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Hoodwinked: The Anti-Saloon League and the Ku Klux Klan in 1920s Prohibition Enforcement1

  • Thomas R. Pegram (a1)

The relationship between the Anti-Saloon League and the Ku Klux Klan in support of national prohibition has been a source of controversy since the 1920s. Both the ASL and the KKK acted to enforce prohibition, the ASL through legal and political means, the KKK through grassroots political pressure and extralegal vigilante methods. Wet observers and, more recently, historians of the Klan movement claimed that the ASL cooperated with the Invisible Empire in direct enforcement of dry laws. ASL activists and prohibition historians, in turn, denied league involvement with the intolerant, occasionally violent, dry vigilantism of the Klan and instead stressed the nonpartisan bureaucratic operations of the ASL. The actual ambivalent relationship reflected shortcomings in the dry regime and in the two organizations. Ineffective enforcement pushed some ASL officials into informal ties with local Klans, while the league tolerated pro-Klan sentiments among some leaders. But extensive and persistent cooperation was not apparent.

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2 “Klan Organization Meeting Stirs Debate in Marlboro,” The Columbia State (South Carolina), July 7, 1924, 6, clipping enclosed in Boyd Doty to F. Scott McBride, July 28, 1924, microfilm edition of F. Scott McBride Papers, Ohio Historical Society, roll 2 (Hereafter MP roll #).

3 Wayne Wheeler to McBride, July 12, 1924; McBride to Wheeler, July 21, 1924, MP 10; “Form letter sent to all State Superintendents,” July 21, 1924, MP 3; E. J. Moore to E. M. Lightfoot, July 22, 1924, MP 5.

4 “Look Out, John,” Baltimore Evening Sun, Aug. 28, 1924, clipping, MP 9; “Darrow Says He Opposes Prohibition,” Fiery Cross, Nov. 7, 1924, 2. See also, “Pastor Says Klan Plans World Drive,” New York Times [Hereafter NYJ], Nov. 27, 1922, 1; and M. V. Boyland to Editor, ATT, Jan. 24, 1929, 19.

5 Minutes of Anti-Saloon League Speakers' and Field Secretaries' Conference, July 26-27, 1922, 5, Executive Committee File, microfilm edition of Ernest H. Cherrington Papers, Ohio Historical Society, roll 87 (Hereafter EHC roll #); Frost, Stanley, “When the Klan Rules: The Crusade of the Fiery Cross,” Outlook, Jan. 9, 1924, 66; Evans, Hiram Wesley, “The Ballots Behind the Ku Klux Klan,” World's Workman. 1928, 246–47.

6 “Klan Organization Meeting,” The State, July 7, 1924, 6.

7 For national ASL policy, see Kerr, K. Austin, Organised for Prohibition: A New History of the Anti-Saloon League (New Haven, 1985). A good state-level example is Lantzer, Jason S., “Prohibition is Here to Stay: The Reverend Edward S. Shumaker and the Rise and Fall of Dry Culture in America,” (PhD diss., Indiana University, 2005). More general histories of temperance reform within this framework include Blocker, Jack S., American Temperance Movements: Cycles of Reform (Boston, 1989), and Pegram, Thomas R., Battling Demon Ram: The Struggle for a Dry America, 1800-1933 (Chicago, 1998). For a preliminary assessment of the Anti-Saloon League and the Klan, see Pegram, Thomas R., “Kluxing the Eighteenth Amendment: The Anti-Saloon League, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Fate of Prohibition in the 1920s” in American Public Use and the Historical Imagination, ed. Gamber, Wendy, Grossberg, Michael, and Hartog, Hendrik (Notre Dame, IN, 2003), 240–61.

8 The key arguments of this interpretation are presented in Moore, Leonard J., “Historical Interpretations of the 1920s Klan: The Traditional View and Recent Revisions,” Journal of Social History (Winter 1990): 341–57. See also the essays in Lay, Shawn, ed., The Invisible Empire in the West: Toward a New Historical Appraisal of the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s (Urbana, 1992).

9 Lay, Shawn, Hooded Knights on the Niagara: The Ku Klux Klan in Buffalo, New York (New York, 1995); Moore, Leonard J., Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928 (Chapel Hill, 1991); Cocoltchos, Christopher N., “The Invisible Empire and the Search for the Orderly Community: The Ku Klux Klan in Anaheim, California,” and Toy, Eckard V., “Robe and Gown: The Ku Klux Klan in Eugene, Oregon, during the 1920s,” in , Lay, Invisible Umpire in the West, 97120, 153-84.

10 Evans, Hiram Wesley, “The Klan's Fight for Americanism,” North American Kerieu; Mar. 1926, 49 (Evans appropriated the “plain people” trope of the Populists; see p. 43); Coben, Stanley, Rebellion against Victorianism: The Impetus for Cultural Change in 1920s America (New York, 1991), 140–41; , Moore, Citizen Klansmen, 105–06.

11 Frost, Stanley, “When the Klan Rules: The Giant Begins to Rule Us,” Outlook, Feb. 20, 1924, 309; Duffus, Robert L., “Ancestry and End of the Ku Klux Klan,” World's Work, Sept. 1923, 528; , Moore, Citizen Klansmen, 23; MacLean, Nancy, Behind the Mask of Chivalry: The Making of the Second Ku Klux Klan (New York, 1994), 79.

12 , Moore, Citizen Klansmen, 191; “Sparks from the Fiery Cross,” Fiery Cross, Mar. 21, 1924, 4.

13 “Lima Decrees End of Bootleggers,” Fiery Cross, Apr. 27, 1923, 6; “Klan Breaks Back of Bootlegging Ring,” Fiery Cross, Aug. 8, 1924, 5. For a summary of similar actions, see the editorial, “Klansmen Well Repaid,” Fiery Cross, Jan. 25, 1924, 4. Historians disagree on whether antiliquor raids carried out by Klansmen or other volunteers acting as special deputies should be considered vigilantism. In labeling citizen participation in direct prohibition enforcement as vigilantism, I am following the careful argument of Masatomo Ayabe that “vigilantism is often, but not necessarily, extralegal. It can be nonviolent, though the use of violence is always implied. Vigilantes may work in cooperation with public officials, have public officials among them, and enjoy a temporary legal status through special deputation, although they retain a private and voluntary character and act always on their own initiative.” Ayabe, Masatomo, “The Ku Klux Klan Movement in Williamson County, Illinois, 1923-1926” (PhD diss., University of Illinois, 2005), 2428, quotation on 28.

14 Bohn, Frank, “The Ku Klux Klan Interpreted,” American journal of Sociology 30 (Jan. 1925): 399.

15 “Sparks from the Fiery Cross,” Fiery Cross, June 20, 1924, 4; Alexander, Charles C., The Ku Klux Klan in the Southwest (Lexington, KY, 1965), 3177. Studies of southern Klans find more consistent patterns of violence and racism than in the North or West. see , MacLean, Behind the Mask of Chivalry, 149–73; Feldman, Glenn, Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915-1949 (Tuscaloosa, AL, 1999), 4042, 92-108, 160-92; and Newton, Michael, Invisible Empire: The Ku Klux Klan in Florida (Gainesville, FL, 2001), 4973.

16 For a sample of contemporary periodical articles critical of the Klan, see Percy, Leroy, “The Modern Ku Klux Klan,”Atlantic Monthly, July 1922, 122–28; Duffus, Robert L., “How the Ku Klux Klan Sells Hate,” World's Work, June 1923, 174–83; “Law for Others-Not for the Ku Klux Klan!” Outlook, June 6, 1923, 109; Frost, Stanley, “When the Klan Rules: Old Evils in the New Klan,” Outlook, Jan. 2, 1924, 2024; White, William Allen, “Annihilate the Klan!” Nation, Jan. 7, 1925, 7; Lindsey, Ben B., “My Fight with the Ku Klux Klan,” Survey, June 1, 1925, 271–74, 319; Pattangall, William Robinson, “Is the Ku Klux Klan Un-American?” Forum, Sept. 1925, 321–32; “The Rise and Fall of the K. K. K.” New Republic, Nov. 30, 1927, 3334.

17 “State of Indiana vs. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan,” Deposition of Emmons, Hugh F., Feb. 20, 1928, 2428, 38-41, 124-38, microfilm transcript, Indiana Historical Society ; Senatorial Campaign Expenditures: Hearings before a Special Committee Investigating Expenditures in Senatorial Primary and General Elections, United States Senate, Sixty-Ninth Congress (Washington, 1926), 2028–29, 2288-89; Laugen, Robert Todd, “The Promise and Defeat of the Progressive Public: Reform Politics in Colorado, 1902-1929,” (PhD diss., University of Colorado, 2005), 334–40; Weaver, Norman Fredric, “The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan,” (PhD diss., University of Wisconsin, 1954), 164–68; Horowitz, David A., “The Klansman as Outsider: Ethnocultural Solidarity and Antielitism in the Oregon Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s,” Pacific Northwest Quarterly 80 (Jan. 1989): 1520. Reflecting a general reluctance on the part of historians to embrace the populist interpretation of the Klan, Robert Johnston's complicated treatment of the Portland Klan and the compulsory public school bill acknowledges and downplays Klan sponsorship of the bill, argues that the bill reflected a middling “liberal populist” antielite ideology, but also forcefully rejects the view that the 1920s Klan itself was authentically populist. Johnston, Robert D., The Radical Middle Class: Populist Democracy and the Question of Capitalism in Progressive Era Portland, Oregon (Princeton, 2003), 221–47.

18 , Ayabe, “Ku Klux Klan Movement in Williamson County,” 88132, quote on 94.

19 Quotes: W. P. Throgmorton to McBride, Nov. 15, 1924, MP 8. Whiteside was not involved in the shooting and was soon released. McBride suitably cautioned the Illinois ASL superintendent to investigate the Whiteside endorsement “pretty carefully before you take any decisive step.” McBride to Ebbert, Frank L., Nov. 20, 1924, MP 2. “Bloody Williamson,” NYT, Jan. 27, 1925, 12, and “The Golden Rule at Herrin,” NYT, June 30, 1925, 18.; “Troops Keep Peace after Herrin Fight,” NYT, Sept. 1, 1924, 3; , Ayabe, “Klan Movement in Williamson,” 276n51.

20 Blocker, Jack S. Jr, Retreat from Reform: The Prohibition Movement in the United States, 1890-1913 (Westport, CT, 1976), 219.

21 Anderson, William H. to Editor, NYT, Sept. 23, 1921, 11; , Anderson, The Church in Action Against the Saloon (Westerville, OH, 1906). For the Anti-Saloon League and the achievement of prohibition, see , Pegram, Battling Demon Rum, 109–65.

22 E. P. Alldredge to Boyd Doty, June 30, 1924, MP, 2; Merz, Charles, The Dry Decade (New York, 1931), 201–06.

23 National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement, Enforcement of the National Prohibition Laws, vol. 2 (Washington, 1931), 197270, quote 197; , Merz, Dry Decade, 63; , Kerr, Organised for Prohibition, 234.

24 “Report of the New England Workers Conference of the Anti-Saloon League held in Christian Endeavor Bldg., Clark Memorial Hall, Boston, Mass., February 16, 1925,” 8, MP 7.

25 “Superintendents' and Workers' Conference of the Anti-Saloon League of America, held at the Raleigh Hotel, Washington, D.C.January 9th, 1924,” 9, EHC 87; , Kerr, Organised for Prohibition, 213–41.

26 McBride, F. Scott, “Report to the Biennial Meeting of the Board of Directors of the Anti-Saloon League of America,” 1925, MP 14; Szymanski, Ann-Marie, “Dry Compulsions: Prohibition and the Creation of State-Level Enforcement Agencies,” Journal of Policy History 11 (Spring 1999): 115–46.

27 Wheeler, Wayne B., “The League's Program for Law Enforcement and the Need of Further Legislation” in Proceedings of the Twentieth National Convention of the Anti-Saloon league of America (Washington, 1921), 113–18, quote 114.

28 Alldredge to Doty, June 30, 1924, MP, 2; Alldredge to Ernest H. Cherrington, June 10, 1924, MP 2. Total receipts for the Anti-Saloon League fell over ten thousand dollars per month from 1923 to 1924, creating a “very critical crisis” for the league. Russell, Howard H., “The League's Financial Story and the Present Crisis,” 45, Anti-Saloon League of America, Executive Committee Meeting, Feb. 18, 1925, EHC 84.

29 “Report of Ernest H. Cherrington to the Executive Committee of the Anti-Saloon League of America, Washington, D.C., November 25, 1924,” EHC 84; Wheeler, Wayne B., “Report of the Legal and Legislative Department of the Anti-Saloon League of America. Quarter Ending November 25, 1924,” EHC 84.

30 Munroe, G. Roneland, “Compelling Law Enforcement in Face of Official Opposition,” Jan. 9, 1924, 47, quotation on 7, EHC 87; “Anti-Saloon League Stirs up the Animals,” news-paper clipping, Jan. 1922, EHC 13.

31 “Asbury Park Mayor Accused in Pulpits,” NYT, Apr. 7, 1924, 1 (first quotation); “Grand Jury to Sift Asbury Park ‘Orgy,’” NYT, Apr. 8, 1924, 21; “Affidavit Backs Asbury Charges,” NYT, Apr. 9, 1924, 23 (second quotation); “Tell of Deal Beach Dinner,” NYT, Apr. 18, 1924, 2; “Hetrick Exonerated on Dinner Charge,” NYT, May 2, 1924, 9; Chalmers, David M., Hooded Americanism: The History of the Ku Klux Klan, 3rd ed. (Durham, NC, 1987), 243–48.

32 P. H. Callahan to Mrs. Carlton M. Sherwood, Jan. 9, 1928, EHC 19.

33 Callahan to Dr. Denis A. McCarthy, marked Feb. 21-Mar. 4, 1929, EHC 119; Mr. and Mrs. William W. Daw to The American Issue, n.d. (probably Oct. 1925), MP 11; Thomas Nicholson to McBride, Nov. 27, 1925, MP 7. For another dry Catholic's defense of the ASL against charges of anti-Catholicism, see Connolly, C. P. to Editor, Commonweal, June 18, 1930, 191.

34 , Feldman, Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 6466, 82-83; Flint, J. Wayne, “Organized Labor, Reform, and Alabama Politics, 1920,” Alabama Review 23 (July 1970): 166–71.; “L. B. (Breck) Musgrove Dies,” Birmingham News, July 4, 1931, 1, clipping, EHC 91.

35 Wayne B. Wheeler to L. B. Musgrove, Sept. 1926, MP 15.

36 E. Wayne Stahl to McBride, n.d. (Aug. 1926); McBride to Stahl, Aug. 11, 1926, MP 14. For Frank L. Smith, see Boyd P. Doty to McBride, Dec. 2, 1926, MP 11, and Wheeler, Wayne B., “Report of the Legal and Legislative Department Anti-Saloon League of America, Quarter Ending November 16, 1926,” 8, EHC 84.

37 Rice, Arnold S., The Ku Klux Klan in American Politics (Washington, 1962), 59; Moseley, Clement Charlton, “The Political Influence of the Ku Klux Klan in Georgia, 1915-1925,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 57 (1973): 246–47, 253; Pegram, Thomas R., “Prohibition” in The American Congress: The Building of Democracy, ed. Zelizer, Julian E. (Boston, 2004), 424–25.

38 McBride to Charles O.Jones, July 19, 1926, MP 13; “Wheeler Gives New Data,” NYT, July 3, 1926, 12; Odegard, Peter H., Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League (New York, 1928), 205n50.

39 William L. Wade to McBride, Sept. 17, 1926, MP 15 (quotation); , Lay, Hooded Knights, 6869; , Feldman, Klan in Alabama, 138–39, 153; “Hutton Maps New Vice War,” Milwaukee Sentinel, Aug. 7, 1925, clipping, MP 6; “Dry Leader's Sons Held in Liquor Deal,” NYT, Apr. 19, 1925, 9; “Neufield Jones Gets Two Years in Atlanta,” NYT, Sept. 26, 1925, 5; Charles O. Jones to McBride, May 20, 1926; McBride to Jones, May 26, 1926, MP 13. As a paid Klan agent, Neufield Jones also undermined the New York operations of the anti-Klan American Unity League in 1922. Jacobs, Michael D., “Catholic Response to the Ku Klux Klan in the Midwest, 1921-8” (PhD diss., Marquette University, 2001), 107–08, 108n116.

40 McBride to George B. Safford, Oct. 2, 1925, MP 8 (first quotation); McBride to Rev. George A. Fowler, Dec. 31, 1925, MP 3; Thomas Nicholson to McBride, Sept. 12, 1925, MP 7; McBride to David L. McBride, June 16, 1925, MP 6; McBride to Julius Smith, Oct. 21, 1925, MP 8 (second quotation); McBride to Brother Superintendents, Mar. 25, 1926, MP 11.

41 Charles A. Pollack to McBride, Nov. 23, 1925, MP 7.

42 McBride to Thomas W Gales, Feb. 8, 1926, MP 12; Gales to McBride, Dec. 12, 1925, MP 3; O. M. Pullen to McBride, July 25, 1924, MP 7.

43 Samuel G.Jones to McBride, Jan. 27, 1926, MP 13.

44 Julius Smith to McBride, Sept. 6, 1925, MP 8 (quotation); Samuel G. Jones to McBride, Feb. 10, 1926, McBride to Jones, Feb. 15, 1926, MP 13.

45 Kansas City Post, Dec. 10, 1925, clipping, MP 5; Richard J. Hopkins to Howard H. Russell, Dec. 15, 1925, EHC 89; “Kansas High Court Outlaws the Klan,” NYT, Jan. 11, 1925, 16; Clugston, W G., “The Anti-Saloon League's Lost Virtue,” Nation, Feb. 24, 1926, 203–05; “Strange News from Kansas,” NYT, Feb. 26, 1926, 20; McBride to Julius Smith, Oct. 21, 1925, MP 8; “Report of Francis Scott McBride, General Superintendent, To the Executive Committee of the Anti-Saloon League of America at Washington, D. C., March 10th, 1926,” 5-8, EHC 84; Smith to McBride, Sept. 16, 1925, MP 8 (first quotation); J. A. McClellan to McBride, Dec. 25, 1925, MP 5 (second quotation); McBride to W. L. Wade, Feb. 9, 1926, MP 15; Bader, Robert Smith, Prohibition in Kansas (Lawrence, KS, 1986), 209–11.

46 “‘Drys’ and Ku Klux Combine in Texas,” NYT, Aug. 5, 1922, 6; Gould, Lewis L., Progressives and Prohibitionists: Texas Democrats in the Wilson Era (Austin, 1973), 215–21.

47 “Both Sides Predict Victory in Texas,” NYT, Aug. 22, 1924, 3.

48 “Cites Evidence of Klan's Activities,” Dallas Morning News, Aug. 21, 1924, clipping in Atticus Webb to McBride, Sept. 1, 1924, MP 9. See also: W J. Milburn to McBride, May 8, 1924; Milburn to Cherrington, Aug. 19, 1924; Milburn to McBride, Aug. 25, 1924, EHC 91.

49 Atticus Webb to McBride, Aug. 21, 1924, MP 9 (first quotation); Webb to the Executive Committee, Anti-Saloon League of America, n.d., marked Sept.-Oct. 1924, MP 9; McBride to Wayne Wheeler, Sept. 18, 1924, MP 10 (second quotation); McBride to W J. Milburn, Sept. 22, 1924, MP 6; “Report to the Executive Committee of the Anti-Saloon League of America by Francis Scott McBride, General Superintendent. Given at Washington, D.C., November 25, 1924,” 4, EHC 84; Milburn to McBride, Sept. 26, 1924, EHC 91; “Woman Governor or Klan: A Texas Choice,” NYT, Aug. 3, 1924, XX3; “The Fergusons Stand Back to the Wall,” NYT, Dec. 6, 1925, XX3.

50 “Not a Case Against Prohibition,” Outlook, Feb. 13, 1924, 252 (first quotation); “Anderson in New Attack,” ATT, Mar. 10, 1920, 17 (second quotation); “Anderson Attacks Catholic Church,” ATT, Mar. 6, 1920, 4; Anderson, William H., To the Pastors of New York State Who Intend To See The Prohibition Fight Through, Anti-Saloon League of New York pamphlet, Mar. 17, 1920, EHC 76; “Catholics and Prohibition,” Literary Digest, Apr. 10, 1920, 4445, 125-26.

51 Anderson to Charles S. Whitman, Sept. 5 and Nov. 8,1923, William H. Anderson Papers, Special Collections, University of Chicago Library; “Anderson Talks on Ku Klux Klan,” NYT, Sept. 9, 1923, El (first quotation); “Says Tammany Wets' Make Klan Members,” ATT, Oct. 1, 1923, 9 (second quotation); “The Klan in This State,” ATT, Oct. 9, 1923, 20.

52 “Anderson Urges Protestants of U.S. to Form Alliance,” Portland Press Herald, 2, clipping, EHC 76; Anderson, William H., American Protestant Alliance: A Comprehensive Introductory Working Outline of Its Philosophy, Principles, Purpose, Policy and Program (New York, 1926), 3637; , Anderson, They Cannot Dodge These Facts, Oct. 31, 1925, APPPPA pamphlet reprinted from Fellowship Forum, MP 1 (first quotation); A Tetter to The Dry Protestant Pastors of New York State from William H. Anderson, June 7, 1926, American Protestant Alliance pamphlet, 5, EHC 76 (second quotation); “Fist Fights Mark Klan Celebration,” NYT, Aug. 21, 1927, 24; Anderson to Colonel Patrick H. Callahan, Nov. 23, 1927, EHC 76 (third quotation); Anderson to Cherrington, July 24, 1930, EHC 16.

53 McBride to R. H. Scott, July 15, 1924, MP 8; McBride to Edwin Rawden, n.d., marked June-July 1925, MP 7.

54 Andrew B. Wood to Senator Thad H. Caraway, Aug. 7, 1926, MP 15; Howard H. Russell to Mrs. William H. Anderson, Apr. 16, 1928, Anderson Papers.

55 Anderson to Purley A. Baker, Feb. 17, 1921, EHC 76 (first quotation); “W. H. Anderson Welcomed,” Baltimore Sun, Dec. 7, 1927, 1; Anderson to McBride, Jan. 8, 1932, EHC 16.

56 Hohner, Robert A., Prohibition and Politics: The Life of Bishop James Cannon, Jr. (Columbia, SC, 1999), 215–90; Delcevare King to Cherrington, July 19, 1930, EHC 89 (quotation).

57 , Cocoltchos, “Ku Klux Klan in Anaheim, California,” 114–15.

58 Senatorial Campaign Expenditures, 2060 (other estimates cap membership at 194,000; see Harrison, Morton, “Gentlemen from Indiana,” Atlantic Monthly, May 1928, 681); , Weaver, “Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan,” 189221; “Indiana vs. Ku Klux Klan, Deposition of Hugh F. Emmons,” 227-40, 246-50; Zuber, Glenn M., ‘“Onward Christian Klansmen!’: War, Religious Conflict, and the Rise of the Second Ku Klux Klan, 1912-1928,” (PhD diss., Indiana University, 2004), 219–25.

59 Duffus, R. L., “A Political Volcano Seethes in Indiana, NYT, Oct. 2, 1927, XXI; Markisohn, Deborah B., “Ministers of the Klan: Indianapolis Clergy Involvement with the 1920s Ku Klux Klan,” (MA thesis, Indiana University, 1992), 4057. For the most complete analysis of Shumaker and the Klan, see , Lantzer, “Prohibition is Here to Stay,” 176207.

60 Budenz, Louis Francis, “Indiana's Anti-Saloon League Goes to Jail,” Nation, Aug. 24, 1927, 178; Transcript of Taped Interviews with Harold Feightner (1972), 33-34, manuscript section, Indiana State Library; , Moore, Citizen Klansmen, 181.

61 , Budenz, “Indiana's Anti-Saloon League Goes to Jail,” 177.

62 Emmons Deposition, 64, 77-78.

63 Edward S. Shumaker to McBride, July 25, 1924, MP 8; “Shumaker Denies Dry and Klan link,” Indianapolis Times, Feb. 21, 1928, 1 (political); “Shumaker in Statement” Indianapolis News, Feb. 22, 1928, 13 (organic, splendid); “Horse Thief Detective Associations,” American Issue (Indiana Edition), Apr. 30, 1927, 1; “A Reformed Saloonkeeper and Gambler,” American Issue (Indiana Edition), Dec. 22, 1914, 8; Emmons Deposition, 88-93; “Doesn't Recall Pact,” Indianapolis Star, Feb. 21, 1928, 8 (last quotation).

64 “Exposure of 12,208 Ku Klux in Marion County, Indiana,” Tolerance, June 6, 1923, 2, microfilm, Indiana Historical Society (special thanks to Janet Newland, associate archivist, Archdiocese of Indianapolis, for arranging the microfilming of this rare document); “Local Officers of the Ku Klux Klan in Indiana 1925,” 21, 25, typescript (SC 2419), IHS; “First Indianapolis list,” Tolerance, Apr. 1, 1923, 2, 16; , Zuber, “Onward Christian Klansmen,” 280; Shumaker to McBride, July 3, 1926, MP 14. For the Tolerance campaign against the Klan, see , Jacobs, “Catholic Response to the Ku Klux Klan in the Midwest,” 72134.

65 Weaver, 164-69; Cates, Frank M., “The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana Politics: 1920-1925,” (PhD diss., Indiana University, 1971), 166–69; , Lanteer, “Prohibition is Here to Stay,” 213; “South Bend Paper is Discredited,” Fiery Cross, Feb. 26, 1923, 4 (quotation).

1 Many librarians and archivists assisted me in locating material, none more assiduously than Peggy Feild at the Interlibrary Loan office at the Loyola-Notre Dame Library, assisted by Ginnie Smack-Harper. Janet Newland at the Archdiocese of Indianapolis took special care to make available a critical document. I also enjoyed swift cooperation from archivists at the Indiana Historical Society (IHS), the Indiana State Library, the Ohio Historical Society, the Yale Divinity School Library, the DePauw University Library, and the University of Chicago library. Jason Lantzer shared advanced chapters of his dissertation and his knowledge of Edward Shumaker. Loyola College provided research grants and a one-semester sabbatical. History department colleagues and my family made it possible to use those resources effectively. To all, thanks.

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The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era
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