Triassic beds of Texas, with remarks on the Shinarump Conglomerate. Contributions of the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, 3:114.Google Scholar
Case, E. C. 1933. Colognathus proposed for Xenognathus, preoccupied. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 23:65.Google Scholar
Casey, M. M., Fraser, N. C., and Kowalewski, M. 2007. Quantitative taphonomy of a Triassic reptile Tanytrachelos ahynis from the Cow Branch Formation, Dan River Basin, Solite Quarry, Virginia. Palaios, 22:598611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cavin, L., Suteethorn, V., Buffetaut, E., and Tong, H. 2007. A new Thai Mesozoic lungfish (Sarcopterygii, Dipnoi) with an insight into post-Palaeozoic dipnoan evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 149:141177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chatterjee, S. 1985. Postosuchus, a new thecodontian reptile from the Triassic of Texas and the origin of tyrannosaurs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, 309:395460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cifelli, R. L., Madsen, S. K., and Larson, E. M. 1996. Screenwashing and associated techniques for the recovery of microvertebrate fossils. Oklahoma Geological Survey Special Publications, 96-4:124.Google Scholar
Cooper, J. S. and Poole, D. F. G. 2009. The dentition and dental tissues of the agamid lizard, Uromastyx. Journal of Zoology, 169:85100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cope, E. C. 1869. Synopsis of the extinct Batrachia, Reptilia, and Aves of North America. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 14:252.Google Scholar
Cope, E. D. 1878. On some saurians found in the Triassic of Pennsylvania, by C.M. Wheatley. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 17:177.Google Scholar
Cornet, B. 1993. Applications and limitations of palynology in age, climatic, and paleoenvironmental analyses of Triassic sequences in North America. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 3:7593.Google Scholar
Crompton, A. W. and Luo, Z. 1994. Relationships of the Liassic mammals Sinoconodon, Morganucodon oehleri, and Dinnetherium, p. 3044. InSzalay, F. S., Novacek, M. J., and McKenna, M. C.(eds.), Mammal Phylogeny: Mesozoic Differentiation, Multituberculates, Monotremes, Early Therians, and Marsupials. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
Currie, P. J., Rigby, J. K. Jr, and Sloan, R. E. 1990. Theropod teeth from the Judith River Formation of southern Alberta, Canada, p. 108125. InCarpenter, K. and Currie, P. J.(eds.), Dinosaur Systematics: Approaches and Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Datta, P. M. and Ray, S. 2006. Earliest lizard form the Late Triassic (Carnian) of India. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26:795800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davidow-Henry, B. 1989. Small metoposaurid amphibians from the Triassic of western North America and their significance, p. 278292. InLucas, S. G. and Hunt, A. P.(eds.), Dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs in the American Southwest. New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
Dzik, J. 2003. A beaked herbivorous archosaur with dinosaur affinities from the early Late Triassic of Poland. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23:556574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emmons, E. 1857. American geology, part VI. Sprague, Albany.Google Scholar
Evans, S. E. and Borsuk-Bialynicka, M. 2009. The Early Triassic stem frog Czatkobatrachus from Poland. Palaeontologia Polonica, 65:79106.Google Scholar
Evans, S. E. and Jones, M. E. H. 2010. The origin, early history and diversification of lepidosauromorph reptiles, p. 2744. InBandyopadhyay, S.(ed.), Aspects of Mesozoic Biodiversity. Vol. 132. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, S. E. and Sigogneau-Russell, D. 2001. A stem-group caecilian (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona) from the Lower Cretaceous of North Africa. Palaeontology, 44:259273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farlow, J. O., Brinkman, D., Abler, W. L., and Currie, P. J. 1991. Size, shape, and serration density of theropod dinosaur lateral teeth. Modern Geology, 16:161198.Google Scholar
Ferigolo, J. and Langer, M. C. 2007. A Late Triassic dinosauriform from south Brazil and the origin of the ornithischian predentary bone. Historical Biology, 19:2333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, D. C. 1981. Crocodilian scatology, microvertebrate concentrations, and enamel-less teeth. Paleobiology, 7:262275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flynn, J. J., Nesbitt, S. J., Parrish, J. M., Ranivoharimanana, L., and Wyss, A. R. 2010. A new species of Azendohsaurus (Diapsida:Archosauromorpha) from the Triassic Isalo Group of southwestern Madagascar: cranium and mandible. Palaeontology, 53:669688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flynn, J. J., Parrish, J. M., Rakotosamimanana, B., Ranivoharimanana, L., Simpson, W. F., and Wyss, A. R. 2000. New traversodontids (Synapsida: Eucynodontia) from the Triassic of Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20:422427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraas, E. 1889. Die Labyrinthodonten aus der Schwabischen Trias. Palaeontographica, 36:1158.Google Scholar
Fraser, N. C. 1994. Assemblages of small tetrapods from British Late Triassic fissure deposits, p. 214226. InFraser, N. C. and Sues, H-D.(eds.), In the Shadow of the Dinosaurs: Early Mesozoic Tetrapods. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Fraser, N. C. 2000. Early Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems: Faunal changes among vertebrates. Paleontological Society Papers, 6:115140.Google Scholar
Fraser, N. C. 2006. Dawn of the Dinosaurs: Life in the Triassic. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 307 p.Google Scholar
Fraser, N. C. and Shelton, C. G. 1988. Studies of tooth implantation in fossil tetrapods using high-resolution X-radiography. Geological Magazine, 125:117122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraser, N. C., Grimaldi, D. A., Olsen, P. E., and Axsmith, B. 1996. A Triassic lagerstätte from eastern North America. Nature, 380:615619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraser, N. C., Olsen, P. E., Dooley, A. C. Jr, and Ryan, T. R. 2007. A new gliding tetrapod (Diapsida:?Archosauromorpha) from the Upper Triassic (Carnian) of Virginia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27:261265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Furin, S., Preto, N., Rigo, M., Roghi, G., Gianolla, P., Crowley, J. L., and Bowring, S. A. 2006. High-precision U-Pb zircon age from the Triassic of Italy: Implications for the Triassic time scale and the Carnian origin of calcareous nannoplankton and dinosaurs. Geology, 34:10091012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gardner, J. D., Roček, Z., Prikryl, T., Eaton, J. G., Blob, R. W., and Sankey, J. T. 2010. Comparative morphology of the ilium of anurans and urodeles (Lissamphibia) and a re-assessment of the anuran affinities of Nezpercius dodsoni Blob et al., 2001. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30:16841696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gauthier, J. 1984. A cladistic analysis of the higher systematic categories of the Diapsida. University of California, Berkeley, 564 p.Google Scholar
Gauthier, J., Estes, R., and de Quieroz, K. 1988. A phylogenetic analysis of Lepidosauromorpha, p. 1598. InEstes, R. and Pregill, G.(eds.), Phylogenetic Relationships of the Lizard Families. Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
Gill, T. 1872. On the homologies of the shoulder girdle of the dipnoans and other fishes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 11:173178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godefroit, P. 1997. Reptilian, therapsid and mammalian teeth from the Upper Triassic of Varangéville (northeastern France). Bulletin de L'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de La Terre, 67:83102.Google Scholar
Godefroit, P. and Battail, B. 1997. Late Triassic cynodonts from Saint-Nicolas-de-Port (north-eastern France). Geodiversitas, 19:567631.Google Scholar
Godefroit, P. and Cuny, G. 1997. Archosauriform teeth from the Upper Triassic of Saint-Nicolas-de-Port. Palaeovertebrata, 26:134.Google Scholar
Godefroit, P. and Sigogneau-Russell, D. 1995/1996. Cynodontes et Mammiferes primitifs du Trias Superieur, en region Lorraine et Luxembourgeoise. Bulletin de la Société Belge de Géologie, 104:921.Google Scholar
Grande, L. 2010. An empirical synthetic pattern study of gars (Lepisosteiformes) and closely related species, based mostly on skeletal anatomy. The resurrection of Holostei. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication, 6, 871 p.Google Scholar
Haeckel, E. 1866. Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. Zweiter Band. Georg Reimer, Berlin, 462 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hahn, G., Lepage, J-C., and Wouters, G. 1984. Cynodontier-Zähne aus der Ober Trias von Medernach, Groosherzogtum Luxemburg. Bulletin de la Sociéte Belge de Géologie, 93:357373.Google Scholar
Hahn, G., Wild, R., and Wouters, G. 1987. Cynodontier-Zähne aus der Ober Trias von Gaume (S-Belgien). Mémoires pour servir á l'Explication des Cartes Géologiques et Minieres de la Belgique, 24:133.Google Scholar
Hahn, G., Lepage, J. C., and Wouters, G. 1988. Traversodonten-Zähne (Cynodontia) aus der Ober-Trias von Gaume (Sud-Belgien). Bulletin du Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 58:177186.Google Scholar
Heckert, A. B. 2002. A revision of the Upper Triassic ornithischian dinosaur Revueltosaurus, with a description of a new species. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 21:253268.Google Scholar
Heckert, A. B. 2004. Late Triassic microvertebrates from the lower Chinle Group (Otischalkian-Adamanian: Carnian), southwestern U.S.A. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 27, 170 p.Google Scholar
Heckert, A. B. 2005. Krzyzanowskisaurus, a new name for a probable ornithischian dinosaur from the Upper Triassic Chinle Group, Arizona and New Mexico. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 29:7783.Google Scholar
Heckert, A. B. 2006. Geographic and stratigraphic distribution of the enigmatic Upper Triassic (Adamanian: Carnian) vertebrate fossil Colognathus obscurus Case. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin, 62:155156.Google Scholar
Heckert, A. B. and Lucas, S. G. 1997. First use of ornithischian dinosaurs for biostratigraphic zonation of the Upper Triassic. Albertiana, 20:5863.Google Scholar
Heckert, A. B. and Lucas, S. G. 2000. Taxonomy, phylogeny, biostratigraphy, biochronology, paleobiogeography, and evolution of the Late Triassic Aetosauria (Archosauria: Crurotarsi). Zentralblatt für Geologie und Paläontologie Teil I 1998 Heft, 11–12:15391587.Google Scholar
Heckert, A. B., Lucas, S. G., Rinehart, L. F., Spielmann, J. A., Hunt, A. P., and Kahle, R. 2006. Revision of the archosauromorph reptile Trilophosaurus, with a description of the first skull of Trilophosaurus jacobsi, from the Upper Triassic Chinle Group. West Texas, U.S.A. Palaeontology, 49:621640.Google Scholar
Hopson, J. A. 1971. Postcanine replacement in the gomphodont cynodont Diademodon, p. 121. InKermack, D. M. and Kermack, K. A.(eds.), Early Mammals. Vol. 50, London.Google Scholar
Hopson, J. A. and Kitching, J. W. 2001. A probainognathian cynodont from South Africa and the phylogeny of nonmammalian cynodonts. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 156:535.Google Scholar
Huber, P., Lucas, S. G., and Hunt, A. P. 1993a. Revised age and correlation of the Upper Triassic Chatham Group (Deep River Basin, Newark Supergroup), North Carolina. Southeastern Geology, 33:171193.Google Scholar
Huber, P., Lucas, S. G., and Hunt, A. P. 1993b. Late Triassic fish assemblages of the North American Western Interior. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin, 59:5166.Google Scholar
Huene, F. V. 1921. Reptilian and stegocephalian remains from the Triassic of Pennsylvania in the Cope collection. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 44:561574.Google Scholar
Huene, F. V. 1935–1942. Die fossilen Reptilien des südamerikanischen Gondwanalandes, ergebnisse der Sauriergrabungen in Südbrasilien 1928/29. C.H. Beck'Sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Munich, 332 p.Google Scholar
Huene, F. V. 1936. Die fossilen Reptilien des südamerikanischen Gondwanalandes, ergebnisse der Sauriergrabungen in Südbrasilien 1928/29. C.H. Beck'Sche Verlagsbuchhandlung., Munich, 332 p.Google Scholar
Huene, F. V. 1946. Die grossen Stämme der Tetrapoden in den geologischen Zeiten. Biologisches Zentralblatt, 65:268275.Google Scholar
Hungerbühler, A. 2000. Heterodonty in the European phytosaur Nicrosaurus kapffi and its implications for the taxonomic utility and functional morphology of phytosaur dentitions. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20:3148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunt, A. P. 1989a. A new ?ornithischian dinosaur from the Bull Canyon Formation (Upper Triassic) of east-central New Mexico, p. 355358. InLucas, S. G. and Hunt, A. P.(eds.), Dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs in the American Southwest. New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
Hunt, A. P. 1989b. Cranial morphology and ecology among phytosaurs, p. 349354. InLucas, S. G. and Hunt, A. P.(eds.), Dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs in the American Southwest. New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
Hunt, A. P. 1993. Revision of the Metoposauridae (Amphibia: Temnospondyli) and description of a new genus from western North America. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin, 59:6797.Google Scholar
Hunt, A. P. and Lucas, S. G. 1994. Ornithischian dinosaurs from the Upper Triassic of the United States, p. 227241. InFraser, N. C. and Sues, H-D.(eds.), In the Shadow of the Dinosaurs: Early Mesozoic Tetrapods. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Huxley, T. H. 1875. On Stagonolepis robertsoni, and on the evolution of the Crocodile. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London, 31:423438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huxley, T. H. 1880. On the application on the laws of evolution to the arrangement of the Vertebrata and more particularly of the Mammalia. Zoological Society of London, Scientific Memoirs, 4:457472.Google Scholar
Irmis, R. B., Parker, W. G., Nesbitt, S. J., and Liu, J. 2007. Early ornithischian dinosaurs: the Triassic record. Historical Biology, 19:322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jaeger, G. F. 1828. Aber die fossilen Reptilien, welche in Würtemberg aufgefunden worden sind. Metzler, Stuttgart, 48 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Janvier, P. 1996. Early vertebrates. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 33,393 p.Google Scholar
Jenkins, F. A. JR. 1970. Cynodont postcranial anatomy and the “prototherian” level of mammalian organization. Evolution, 24:230252.Google ScholarPubMed
Jones, M. E. H. 2008. Skull shape and feeding strategy in Sphenodon and other Rhynchocephalia (Diapsida: Lepidosauria). Journal of Morphology, 269:945966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kammerer, C. F., Nesbitt, S. J., and Shubin, N. H. 2011. The first basal dinosauriform (Silesauridae) from the Late Triassic of Morocco. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56, in press.Google Scholar
Kaye, F. T. and Padian, K. 1994. Microvertebrates from the Placerias quarry: A window on Late Triassic vertebrate diversity in the American Southwest, p. 171196. InFraser, N. C. and Sues, H-D.(eds.), In the Shadow of the Dinosaurs: Early Mesozoic Tetrapods. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Kemp, A. 1998. Skull structure of post-Paleozoic lungfish. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 18:4363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kemp, T. S. 1982. Mammal-lie reptiles and the origin of mammals. Academic Press, London, 363 p.Google Scholar
Klein, E. F. 1885. Beiträge zur Bildung des Schädels der Knochenfische, 2. Jahreshefte des Vereins für Vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg, 42:205300.Google Scholar
Krebs, B. 1974. Die Archosaurier. Die Naturwissenschaften, 61:1724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Langer, M. C., Ferigolo, J., and Schultz, C. L. 2000. Heterochrony and tooth evolution in hyperodapedontine rhynchosaurs (Reptilia, Diapsida). Lethaia, 33:119128.Google Scholar
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae. Salvius, Stockholm.Google Scholar
Litwin, R. J. and Ash, S. R. 1993. Revision of the biostratigraphy of the Chatham Group (Upper Triassic), Deep River basin, North Carolina, USA. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 77:7595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, J. 2007. New traversodontid material from North Carolina, U.S.A. and the taxonomy and phylogeny of Traversodontidae (Synapsida: Cynodontia). Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, New York, 444 p.Google Scholar
Liu, J. and Olsen, P. E. 2010. The phylogenetic relationships of Eucynodontia (Amniota: Synapsida). Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 17:151176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, J. and Sues, H-D. 2010. Dentition and tooth replacement of Boreogomphodon (Cynodontia: Traversodontidae) from the Upper Triassic of North Carolina, U.S.A. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48:169184.Google Scholar
Long, R. A. and Murry, P. A. 1995. Late Triassic (Carnian and Norian) tetrapods from the southwestern United States. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 4, 254 p.Google Scholar
Lucas, S. G. and Huber, P. 2003. Vertebrate biostratigraphy and biochronology of the nonmarine Late Triassic, p. 143191. InLeTourneau, P. M. and Olsen, P. E.(eds.), The great rift valleys of Pangea in Eastern North America: Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, and Paleontology. Vol. 2. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
Lucas, S. G. and Luo, Z. 1993. Adelobasileus from the Upper Triassic of West Texas: The oldest mammal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 13:309334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lucas, S. G., Heckert, A. B., Harris, J. D., Seegis, D., and Wild, R. 2001. Mammal-like tooth from the Upper Triassic of Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 21:397399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luo, Z-H., Crompton, A. W., and Sun, A-L. 2001. A new mammaliaform from the Early Jurassic and evolution of mammalian characteristics. Science, 292:15351540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martin, M. 1979. Arganodus atlantis et Ceratodus arganensis, deux nouveaux Dipneustes du Trias supérieur continental marocain. Comptes Rendus Academie des Sciences, Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des Planetes Ser. D, 289:8992.Google Scholar
McCune, A. R. 1987. Towards the phylogeny of a species flock: Semionotid fishes from a lake deposit in the Early Jurassic Towaco Formation, Newark Basin. Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 43,109 p.Google Scholar
McCune, A. R., Thomson, K. S., and Olsen, P. E. 1984. Semionotid fishes from the Mesozoic great lakes of North America, p. 2744. InEchelle, A. A. and Kornfield, I.(eds.), Evolution of Fish Species Flocks. University of Maine Press, Orono.Google Scholar
Milner, R. A. 1994. Late Triassic and Jurassic amphibians: Fossil record and phylogeny, p. 226241. InFraser, N. C. and Sues, H-D.(eds.), In the Shadow of the Dinosaurs: Early Mesozoic Tetrapods. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Milner, A. R. C., Kirkland, J. I., and Birthisel, T. A. 2006. The geographic distribution and biostratigraphy of Late Triassic–Early Jurassic freshwater fish faunas of the southwestern United States. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 37:522529.Google Scholar
Mitchell, J. S. and Heckert, A. B. 2010. The setup, use and efficacy of sodium polytungstate separation methodology with respect to microvertebrate remains. Journal of Paleontological Techniques, 7:112.Google Scholar
Mitchell, J. S., Heckert, A. B., and Sues, H-D. 2010. Grooves to tubes: Evolution of the venom delivery system in a Late Triassic “reptile”. Naturwissenschaften, 97:11171121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Müller, J. 1844. Über den Bau und die Grenzen der ganoiden und über das natürliche System der Fische. Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1844:117216.Google Scholar
Murry, P. A. 1986. Vertebrate paleontology of the Dockum Group, western Texas and eastern New Mexico, p. 109137. InPadian, K.(ed.), The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs: Faunal Change Across the Triassic–Jurassic boundary. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Murry, P. A. 1989. Microvertebrate fossils from the Petrified Forest and Owl Rock Members (Chinle Formation) in Petrified Forest National Park and vicinity, Arizona, p. 249277. InLucas, S. G. and Hunt, A. P.(eds.), Dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs in the American Southwest. New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
Muttoni, G., Kent, D. V., Olsen, P. E., Stefano, P. D., Lowrie, W., Bernasconi, S. M., and Hernández, F. M. 2004. Tethyan magnetostratigraphy from Pizzo Mondello (Sicily) and correlation to the Late Triassic Newark astrochronological polarity time scale. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 116:10431058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nesbitt, S. J. 2011. The early evolution of archosaurs: relationships and the origin of major clades. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 392, 292 p.Google Scholar
Nesbitt, S. J. and Stocker, M. R. 2008. The vertebrate assemblage of the Late Triassic Canjilon quarry (Northern New Mexico, USA), and the importance of apomorphy-based assemblage comparisons. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28:10631072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nesbitt, S. J., Irmis, R. B., and Parker, W. G. 2007. A critical re-evaluation of the Late Triassic dinosaur taxa of North America. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 5:209243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olsen, P. E. 1977. Stop 1: Triangle Brick Quarry, p. 5960. InBain, G. L. and Harvey, B. W.(eds.), Field Guide to the Geology of the Durham Triassic basin. Carolina Geological Society, Raleigh.Google Scholar
Olsen, P. E. 1978. On the use of the term Newark for Triassic and Early Jurassic rocks of eastern North America. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 7:9095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olsen, P. E. 1979. A new aquatic eosuchian from the Newark Supergroup (Late Triassic–Early Jurassic) of North Carolina and Virginia. Postilla, 176:114.Google Scholar
Olsen, P. E. 1988. Paleontology and paleoecology of the Newark Supergroup (early Mesozoic, eastern North America), p. 185230. InManspeizer, W.(ed.), Triassic–Jurassic Rifting: Continental Breakup and the Origin of the Atlantic Ocean and Passive Margins, Part A. Elsevier, Amsterdam.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olsen, P. E. 1997. Stratigraphic record of the early Mesozoic breakup of Pangea in the Laurasia-Gondwana rift system. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 25:337401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olsen, P. E. and Huber, P. 1997. Stop 3: Triangle Brick Quarry, p. 2229. InClark, T. W.(ed.), TRIBI: Triassic Basin Initiative, abstracts with programs and field trip guidebook. Duke University, Durham.Google Scholar
Olsen, P. E. and Johansson, A. K. 1994. Field guide to Late Triassic tetrapod sites in Virginia and North Carolina, p. 408430. InFraser, N. C. and Sues, H-D.(eds.), In the Shadow of the Dinosaurs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Olsen, P. E., Froehlich, A. J., Daniels, D. L., Smoot, J. P., and Gore, P. J. W. 1991. Rift basins of early Mesozoic age, p. 142170. InHorton, J. W. Jr. and Zullo, V. A.(eds.), Geology of the Carolinas. Vol. Carolina Geological Society 50th Anniversary Volume. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.Google Scholar
Olsen, P. E., McCune, A. R., and Thomson, K. S. 1982. Correlation of the early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup by vertebrates, principally fishes. American Journal of Science, 282:144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olsen, P. E. and Rainforth, E. C. 2003. The “age of dinosaurs” in the Newark basin, with special reference to the Hudson Valley. Geology of the Lower Hudson Valley, Albany, 59176.Google Scholar
Olsen, P. E., Remington, C. L., Cornet, B., and Thomson, K. S. 1978. Cyclic change in Late Triassic lacustrine communities. Science, 201:729733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olsen, P. E., Schneider, V., Sues, H-D., Carter, J. G., and Peyer, K. 2001. Biotic provinciality of the Late Triassic equatorial humid zone. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 33 (2):A27.Google Scholar
Olsen, P. E., Shubin, N. H., and Anders, M. H. 1987. New Early Jurassic tetrapod assemblages constrain Triassic–Jurassic tetrapod extinction event. Science, 237:10251029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osborn, H. F. 1886. Observations upon the Upper Triassic mammals, Dromatherium and Microconodon. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 38:359363.Google Scholar
Osborn, H. F. 1903. On the primary division of the Reptilia into two sub-classes, Synapsida and Diapsida. Science, 17:275276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Owen, R. 1860. On the orders of fossil and recent Reptilia, and their distribution in time. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 29:153166.Google Scholar
Owen, R. 1861. Palaeontology, or a systematic summary of extinct animals and their geological relations. Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 463 p.Google Scholar
Padian, K. 1990. The ornithischian form genus Revueltosaurus from the Petrified Forest of Arizona (Late Triassic: Norian; Chinle Formation). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 10:268269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, W. G. 2007. Reassessment of the aetosaur ‘Desmatosuchuschamaensis with a reanalysis of the phylogeny of the Aetosauria (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 5:4168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, W. G., Irmis, R. B., Nesbitt, S. J., Martz, J. W., and Browne, L. S. 2005. The Late Triassic pseudosuchian Revueltosaurus callenderi and its implications of the diversity of early ornithischian dinosaurs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, 272:963969.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peyer, K., Carter, J. G., Sues, H-D., Novak, S. E., and Olsen, P. E. 2008. A new suchian archosaur from the Upper Triassic of North Carolina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28:363381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Regan, C. T. 1923. The skeleton of Lepisosteus, with remarks on the origin and evolution of the lower neopterygian fishes. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1923:445461.Google Scholar
Reinemund, J. A. 1955. Geology of the Deep River Coal Field, United States Geological Survey Professional Paper, 246, 157 p.Google Scholar
Rieppel, O. 1994. The Lepidosauromorpha: An overview with special emphasis on the Squamata, p. 2337. InFraser, N. C. and Sues, H-D.(eds.), In the Shadow of the Dinosaurs: Early Mesozoic Tetrapods. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Renesto, S. and Dalla Vecchia, F. M. 2000. The unusual dentition and feeding habits of the prolacertiform reptile Langobardisaurus (Late Triassic, Northern Italy). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20:622627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Romer, A. S. 1955. Herpetichthyes, Amphibioidei, Choanichthyes or Sarcopterygii. Nature, 176:126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sawin, H. J. 1945. Amphibians from the Dockum Triassic of Howard County, Texas. University of Texas Publication, 4401:361399.Google Scholar
Schaeffer, B. 1954. Pariostegas, a Triassic coelacanth. Notulae Naturae, 261:15.Google Scholar
Schaeffer, B. 1967. Late Triassic fishes from the western United States. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 135:287342.Google Scholar
Schaeffer, B. and Mangus, M. 1970. Synorichthys sp. (Palaeonisciformes) and the Chinle-Dockum and Newark (Upper Triassic) fish faunas. Journal of Paleontology, 44:1722.Google Scholar
Schaeffer, B. and McDonald, N. G. 1978. Redfieldiid fishes from the Triassic–Liassic Newark Supergroup of eastern North America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 159:131173.Google Scholar
Seeley, H. G. 1895. Researches on the structure, organization, and classification of the fossil Reptilia, section 5. On the skeleton in new Cynodontia from the Karroo rocks. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 186:59148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sereno, P. C. 1991. Basal archosaurs: phylogenetic relationships and functional implications. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir, 2, 53 p.Google Scholar
Shubin, N. H., Olsen, P. E., and Sues, H-D. 1994. Early Jurassic small tetrapods from the McCoy Brook Formation of Nova Scotia, Canada, p. 242250. InFraser, N. C. and Sues, H-D.(eds.), In the Shadow of the Dinosaurs: Early Mesozoic Tetrapods. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Simpson, G. G. 1926. Are Dromatherium and Microconodon Mammals? Science, 63:548549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Soto, M. and Perea, D. 2010. Late Jurassic lungfishes (Dipnoi) from Uruguay, with comments on the systematics of Gondwanan ceratodontiforms. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30:10491058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sues, H-D. 1991. Venom-conducting teeth in a Triassic reptile. Nature, 351:141143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sues, H-D. 1992. A remarkable new armored archosaur from the Upper Triassic of Virginia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 12:142149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sues, H-D. 1996. A reptilian tooth with apparent venom canals from the Chinle Group (Upper Triassic) of Arizona. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 16:571572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sues, H-D. 2001. On Microconodon, a Late Triassic cynodont from the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 156:3748.Google Scholar
Sues, H-D. 2003. An unusual new archosauromorph reptile from the Upper Triassic Wolfville Formation of Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 40:635648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sues, H-D. and Fraser, N. C. 2010. Triassic Life on Land—The Great Transition. Columbia University, New York, 236 p.Google Scholar
Sues, H-D. and Hopson, J. A. 2010. Anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of Boreogomphodon jeffersoni (Cynodontia:Gomphodontia) from the Upper Triassic of Virginia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30:12021220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sues, H-D. and Olsen, P. E. 1990. Triassic vertebrates of Gondwanan aspect from the Richmond Basin of Virginia. Science, 249:10201022.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sues, H-D. and Olsen, P. E. 1993. A new procolophonid and a new tetrapod of uncertain, possibly procolophonian affinities from the Upper Triassic of Virginia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 13:282286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sues, H-D., Olsen, P. E., and Carter, J. G. 1999. A Late Triassic traversodont cynodont from the Newark Supergroup of North Carolina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 19:351354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sues, H-D., Olsen, P. E., Carter, J. G., and Peyer, K. 2001. A remarkable Triassic tetrapod assemblage from the Deep River Basin of North Carolina. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 33 (2):A27.Google Scholar
Sues, H-D., Olsen, P. E., Carter, J. G., and Scott, D. M. 2003. A new crocodylomorph archosaur from the Upper Triassic of North Carolina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23:329343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sues, H-D., Olsen, P. E., and Kroehler, P. A. 1994. Small tetrapods from the Upper Triassic of the Richmond basin (Newark Supergroup), Virginia, p. 162170. InFraser, N. C. and Sues, H-D.(eds.), In the Shadow of the Dinosaurs: Early Mesozoic Tetrapods. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Weems, R. E. and Olsen, P. E. 1997. Synthesis and revision of groups within Newark Supergroup, eastern North America. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 109:195209.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whiteside, D. I. and Marshall, J. E. A. 2008. The age, fauna and palaeoenvironment of the Late Triassic fissure deposits of Tytherington, South Gloucestershire, U.K. Geological Magazine, 145:105147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whiteside, J. H., Grogan, D. S., Olsen, P. E., and Kent, D. V. 2011. Climatically driven biogeographic provinces of Late Triassic tropical Pangea. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 108:89728977.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wild, R. 1973. Die Triasfauna der Tessiner Kalkalpen XXIII. Tanystropheus longobardicus (Bassani). Schwiezerische Paläontologicsh Abhandlungen, 95:1162.Google Scholar
Wild, R. 1978. Die Flugsaurier (Reptilia, Pterosauria) aus der Oberen Trias von Cene bei Bergamo, Italien. Bollettino della Societá Paleontologica Italiana, 17:176256.Google Scholar
Williston, S. W. 1925. The Osteology of the Reptiles. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 300 p.Google Scholar
Woodward, A. S. 1890. The fossil fishes of the Hawkesbury Series at Gosford. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of New South Wales (Palaeontology), 4:156.Google Scholar
Zanno, L. E., Heckert, A. B., Krzyzanowski, S. E., and Lucas, S. G. 2002. Diminutive metoposaurid skulls from the Upper Triassic Blue Hills (Adamanian: latest Carnian) of Arizona. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 21:121125.Google Scholar
Zittel, K. A. V. 1887–1890. Handbuch der Paläontologie. Abteilung 1. Paläozoologie Band III. Vertebrata (Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves), Oldenbourg, München and Leipzig.Google Scholar
16
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Diverse new microvertebrate assemblage from the Upper Triassic Cumnock Formation, Sanford Subbasin, North Carolina, USA
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Diverse new microvertebrate assemblage from the Upper Triassic Cumnock Formation, Sanford Subbasin, North Carolina, USA
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Diverse new microvertebrate assemblage from the Upper Triassic Cumnock Formation, Sanford Subbasin, North Carolina, USA
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *