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‘The City of Rome Revisited: From Mid-Republic to Mid-Empire*

  • John R. Patterson (a1)

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1 City of Rome.

2 For reviews of archaeological work in the city in this period, see La Regina, A., L’archeologia nel Novecento e le nuove prospettive degli studi (1999); M. A. Tomei, ‘Scavi e tutela a Roma (1980–2006)’, in Memorie, 19–23; eadem, ‘Archeologia e progetti nel centro storico’, in Memorie, 39–42; Baiani, S. and Ghilardi, M. (eds.) Crypta Balbi – Fori Imperiali. Archeologia urbana a Roma e interventi di restauro nell’anno del grande Giubileo (2000); Archeologia e Giubileo; La Rocca, E., ‘Cantieri della conoscenza. Roma: archeologia nel centro storico e modifica del paesaggio urbano’, Workshop di Archeologia Classica 1 (2004), 165–95.

3 Pensabene, P. and Panella, C. (eds.) Arco di Costantino: tra archeologia e archeometria (1999); Conforto, M. L., Melucco Vaccaro, A., Cicerchia, P., Calcani, G. and Ferroni, A. M., Adriano e Costantino: le due fasi dell’arco nella Valle del Colosseo (2001). For an overview of the debate, see Kleiner, F. S., ‘Who really built the Arch of Constantine?JRA 14 (2001), 661–3.

4 La Regina, A., Fuksas, M. and Mandrelli, D. O. (eds), Forma: la città moderna e il suo passato (2004), 1824; C. Conti and G. Martines, ‘Arco di Settimio Severo. Restauri ai fregi del lato nord’, in Archeologia e Giubileo, 186–7.

5 Filippi, F. (ed.) Palazzo Altemps. I colori del fasto; la domus del Gianicolo e i suoi marmi (2005); Coates-Stephens, R., ‘Notes from Rome’, PBSR 77 (2009), 291–7, at 292–3.

6 La Regina, Fuksas, and Mandrelli, op. cit. (n. 4), 72–81; M. A. Tomei, ‘Metro C. Centro storico: Indagini preliminari di prima fase’, in Memorie, 108–9; Coates-Stephens, R., ‘Notes from Rome’, PBSR 76 (2008), 299307, at 302, 307. A conference on ‘Archeologia e infrastrutture’ took place in 2009, the proceedings of which will be published as a forthcoming volume of Bollettino d’Arte: see Coates-Stephens, R., ‘Notes from Rome’, forthcoming in PBSR 78 (2010).

7 For further discussion, see below, Section V.

8 For further discussion, see below, Section VII.

9 For further discussion, see below, Section VI.

10 Panella, C. (ed.) Meta Sudans 1. Un’area sacra in Palatio e la valle del Colosseo prima e dopo Nerone (1996); Panella, C. and Zeggio, S., ‘Tra Palatino e valle del Colosseo: nuovi dati’, Workshop di Archeologia Classica 1 (2004), 6587; C. Panella ‘Scavo delle pendici nord-orientali del Palatino (Regio X)’, and eadem, ‘Piazza del Colosseo: scavo dell’area della Meta Sudans’, in Memorie, 76–84, 85–95.

11 Colini, A. M., Storia e topografia del Celio nell’antichità (1944); Pavolini, C. (ed.) Caput Africae 1. Indagini archeologiche a Piazza Celimontana (1984–1988). La storia, lo scavo, l’ambiente (1993); P. Palazzo and C. Pavolini, ‘Lo scavo dell’Ospedale Militare (1987–2000). Le residenze aristocratiche e i culti orientali’, in Memorie, 110–20; Pavolini, C., Archeologia e topografia della regione II (Celio): un aggiornamento sessant’anni dopo Colini (2006).

12 Archeologia e Giubileo, 21–75; M. A. Tomei, ‘Archeologia e progetti nel centro storico’, in Memorie, 39–42; Fentress, E., ‘Around the temple: the new galleries of the Capitoline Museum’, AJA 111 (2007), 365–9; Coates-Stephens, op. cit. (n. 6), at 304–6; Barbanera, M., ‘I musei archeologici di Roma alla ricerca di una propria identità’, Workshop di Archeologia Classica 5 (2008), 187206.

13 Catalogue available at www.electaweb.it

14 Coates-Stephens, op. cit. (n. 5); idem, op. cit. (n. 6).

15 Platner, S. and Ashby, T., Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (1926). The text of the dictionary is now available online: www.perseus.tufts.edu

16 E. M. Steinby (ed.) Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae, 6 vols (1993–2000). Reviewing the content and contribution of individual articles is beyond the scope of this survey, but themes and issues of particular interest are highlighted in the series of reviews by W. V. Harris in the Journal of Roman Archaeology: 8 (1995), 365–75; 10 (1997), 383–8; 14 (2001), 539–46; 16 (2003), 540–4.

17 Leone, A. D. Palombi and S. Walker (eds), Res Bene Gestae. Ricerche di storia urbana su Roma antica in onore di Eva Margareta Steinby (2007). The review by Papi, E. in JRA 22 (2009), 549–52 helpfully highlights the contributions made by the individual papers in the volume.

18 Richardson, L. jr, New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (1992), reviewed by Purcell, N. in JRA 8 (1995), 360–4. The two new dictionaries are compared and contrasted by Wilson, R. J. A. in JRS 85 (1995), 251–3. For a topographical dictionary in French, see Kardos, M.-J., Lexique de topographie romaine (2002).

19 Haselberger, L., Romano, D. G. and Dumser, E. A. (eds), Mapping Augustan Rome, JRA supplementary series 50 (2002), revised with corrections (2008).

20 For a review, see Favro, D. in AJA 108 (2004), 130–2.

21 Coarelli, F., Guida archeologica Laterza: Roma (2008).

22 Coarelli, F., Rome and Environs: an Archaeological Guide (2007).

23 La Regina, A., Guida archeologica di Roma (2005).

24 Claridge, A., Rome: an Oxford Archaeological Guide (1998). A second, revised, edition of the guide is shortly to appear.

25 Dudley, D. R., Urbs Roma (1967); Aicher, P. J., Rome Alive: a Source-Guide to the Ancient City (2 vols, 2004) includes commentary on individual sites, and the texts of relevant ancient sources are provided in both English and Greek/Latin as appropriate. A compendium of Latin sources for the topography of the city, with French translation, is provided by Kardos, M.-J., Topographie de Rome: les sources littéraires latines (2000); Tarpin, M., Roma fortunata: identité et mutations d’une ville éternelle (2001) focuses on particular source-passages in providing a more general account of the city.

26 J. C. N. Coulston, H. Dodge and C. Smith (eds), Ancient City of Rome (forthcoming).

27 Bull. Comm. 100 (1999), 325–91 (years 1993–1996); 102 (2001), 365–422 (years 1997–2001); 104 (2003), 377–418 (years 2001–2002); 108 (2007), 330–408 (years 2003–2005).

28 e.g. Archeologia e Giubileo; Memorie; Divus Vespasianus.

29 For a summary of the Lupercal debate, see Coates-Stephens, op. cit. (n. 6), 301.

32 Rome Reborn project: http://www.romereborn.virginia.edu/; Google Rome: http://earth.google.com/rome/

33 Fleury, P., La Rome antique: plan relief et reconstitution virtuelle (2005).

34 e.g. Tomei, M. A. and Liverani, P. (eds.) Carta archeologica di Roma: primo quadrante (2005), which covers the Vatican and Prati areas close to St Peter's.

35 For example the Nuova Forma Urbis Romae project of the archaeological superintendancy of the Comune di Roma, the German AIS Roma project (discussed by Häuber, C. in Bull. Comm. 106 (2005) 959), and the Imago Urbis project of the University of Rome, La Sapienza. See Papi, E., ‘Res Gestae Divae Margaretae: scritti in onore di E. M. Steinby’, JRA 22 (2009), 549–52, at 552.

36 Haselberger, L. and Humphrey, J. (eds.) Imaging Ancient Rome: Documentation-Visualisation-Imagination, JRA supplementary series 61 (2006).

37 Lanciani, R. (ed.) Storia degli scavi di Roma e notizie intorno le collezioni romane di antichità (1989–2002);Coarelli, F. (ed.) Gli scavi di Roma 1878–1921 (2004); idem Gli scavi di Roma 1922–1975 (2006).

38 M. Buonocore (ed.) Appunti di topografia romana nei codici Lanciani della Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana (5 vols, 1997–2002); A. M. Colini (ed. C. Buzzetti G. Ioppolo, G. Pisani Sartorio), Appunti degli scavi di Roma (2 vols, 1998–2000). For Lanciani's work more generally, see Palombi, D., Rodolfo Lanciani: l’archeologia a Roma tra ottocento e novecento (2006).

39 Cento anni di fotografie del Foro Romano (1993); Cento anni di fotografie del Palatino (1994); Dal Colosseo a Cecilia Metella nell’antica documentazione fotografica (1998).

40 Capodiferro, A. and Fortini, P. (eds.) Gli scavi di Giacomo Boni al Foro Romano (2003).

41 Moatti, C., The Search for Ancient Rome (1993); Barbanera, M., L’archeologia degli Italiani (1998).

42 e.g. Ridley, R., The Pope's Archaeologist: the Life and Times of Carlo Fea (2000); Tomei, M. A., Scavi francesi sul Palatino. Le indagini di P. Rosa per Napoleone III (1861–1870) (1999); Insolera, I. and Perego, F., Storia moderna dei Fori di Roma (1999). Specifically on the demolitions which preceded the clearing of the Imperial Fora: Leone, R. and Margiotta, A. (eds), Fori imperiali: demolizioni e scavi. Fotografie 1924/1940 (2007); Margiotta, A. et al. , L’invenzione dei Fori Imperiali: demolizione e scavi 1924–1940 (2008).

43 Meneghini, R. and Valenzani, R. Santangeli (eds), Formae Urbis Romae: nuovi frammenti di piante marmoree dallo scavo dei Fori Imperiali (2006), especially 13–39, with the review by Tucci, P. L., ‘New fragments of ancient plans of Rome’, JRA 20 (2007), 469–80. For the pre-Severan plans, see also Rodríguez Almeida, E., Formae urbis antiquae. Le mappe marmoree di Roma tra la Repubblica e Settimio Severo, Collection de l’École française de Rome 305 (2002).

44 T. Najbjerg and J. Trimble, ‘The Severan marble plan since 1960’, in Meneghini and Santangeli Valenzani, op. cit. (n. 43), 75–101. For recent work on the Plan see for example Tucci, P. L., ‘Eight fragments of the marble plan shedding new light on the Transtiberim’, PBSR 72 (2004), 185202. For the Plan seen more generally as a ‘Roman imperial monument’ see Trimble, J., ‘Visibility and viewing on the Severan Marble Plan’, in Swain, S., Harrison, S. and Elsner, J. (eds), Severan Culture (2007), 368–84; and in the broader context of the perception of the city, Wallace-Hadrill, A., Rome's Cultural Revolution (2008), 259312.

45 http://formaurbis.stanford.edu/ with D. Koller et al., ‘Fragments of the city: Stanford's digital Forma Urbis Romae project’, in Haselberger and Humphrey, op. cit. (n. 36), 237–52.

46 By N. Purcell in Cambridge Ancient History (2nd edn) vol. IX (1994), 644–88; X (1996), 782–811; XI (2000), 405–43.

47 For recent studies of the Augustan period highlighting Augustus’ impact on the physical environment of the city, see e.g. Wallace-Hadrill, A., Augustan Rome (1993); Favro, D., The Urban Image of Augustan Rome (1996); Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: an Interpretive Introduction (1996); idem (ed.) Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus (2005);Haselberger, L., Urbem adornare: Rome's Urban Metamorphosis under Augustus, JRA supplementary series 64 (2007).

48 Divus Vespasianus. For an earlier study of Flavian Rome which emphasizes monumental building: Darwall-Smith, R. H., Emperors and Architecture: a Study of Flavian Rome (1996).

49 Edwards, C., Writing Rome: Textual Approaches to the City (1996); see also e.g. Gowers, E., ‘The anatomy of Rome from Capitol to Cloaca’, JRS 85 (1995), 2332; Boyle, A. J., Ovid and the Monuments: a Poet's Rome (2003); Almeida, E. Rodríguez, Terrarum dea gentiumque: Marziale e Roma: un poeta e la sua città (2003).

50 See also, e.g. Purcell, N., ‘The city of Rome’, in Jenkyns, R. (ed.), The Legacy of Rome: a New Appraisal (1992), 421–53; Edwards, C., Roman Presences: Receptions of Rome in European Culture 1789–1945 (1999); Larmour, D. H. J. and Spencer, D. (eds), The Sites of Rome: Time, Space, Memory (2007). Watkin, D., The Roman Forum (2009) looks at the Forum from antiquity to the present day.

51 Kolb, F., Rom: die Geschichte der Stadt in der Antike (1995); Coulston, J. and Dodge, H. (eds.) Ancient Rome: the Archaeology of the Eternal City (2000); Lo Cascio, E. (ed.) Roma imperiale: una metropoli antica (2000); Giardina, A. (ed.), Storia di Roma dall’antichità a oggi: Roma antica (2000); Bohec, Y. Le (ed.), Rome ville et capitale (2001); La ville de Rome sous le haut-empire: nouvelles connaissances, nouvelles réflexions, Pallas 55 (2001); Belayche, N., Rome, les Césars et la ville aux deux premiers siècles de nôtre ère (2001);Corbier, P., Rome ville et capitale: de la fin de la République à la fin des Antonins (2001); Chaisemartin, N. de, Rome: paysage urbaine et idéologie. Des Scipions à Hadrien (IIe s. av. J.-C. – IIe s. ap. J.-C.) (2003); Fleury, P. and Desbordes, O. (eds), Roma illustrata: répresentations de la ville (2008). The books by Kolb and by Coulston and Dodge contain particularly extensive bibliographies.

52 Heiken, G., Funiciello, R. and de Rita, D., The Seven Hills of Rome: a Geological Tour of the Ancient City (2005); Aldrete, G. S., Floods of the Tiber in Ancient Rome (2007).

53 Steinby, E. M. (ed.), Ianiculum–Gianicolo: storia, topografia, monumenti, leggende dall’antichità al rinascimento (1996).

54 Coates-Stephens, R., Porta Maggiore: Monument and Landscape (2004).

55 Tomei, M. A.A proposito della Velia’, Röm. Mitt. 101 (1994), 309–38; Palombi, D., Tra Palatino ed Esquilino. Velia, Carinae, Fagutal. Storia urbana di tre quartieri di Roma antica (2007).

56 Most recently Cozza, L., ‘Mura di Roma dalla Porta Latina all’Appia’, PBSR 76 (2008), 99154. For a list of his earlier publications on the topic, see Cozza, L., ‘Mura di Roma dalla Porta Nomentana alla Tiburtina’, ARID 25 (1998), 7113, at p. 105 n. 1.

57 For this see now A. La Regina (ed.), Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae: Suburbium (2001–8), the ‘suburban’ counterpart to the Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae. It covers the territory between the Aurelianic Walls and the ‘Kiepert line’ (mapped in vol. 1) which circles Rome at a radius of roughly nine miles and has conventionally been used to distinguish the epigraphic material included in CIL VI (Rome) and in CIL XIV (Latium Vetus). Liverani, P., La topografia antica del Vaticano (1999) deals with one particular sector of the suburbium. For the periphery of the city more generally, see Patterson, J. R., ‘On the margins of the city of Rome’, in Hope, V. M. and Marshall, E. (eds), Death and Disease in the Ancient City (2000), 85103; Goodman, P. J. E., The Roman City and its Periphery from Rome to Gaul (2007).

58 e.g. Beard, M., North, J. and Price, S., Religions of Rome (2 vols, 1998).

59 e.g. Lott, J. B., The Neighbourhoods of Augustan Rome (2004).

60 Some examples: Ridley, R. T., ‘The praetor and the pyramid. The tomb of Gaius Cestius in history, archaeology and literature’, Boll. Arch. 13–15 (1992), 129; on the Esquiline cemetery: J. Bodel, Graveyards and Groves: a Study of the Lex Lucerina (= AJAH 11 (1986)[1994]); Caldelli, M. L. and Ricci, C., Monumentum familiae Statiliorum (1999); Steinby, E. M., La necropoli della Via Triumphalis: il tratto sotto l’autoparco Vaticano (2003).

61 e.g. Taylor, R., Roman Builders: a Study in Architectural Progress (2003); Lancaster, L., Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial Rome: Innovation in Context (2005).

62 For example: Carandini, A., La nascita di Roma: dèi, Lari, eroi e uomini all’alba di una civiltà (1997); Carandini, A. and Cappelli, R. (eds), Roma: Romolo, Remo e la fondazione della città (2000); Carandini, A., Palatino, Velia e Sacra Via: paesaggi urbani attraverso il tempo (2004); idem, Remo e Romolo: dai rioni dei Quiriti alla città dei Romani (2006); idem, Roma: il primo giorno (2007). On the monumentalization of Rome in the Archaic period, see now especially Cifani, G., Architettura romana arcaica: edilizia e società tra Monarchia e Repubblica (2008); for recent research which has demonstrated the exceptional scale of the Archaic Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, see Sommella, A. Mura, ‘La grande Roma dei Tarquini. Alterne vicende di una felice intuizione’, Bull. Comm. 101 (2000), 726; eadem, Primi risultati dalle indagini archeologiche in Campidoglio nell’area del Giardino Romano e del Palazzo Caffarelli’, Bull. Comm. 102 (2001), 263358.

63 Arena, M. Stella, Delogu, P., Paroli, L., Ricci, M., Saguì, L. and Vendittelli, L. (eds), Roma dall’antichità al medioevo: archeologia e storia (2001); also Curran, J., Pagan City and Christian Capital (2000); Harris, W. V. (ed.), The Transformations of Urbs Roma in Late Antiquity, JRA supplementary series 33 (1999); Holloway, R. R., Constantine and Rome (2004).

64 On the Forum Romanum in general, see Watkin, op. cit. (n. 50), and Kissel, T., Das Forum Romanum: Leben im Herzen der Stadt (2004).

65 Carafa, P., Il comizio di Roma dalle origini all’età di Augusto (1998), especially 132–55, and idem, ‘Il Volcanal e il Comizio’, Workshop di archeologia classica 2 (2005), 135–49. For a summary in English of Carafa's reconstruction, and discussion of the issues it raises, see Morstein-Marx, R., Mass Oratory and Political Power in the Late Roman Republic (2004), 42–60. A recent review of the evidence, highlighting the impact of Sulla's interventions, is provided by C. M. Amici, ‘Evoluzione architettonica del Comizio a Roma’, Rend. Pont. Acc. 77 (2004–5), 351–79. The area is currently being excavated and the results of the work awaited with great interest.

66 For the circular Comitium, see (e.g.) Coarelli, F., Il Foro Romano: periodo repubblicano e augusteo (1985), 11–21.

67 Carafa, op. cit. (n. 65), 140 n. 50.

68 Mouritsen, H., ‘Pits and politics: interpreting colonial fora in republican Italy’, PBSR 72 (2004), 3767; Coarelli, F., ‘Pits and fora: a reply to Henrik Mouritsen’, PBSR 73 (2005), 2330.

69 Millar, F. G. B., ‘The political character of the classical Roman Republic’, JRS 74 (1984), 119; idem, ‘Politics, persuasion and the people before the Social War’, JRS 76 (1986), 111; idem, ‘Political power in mid-Republican Rome: curia or comitium?’, JRS 79 (1989), 138–50; idem, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (1998), especially 38–45 on the physical setting of politics at Rome. For the subsequent debate, see e.g. Jehne, M. (ed.), Demokratie in Röm? Die Rolle des Volkes in der Politik der römischen Republik (1995), and the endnote to North, J. A., ‘Democratic politics in Republican Rome’, in Osborne, R. (ed.), Studies in Ancient Greek and Roman Society (2004), 140–58, at 156–8. For an introduction to the issues, highlighting the topographical context: Patterson, J. R., Political Life in the City of Rome (2000).

70 Carafa, op. cit. (n. 65), 140; Mouritsen, H., Plebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic (2001), 19.

71 Mouritsen, op. cit. (n. 70), 37, 128.

72 Morstein-Marx, op. cit. (n. 65), 41–2. For commercial activity in the Forum, and those involved in it, see Papi, E., ‘La turba inpia: artigiani e commercianti del Foro Romano e dintorni (1 sec. a.C.– 64 d.C.)’, JRA 15 (2002), 4562.

73 Morstein-Marx, op. cit. (n. 65), 56–7.

74 Morstein-Marx, op. cit. (n. 65), 280–1; K. J. Hölkeskamp, ‘Oratoris maxima scaena: Reden vor dem Volk in der politischen Kultur der Republik’, in Jehne, op. cit. (n. 69), 11–49.

75 Morstein-Marx, op. cit. (n. 65), 92–107; Hölkeskamp, K.-J., ‘Capitol, Comitium und Forum: öffentliche Räume, sakrale Topographie und Erinnerungslandschaften’, in idem, Senatus Populusque Romanus. Die politische Kultur der Republik: Dimensionen und Deutungen (2004), 137–68, especially 151–63. The papers collected in Stein-Hölkeskamp, E. and Hölkeskamp, K.-J. (eds.) Erinnerungsorte der Antike (2006) contain much valuable material relating to the theme of memory in these and other locations in the city.

76 Cadoux, T. J., ‘The Roman carcer and its adjuncts’, Greece and Rome 55 (2008), 202–21.

77 Tucci, P. L., ‘“Where high Moneta leads her steps sublime”. The “Tabularium” and the Temple of Juno Moneta’, JRA 18 (2005), 733.

78 Welch, K., ‘The Roman arena in late-Republican Italy: a new interpretation’, JRA 7 (1994), 5980, especially 69–78; Welch, K., The Roman Amphitheatre: from its Origins to the Colosseum (2007), 3071, especially 32–65. For expressions of caution, see Wiseman, T. P., Remembering the Roman People: Essays in Late Republican Politics and Literature (2009), 157–64, who notes that several ancient sources refer to the temporary stands being set up below the Capitol (hence implying rather more spread-out spectator facilities than Welch does) and who queries whether structures of the complexity envisaged by Welch could have been dismantled overnight by the partisans of C. Gracchus, as Plutarch reports (C. Gracch. 12.4).

79 For general discussion of the basilicas in the Forum, see Welch, K., ‘A new view of the origins of the Basilica: the Atrium Regium, Graecostasis, and Roman diplomacy’, JRA 16 (2003), 534, which suggests the origins of the basilica form should be sought in the Atrium Regium, associated with the reception of royal delegations from Hellenistic Greece.

80 Ertel, Ch. and Freyburger, K. S., ‘Nuove indagini sulla Basilica Aemilia nel Foro Romano’, Archeologia Classica 58 (2007), 109–42; Freyburger, K. S., Ertel, C., Lipps, J. and Bitterer, T., ‘Neue Forschungen zur Basilica Aemilia auf dem Forum Romanum’, Röm. Mitt. 113 (2007), 493552.

81 Sande, S. and Zahle, J. (eds), The Temple of Castor and Pollux III: the Augustan Temple (2008).

82 Nedergaard, E., ‘La collocazione originaria dei Fasti Capitolini e gli archi di Augusto nel Foro Romano’, Bull. Comm. 96 (1994–5), 33–70; eadem, ‘Facts and fiction about the Fasti Capitolini’, ARID 27 (2001), 107–27; eadem, ‘Restructuring the Fasti Capitolini’, ARID 30 (2004), 83100. See also Rich, J., ‘Augustus's Parthian honours, the Temple of Mars Ultor and the arch in the Forum Romanum’, PBSR 66 (1998), 71128, which argues that a triple arch set up in honour of Augustus after the Battle of Actium was subsequently remodelled to commemorate the Parthian settlement.

83 F. Coarelli, ‘I Flavi e Roma’, in Divus Vespasianus 68–97, at 81–3.

84 Coarelli, F., Il Campo Marzio (1997).

85 e.g. Itgenhorst, T., Tota illa pompa (2005); Bastien, J.-L., Le triomphe romain et son utilisation politique à Rome aux trois derniers siècles de la République, Collection de l’École française de Rome 392 (2007); Östenberg, I., Staging the World: Spoils, Captives and Representations in the Roman Triumphal Procession (2009).

86 Beard, M., The Roman Triumph (2007), 92–105. See also T. P. Wiseman, ‘Three notes on the triumphal route’, in Leone, Palombi and Walker, op. cit. (n. 17), 445–9.

87 Ziolkowski, A., The Temples of Mid Republican Rome and their Historical and Topographical Context (1992); Orlin, E. M., Temples, Religion and Politics in the Roman Republic (1997); Stamper, J. W., The Architecture of Roman Temples: the Republic to the Middle Empire (2005).

88 Zevi, F., ‘Il tempio dei Lari Permarini’, Röm. Mitt. 104 (1997), 81115, especially 104–7.

89 For excavations of this temple, see Manacorda, D. and Zanini, E., ‘Il tempio di Via delle Botteghe Oscure: tra stratigrafia, topografia e storia’, Ostraka 6 (1997), 249–94: the excavators, however, prefer to identify the remains as belonging to the Temple of the Nymphs.

90 Zevi, F., ‘Tempio D del Largo Argentina: tempio delle Ninfe in Campo?Archeologia Laziale 12 (1995), 135–43.

91 See City of Rome, 214, for an earlier discussion of the issues.

92 Zevi, F., ‘Per l’identificazione della Porticus Minucia Frumentaria’, MEFRA 105 (1993), 661708; for a study of the monumental remains in their urban context, see Tucci, P. L., ‘Considerazioni sull’edificio di Via di Santa Maria de’ Calderari’, Bull. Comm. 96 (1994–5), 95124, and recently F. Zevi, ‘Minucia Frumentaria, Crypta Balbi, Circus Flaminius: note in margine’, in Leone, Palombi and Walker, op. cit. (n. 17), 452–64.

93 Manacorda, D., Crypta Balbi: archeologia e storia di un paesaggio urbano (2001).

94 Gagliardo, M. C. and Packer, J. E., ‘A new look at Pompey's theater; history, documentation and recent excavation’, AJA 110 (2006), 93122; Packer, J. E., Burge, J. and Gagliardo, M. C., ‘Looking again at Pompey's theater: the 2005 excavation season’, AJA 111 (2007), 505–22.

95 Checa, A. Monterroso, ‘Forma Urbis y Theatrum Pompei. El fragmento 39F de la Planta Marmórea Severiana’, Bull. Comm. 108 (2007), 125–44.

96 For an identification of the original Pantheon with the Temple of Mars, which subsequently became a kind of basilica, see Ziolkowski, A., ‘Was Agrippa's Pantheon the Temple of Mars in Campo?PBSR 62 (1994), 261–77; idem, ‘Prolegomena to any future metaphysics on Agrippa's Pantheon’, in Leone, Palombi and Walker, op. cit. (n. 17), 465–76.

97 Virgili, P. and Battistelli, P., ‘Indagini in piazza della Rotonda e sulla fronte del Pantheon’, Bull. Comm. 100 (1999), 137–55; P. Virgili, ‘Il Pantheon: scavo sulla fronte del tempio’, in Memorie, 167–70.

98 Hetland, L. M., ‘Dating the Pantheon’, JRA 20 (2007), 95112.

99 Jones, M. Wilson, Principles of Roman Architecture (2000), 177–213.

100 See for example Davies, P. J. E., Death and the Emperor (2000); Rehak, P., Imperium and Cosmos: Augustus and the Northern Campus Martius (2006).

101 Rossini, O., Ara Pacis. Roma: musei in Comune (2006).

102 Hesberg, H. von and Panciera, S., Das Mausoleum des Augustus. Der Bau und seine Inschriften (1994).

103 Riccomini, A. M., La ruina di sì bela cosa. Vicende e trasformazioni del Mausoleo di Augusto (1996). For an examination of the design and construction of the Mausoleum, in the light of information acquired when the monument was cleared of modern structures in the 1930s, see Ortolani, G., ‘Ipotesi sulla struttura architettonica originaria del Mausoleo di Augusto’, Bull. Comm. 105 (2004), 197222, which notes that the Pantheon and the Mausoleum are exactly half a mile apart.

104 Heslin, P., ‘Augustus, Domitian and the so-called Horologium Augusti’, JRS 97 (2007), 120; Schütz, M., ‘Zur Sonnenuhr des Augustus auf dem Marsfeld’, Gymnasium 97 (1990), 432–57.

105 See Steinby, E. M. (ed.), Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae 2 (1995), 22217, with the review by Bruun, C. in JRA 10 (1997), 389–98, especially 394–6. For updates to the material collected in the Lexicon, see Bruun, C., ‘Missing houses: some neglected domus and other abodes in Rome’, Arctos 32 (1998), 87108;Chioffi, L., ‘Sulle case delle élites a Roma e dintorni’, Bull. Comm. 100 (1999), 3752; Guilhembet, J.-P., ‘Quelques domus ou résidences romaines négligées’, Arctos 35 (2001), 1522.

106 For general discussions of housing in the city, see J. R. Patterson, ‘Living and dying in the city of Rome: houses and tombs’ in Coulston and Dodge, op. cit. (n. 51), 259–89; A. Wallace-Hadrill, ‘Case e abitanti a Roma’, in Lo Cascio, op. cit. (n. 51), 173–220.

107 City of Rome, 200.

108 A. Carandini and P. Carafa (eds), Palatium e Sacra Via I: prima delle mura, l’età delle mura e l’età case arcaiche = Boll. Arch. 31–33 (1995) [2000], with the more accessible (and well illustrated) eidem, Palatium e Sacra Via I: racconto breve dello scavo con disegni = Boll. Arch. 34 (1995) [2000]; A. Carandini and E. Papi (eds), Palatium e Via Sacra II: l’età tardo-repubblicana e la prima età imperiale (fine III secolo a.C–64 d.C.) = Boll. Arch. 59–60 (1999) [2005]. For summaries of the most recent work, see Carandini, op. cit. (n. 62, 2004); D. Filippi, ‘Lo scavo alle pendici settentrionali del Palatino: il santuario di Vesta’, Memorie, 67–75, with further bibliography.

109 E. Papi, ‘La topografia del quartiere tra la fine del III secolo a.C. e il 64 d.C.’, in Carandini and Papi, op. cit. (n. 108), 199–224; idem, ‘“Domus est quae nulli villarum mearum cedat” (Cic., Fam. 6.18.5). Osservazioni sulle residenze del Palatino alla metà del I secolo a.C.’, in Cima, M. and La Rocca, E. (eds), Horti Romani: atti del convegno internazionale, Roma 4–6 maggio 1995 (1998), 4570.

110 Rizzo, S., ‘Indagini nei fori imperiali’, Röm. Mitt 108 (2001), 215–44, at 224.

111 Morel, J.-P., ‘Una ricca domus con giardino in età giulio-claudia’, in Villedieu, F. (ed.), Il giardino dei Cesari: dai palazzi antichi alla Vigna Barberini sul Monte Palatino (2001), 3358.

112 Panella, C. et al. , ‘Domus e insulae in Palatio. Scavi e ricerche sul Palatino nord-orientale’, Scienze dell’Antichità 13 (2006), 11292, especially 15–35; and above, n. 10.

113 Coarelli, F., ‘The Odyssey frescoes of the Via Graziosa: a proposed context’, PBSR 66 (1998), 2138. For more general discussion of aristocratic dwellings in Rome under the Principate, see Eck, W., ‘Cum dignitate otium: senatorial domus in imperial Rome’, Scripta Classica Israelica 19 (1997), 162–90.

114 Barbera, R., Palladino, S. and Paterna, C., ‘La domus dei Valerii sul Celio alla luce delle recenti scoperte’, PBSR 76 (2008), 7598.

115 Filippi, op. cit. (n. 5).

116 Guglielmi, S., ‘Un ninfeo dell’Aventino: scoperta di un monumento inedito e della sua decorazione architettonica’, Bull. Comm. 107 (2006), 4986.

117 Boldrighini, F. (ed.), Domus Picta: le decorazioni di Casa Bellezza sul Aventino (2003).

118 For the document, see especially Eck, W. et al. , Das Senatus Consultum de Cn. Pisone patre (1996); Woodman, A. J. and Martin, R. H., The Annals of Tacitus Book 3 (1996); Griffin, M., ‘The Senate's story’, JRS 87 (1997), 249–63.

119 Flower, H. I., Ancestor Masks and Aristocratic Power in Roman Culture (1996), especially 185–222.

120 Flower, H. I., ‘Rethinking Damnatio Memoriae: the case of Cn. Calpurnius Piso pater in AD 20’, Classical Antiquity 17 (1998), 155–86, and eadem, The Art of Forgetting (2006), at 76–7; Bodel, J., ‘Monumental villas and villa monuments’, JRA 10 (1997), 535; idem, ‘Punishing Piso’, AJP 120 (1999), 4363. For the location of the Porta Fontinalis, see I Fori Imperiali, 22–4; Tucci, op. cit. (n. 77), 28–30 thinks Piso's house may have straddled the Servian Wall rather than the gate itself, and extended up the Capitoline hill.

121 Cima and La Rocca, op. cit. (n. 109), reviewed by N. Purcell in JRA 14 (2001), 546–56.

122 E. Talamo, ‘Gli horti di Sallustio a Porta Collina’, in Cima and La Rocca, op. cit. (n. 109), 113–69; Hartswick, K. J., The Gardens of Sallust: a Changing Landscape (2004); Innocenti, P. and Leotta, M. C., ‘Horti Sallustiani: le evidenze archeologiche e la topografia’, Bull. Comm. 105 (2004), 149–96.

123 Barbera, M. and Paris, R. (eds), Antiche stanze: un quartiere di Roma imperiale nella zona di Termini (1996). For discussion of insulae more generally (and the Aracoeli insula below the Capitol in particular) see Priester, S., Ad summas tegulas. Untersuchungen zu vielgeschossigen Gebäudeblöcken mit Wohneinheiten und Insulae im kaiserzeitlichen Rom (2002).

124 On this area of the city, see also Wiseman, T. P., Talking to Virgil: a Miscellany (1992), 71110.

125 Sen., Ep. 56.1–2.

126 Royo, M., Domus imperatoriae. Topographie, formation et imaginaire des palais impériaux du Palatin (1999); Giavarini, C. (ed.), Il Palatino: area sacra sud-ovest e Domus Tiberiana (1998); Hoffmann, A. and Wolf, U. (eds), Die Kaiserpaläste auf dem Palatin in Rom (2004); Mar, R., El Palatì: la formació dels palaus imperials a Roma (2005), with an English translation of the conclusions (339–55); Zanker, P., ‘Domitian's palace on the Palatine and the imperial image’, in Bowman, A. K., Cotton, H. M., Goodman, M. and Price, S. (eds), Representations of Empire: Rome and the Mediterranean World = Proceedings of the British Academy 114 (2002), 105–30.

127 Cecamore, C., Palatium: topografia storica del Palatino tra III sec. a.C. e I sec. d.C. (2002), 99–154, with the review by Y. Perrin in JRA 18 (2005), 554–8.

128 Pensabene, P., ‘Venticinque anni di ricerche sul Palatino: i santuari e il sistema sostruttivo dell’area sud ovest’, Archeologia Classica 53 (2002), 65136; idem, ‘Architettura e spazio sacro sul Palatino: il Tempio della Vittoria’, in Memorie, 43–51.

129 SGoldberg, S. M., ‘Plautus on the Palatine’, JRS 88 (1998), 120 explores the implications of the physical setting for our understanding of the plays.

130 Tomei, M. A., ‘Le case di Augusto sul Palatino’, Röm. Mitt. 107 (2000), 736.

131 Iacopi, I. and Tedone, G., ‘Bibliotheca e Porticus ad Apollinis’, Röm. Mitt. 112 (2005/6), 351–78; Iacopi, I., La casa di Augusto: le pitture (2007), 714.

132 Carandini, A. and Bruno, D., La casa di Augusto dai “Lupercalia” al Natale (2008).

133 Coates-Stephens, op. cit. (n. 6), 301.

134 Wiseman, T. P., ‘The house of Augustus and the Lupercal’, JRA 22 (2009), 527–45.

135 Zink, S., ‘Reconstructing the Palatine temple of Apollo: a case study in early Augustan temple design’, JRA 21 (2008), 4763; Zink, S. and Piening, H., ‘Haec aurea templa: the Palatine palace of Apollo and its polychromy’, JRA 22 (2009), 109–22.

136 Cecamore, C., ‘Apollo e Vesta sul Palatino fra Augusto e Vespasiano’, Bull. Comm. 96 (1994–5), 932; eadem, op. cit. (n. 127), 155–9.

137 Cecamore, op. cit. (n. 127), 159–211.

138 U. Wulf-Reidt and N. Sojc, ‘Evoluzione strutturale del Palatino sud-orientale in epoca flavia (Domus Augustana, Domus Severiana, Stadio)’, in Divus Vespasianus, 268–79.

139 Royo, M. et al. , La Vigna Barberini I. Histoire d’un site. Étude des sources et de la topographie (1997); Villedieu, F. (ed.), La Vigna Barberini II: domus, palais impérial et temples. Stratigraphie du secteur nord-est du Palatin (2007). The issues are helpfully summarized by P. Gros in Villedieu, op. cit. (n. 111), 10–22, and in the review by Royo at JRA 22 (2009), 561–8.

140 For an account of which (with further references) see City of Rome, 188; more recently, Insolera and Perego, op. cit. (n. 42), 201–384; I Fori Imperiali, 163–5.

141 I Fori Imperiali, 71–80.

142 For interim accounts of the work in general, see S. Rizzo, ‘Il progetto fori imperiali’, in Baiani and Ghilardi, op. cit. (n. 2), 62–78; La Rocca, E., ‘La nuova imagine dei fori imperiali: appunti in margine agli scavi’, Röm. Mitt. 108 (2001), 171213; Rizzo, op. cit. (n. 110). For a synthesis, see I Fori Imperiali, and most recently Meneghini, R., I fori imperiali e i mercati di Traiano (2009). Prior to the most recent work, an exhibition took place on the theme of I luoghi di consenso imperiale: il Foro di Augusto, il Foro di Traiano (1995).

143 La Rocca, op. cit. (n. 142), 210–11; E. La Rocca, ‘Passeggiando intorno ai Fori Imperiali’, in Haselberger and Humphrey, op. cit. (n. 36), 120–43; I Fori Imperiali, 31–114.

144 La Rocca, op. cit. (n. 142), 174–84; Rizzo, op. cit. (n. 110), 224–30.

145 Viscogliosi, A., I Fori Imperiali nei disegni d’architettura del primo Cinquecento. Ricerche sull’architettura e l’urbanistica di Roma (2000), 2939; La Rocca, op. cit. (n. 143), 137–8.

146 I Fori Imperiali, 43–60; La Rocca, op. cit. (n. 142), 184–95; Rizzo, op. cit. (n. 110), 230–4.

147 R. Meneghini, ‘La nuova forma del Foro di Augusto: tratto e imagine’, in Meneghini and Santangeli Valenzani, op. cit. (n. 43), 157–71. On the Forum of Augustus more generally: Ganzert, J., Der Mars-Ultor-Tempel auf dem Augustusforum in Rom (1994); idem, Im Allerheiligsten des Augustusforums: Fokus “Oikoumenischer Akkulturation” (2000). For the displays of statuary of summi viri and members of the Julian house, see now the edition of Alföldy, G. and Chioffi, L. in CIL VI 8.3 (2000) 4847–74; Geiger, J., The First Hall of Fame: a Study of the Statues in the Forum Augustum (2008).

148 Carnabuci, E., I luoghi dell’amministrazione della giustizia nel Foro di Augusto (1996); eadem, ‘La nuova forma del Foro di Augusto: considerazioni sulle destinazioni d’uso degli emicicli’, in Meneghini and Santangeli Valenzani, op. cit. (n. 43), 173–95.

149 I Fori Imperiali, 61–70; La Rocca, op. cit. (n. 142), 195–207; Rizzo, op. cit. (n. 110), 234–43.

150 La Rocca, op. cit. (n. 142), 196–201.

151 Papini, M., ‘Filosofi “in miniatura”. Il Crisippo del Templum Pacis’, Bull. Comm. 106 (2005), 125–36.

152 For a discussion of the Templum Pacis within the more general ideology of Vespasian's Principate, see Noreña, C. F, ‘Medium and message in Vespasian's Templum Pacis’, MAAR 48 (2003), 2544, which relates the dedication of the Templum in a.d. 75 to the appearance of Pax as a coin type. The excavations of the aedes are discussed in: C. Mocchegiani Carpano, ‘Fori Imperiali. Lo scavo della aedes del templum Pacis’, in Memorie, 98–104; S. Fogagnolo and C. Mocchegiani Carpano, ‘Nuove acquisizioni e ritrovamenti nell’aula di culto del Templum Pacis’, in Divus Vespasianus, 184–9. More generally on commemorations of the Jewish war at Rome: Millar, F., ‘Last year in Jerusalem: monuments of the Jewish War in Rome’, in Edmondson, J., Mason, S. and Rives, J. (eds), Flavius Josephus and Flavian Rome (2005), 101–28, at 107–12.

153 Packer, J. E., The Forum of Trajan in Rome; a Study of the Monument (3 vols, 1997); on a smaller scale, idem, , The Forum of Trajan in Rome: a Study of the Monuments in Brief (2001); I Fori Imperiali, 83–113 for an overview of the recent work. For an up-to-date synopsis of the debate about the Temple of the Deified Trajan, see Claridge, A., ‘Hadrian's lost Temple of Trajan’, JRA 20 (2007), 55–8.

154 CIL VI 960 = ILS 294; see also Dio 68.16.3.

155 Rizzo, op. cit. (n. 110), 215–20. On the construction of the Forum of Trajan: Bianchi, E. and Meneghini, R., ‘Il cantiere costruttivo del foro di Traiano’, Röm. Mitt. 109 (2002), 395414, which estimates (at 399–400) that a workforce of 800–1,200 people would have been employed for a year to complete the earth-moving operations.

156 Meneghini, R., ‘Il foro di Traiano. Ricostruzione architettonica e analisi strutturale’, Röm. Mitt. 108 (2001), 245–68, especially 253–4.

157 Meneghini, R., ‘Nuovi dati sulle biblioteche e il Templum Divi Traiani nel Foro di Traiano’, Boll. Arch. 19–21 (1993), 1321; Meneghini, R., ‘Templum Divi Traiani’, Bull. Comm. 98 (1996), 4788. For a summary of Meneghini's views in English, see his ‘The Temple of the Deified Trajan’, in Coarelli, F. (ed.), The Column of Trajan (2000), 250–4. On the Palazzo see recently: del Signore, R. (ed.), Palazzo Valentini (2008).

158 Meneghini, R., ‘L’architettura del Foro di Traiano attraverso i ritrovamenti archeologici più recenti’, Röm. Mitt. 105 (1998), 127–48, at 146.

159 Rocca, E. La, ‘Il foro di Traiano ed i fori tripartiti’, Röm. Mitt. 105 (1998), 149–73, especially 153; Rocca, E. La, ‘Templum Traiani et columna cochlis’, Röm. Mitt. 111 (2004), 193238, especially 232–3.

160 Packer, J., ‘Templum Divi Traiani Parthici et Plotinae: a debate with R. Meneghini’, JRA 16 (2003), 109–36 at 120–6.

161 Claridge, op. cit. (n. 153), especially 58–9.

162 Claridge, A., ‘Hadrian's column of Trajan’, JRA 6 (1993), 522.

163 Claridge, op. cit. (n. 153), 93–4.

164 General works on amphitheatres: Gros, P., L’architecture romaine du début du IIIe siècle av. J.-C. à la fin du Haut-Empire 1. Les monuments publics (1996), 317–45; Bomgardner, D. L., The Story of the Roman Amphitheatre (2000); Tosi, G., Gli edifici per spettacoli nell’Italia romana (2003); Welch, op. cit. (n. 78, 2007). On spectacles more generally: Toner, J. P., Leisure and Ancient Rome (1995); Futrell, A., Blood in the Arena: the Spectacle of Roman Power (1997); Kyle, D. G., Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome (1998); Bergmann, B. and Kondoleon, C. (eds), The Art of Ancient Spectacle (1999); Beacham, R. C., Spectacle Entertainments of Early Imperial Rome (1999); Köhne, E. and Ewigleben, C., Gladiators and Caesars: the Power of Spectacle in Ancient Rome (2000); Lomas, K. and Cornell, T. J. (eds), Bread and Circuses: Euergetism and Municipal Patronage in Roman Italy (2003).

165 e.g. Edmondson, J. C., ‘Dynamic arenas: gladiatorial presentations in the City of Rome and the construction of Roman society during the early empire’, in Slater, W. J. (ed.), Roman Theater and Society. E. Togo Salmon Papers I (1996), 69112.

166 Coleman, K. M. (ed.), Martial: Liber Spectaculorum (2006).

167 For amphitheatre design: Jones, M. Wilson, ‘Designing amphitheatres’, Röm. Mitt. 100 (1993), 391442. Rose, P., ‘Spectators and spectator comfort in Roman entertainment buildings: a study in functional design’, PBSR 73 (2005), 99130, uses parallels from modern stadium design to illustrate arrangements for the safety and comfort of the audiences at the Colosseum, the Circus Maximus, and the Theatre of Marcellus.

168 Hopkins, K. and Beard, M., The Colosseum (2005). Other books specifically dealing with the Colosseum: Rea, R., Anfiteatro Flavio, Roma (1993); Gabucci, A. (ed.), Il Colosseo (1999); Regina, A. La (ed.), Sangue e arena (2001); Rea, R. (ed.) Rota Colisei: la valle del Colosseo attraverso i secoli (2002).

169 Alföldy, G., ‘Eine Bauinschrift aus dem Colosseum’, ZPE 109 (1995), 195226; Orlandi, S., Epigrafia anfiteatrale dell’occidente romano VI: Roma (2004), especially 39–41. See also Millar, op. cit. (n. 152), 114–19, and (for expressions of caution about the reconstructed text), Hopkins and Beard, op. cit. (n. 168), 33–4.

170 Welch, op. cit. (n. 78, 2007), 160.

171 For a review of research on the Colosseum, see Rea, R., ‘Studying the valley of the Colosseum (1970–2000): achievement and prospects’, JRA 13 (2000), 93103.

172 R. Rea, H.-J. Beste, P. Campagna and del Vecchio, F., ‘Sotterranei del Colosseo. Ricerca preliminare al progetto di ricostruzione del piano dell’arena’, Röm. Mitt. 107 (2000), 311–39, at 313–17.

173 Cass. Dio 79.25.2–3; Lancaster, L. C., ‘Reconstructing the restoration of the Colosseum after the fire of AD 217’, JRA 11 (1998), 146–74.

174 Rea et al., op. cit. (n. 172), 332–5.

175 Lancaster, L., ‘The process of building the Colosseum: the site, materials and construction techniques’, JRA 18 (2005), 5782.

176 Marcattili, F., Circo Massimo: architettura, funzioni, culti, ideologia (2009).

177 On baths themselves, see especially Gros, op. cit. (n. 164), 388–417; on bathing more generally, Toner, op. cit. (n. 164); DeLaine, J. and Johnston, D. E. (eds), Roman Baths and Bathing. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Roman Baths held at Bath, England, 30 March–4 April 1992, JRA supplementary series 37 (1999); Fagan, G. G., Bathing in Public in the Roman World (1999); Yegül, F., Bathing in the Roman World (2010). For a bibliography of recent work, see Manderscheid, H., Ancient Baths and Bathing: a Bibliography for the Years 1988–2001, JRA supplementary series 55 (2004).

178 DeLaine, J., The Baths of Caracalla: a Study in the Design, Construction, and Economics of Large-scale Building Projects in Imperial Rome, JRA supplementary series 25 (1997). On the same baths, see also Lombardi, L. and Corazza, A., Le terme di Caracalla (1995).

179 Edwards, C. and Woolf, G. (eds), Rome the Cosmopolis (2003).

180 See especially Lo Cascio, op. cit. (n. 51), 17–69; Noy, D., Foreigners at Rome: Citizens and Strangers (2000); Scheidel, W., Debating Roman Demography (2001); idem, ‘Human mobility in Italy, 1: the free population’, JRS 94 (2004), 126.

181 For the impact of malaria on the city: see Sallares, R., Malaria and Rome: a History of Malaria in Ancient Italy (2002), 201–34.

182 Wallace-Hadrill, A., ‘The streets of Rome as a representation of imperial power’, in de Blois, L. et al. , The Reception and Perception of Roman Imperial Power (2003), 189206; Dillon, S. and Welch, K. E. (eds), Representations of War in Ancient Rome (2006).

183 Horsfall, N., The Culture of the Roman Plebs (2003); Toner, J., Popular Culture in Ancient Rome (2009).

184 Wiseman, T. P., Unwritten Rome (2008); idem, op. cit. (n. 78).

185 Whittaker, C. R., ‘The poor’, in Giardina, A. (ed.), The Romans (1993), 272–99; Atkins, M. and Osborne, R. (eds), Poverty in the Roman World (2006).

186 A. Parkin, ‘You do him no service: an exploration of pagan almsgiving’, in Atkins and Osborne, op. cit. (n. 185), 60–82.

187 Bodel, op. cit. (n. 60); Graham, E.-J., The Burial of the Urban Poor in Italy in the Late Roman Republic and Early Empire, BAR International series 1565 (2006).

188 D. Mattingly and G. Aldrete, ‘The feeding of imperial Rome: the mechanics of the food supply system’, in Coulston and Dodge, op. cit. (n. 51), 142–65; Papi, E., Supplying Rome and the Empire, JRA supplementary series 69 (2007). On the massive dump of oil amphorae at Monte Testaccio, reflecting the scale of supply for the city, see now the series of volumes by Martínez, J. M. Blázquez and Rodríguez, J. Remesal (eds), Estudios sobre el Monte Testaccio (Roma) 1 (1999)–4 (2007).

189 Morley, N., Metropolis and Hinterland: the City of Rome and the Italian Economy 200 BC–AD 200 (1996); Witcher, R., ‘The extended metropolis: urbs, suburbium and population’, JRA 18 (2005), 120–38.

190 For the British School at Rome's Tiber Valley Project, see Patterson, H. (ed.), Bridging the Tiber: Approaches to Regional Archaeology in the Middle Tiber Valley (2004); Patterson, H. and Coarelli, F. (eds.) Mercator Placidissimus: the Tiber Valley in Antiquity (2008).

191 Keay, S., Millett, M., Paroli, L. and Strutt, K. (eds), Portus: an Archaeological Survey of the Port of Imperial Rome (2005).

* I am very grateful to the Editor, Mary Beard, Henry Hurst, and Andrew Wallace-Hadrill for comments on earlier drafts and advice of various kinds; particular thanks are due to Robert Coates-Stephens for guidance on recent discoveries in the city. Needless to say, none of these are responsible for errors or omissions in what follows. The Classical Faculty Library and the University Library in Cambridge, and the Library of the Institute of Classical Studies in London, all provided vital bibliographical support.

The following abbreviations are used:

City of Rome:

J. R. Patterson, ‘The City of Rome: from Republic to Empire’, JRS 82 (1992), 186–215

Memorie:

M. A. Tomei (ed.), Roma. Memorie dal sottosuolo: ritrovamenti archeologici 1980/2006 (2006)

Archeologia e Giubileo:

F. Filippi (ed.), Archeologia e Giubileo: Gli interventi a Roma e nel Lazio nel piano per il grande Giubileo del 2000 (2001)

I Fori Imperiali:

R. Meneghini and R. Santangeli Valenzani (eds), I Fori Imperiali. Gli scavi del Comune di Roma (1991–2007) (2007)

Divus Vespasianus:

F. Coarelli (ed.), Divus Vespasianus: il bimillenario dei Flavi (2009).

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