Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-zzcdp Total loading time: 0.497 Render date: 2021-11-27T14:06:30.192Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Characteristics of executive function impairment in Parkinson’s disease patients without dementia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 December 2009

AUDREY MCKINLAY*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
RANDOLPH C. GRACE
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
JOHN C. DALRYMPLE-ALFORD
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
DEREK ROGER
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
*
*Correspondence and reprint requests to: Audrey McKinlay, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand. E-mail: audrey.mckinlay@canterbury.ac.nz

Abstract

Executive function impairments in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are well documented. However, uncertainties remain regarding the impact of these deficits on other areas of cognitive functioning. The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive assessment of cognitive characteristics in patients with PD without dementia and to assess how any such deficits affected other areas of cognitive functioning. Forty PD patients without dementia were compared to healthy controls using measures of attention and speed of processing and a comprehensive set of executive function tests including working memory, planning, and problem solving. Measures of memory/learning and visuospatial skills were also included to examine the relationship between aspects of executive function and other areas of cognition. Patients with PD showed deficits on measures of executive function, problem solving, and visuospatial skills. However, they were unimpaired on measures of planning, attention, and memory/learning. Deficits in problem solving were only evident for tasks with a high visuospatial content and were no longer significant when visuospatial skills were controlled for. While deficits in executive function and visuospatial skills were apparent for PD patients compared to controls, many aspects of cognition remained intact. These can provide a focus for cognitive intervention strategies that can be effective in delaying decline for PD patients. (JINS, 2010, 16, 268–277.)

Type
Research Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The International Neuropsychological Society 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aarsland, D., Ballard, C., Larsen, J.P., & McKeith, I. (2001). A comparative study of psychiatric symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, 528536.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., & Brown, G.K. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.). New York: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Benton, A.L., Varney, N.R., & Hamsher, K.D. (1978). Visuospatial judgment: A clinical test. Archives of Neurology, 35, 364367.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bohnen, N.I., & Albin, R.L. (2009). Cholinergic denervation occurs early in Parkinson disease. Neurology, 73, 256257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bohnen, N.I., Kaufer, D.I., Hendrickson, R., Ivanco, L.S., Lopresti, B.J., Constantine, G.M., et al. (2006). Cognitive correlates of cortical cholinergic denervation in Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonian dementia. Journal of Neurology, 253, 242247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bondi, M.W., Kaszniak, A.W., Bayles, K.A., & Vance, K.T. (1993). Contributions of frontal system dysfunction to memory and perceptual abilities in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology, 7, 89102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braak, H., & Braak, E. (2000). Pathoanatomy of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, 247(Suppl. 2), II310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown, R.G., & Marsden, C.D. (1990). Cognitive function in Parkinson’s disease: From description to theory. Trends in Neuroscience, 13, 2129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caballol, N., Marti, M.J., & Tolosa, E. (2007). Cognitive dysfunction and dementia in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 22, S358S366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cools, R. (2006). Dopaminergic modulation of cognitive function-implications for L-DOPA treatment in Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience and Biobehavior Review, 30, 123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cools, R., Stefanova, E., Barker, R.A., Robbins, T.W., & Owen, A. (2002). Dopaminergic modulation of high-level cognition in Parkinson’s disease: The role of the prefrontal cortex revealed by PET. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 125, 584594.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cooper, J.A., Sagar, H.J., Jordan, N., Harvey, N.S., & Sullivan, E.V. (1991). Cognitive impairment in early, untreated Parkinson’s disease and its relationship to motor disability. Brain, 114, 20952122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cronin-Golomb, A., & Braun, A.E. (1997). Visuospatial dysfunction and problem solving in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology, 11, 4452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 450466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delis, D.C., Kaplan, E., & Kramer, J.H. (2001). Delis Kaplan Executive Function System. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Dimitrov, M., Grafman, J., Soares, A.H., & Clark, K. (1999). Concept formation and concept shifting in frontal lesion and Parkinson’s disease patients assessed with the California Card Sorting Test. Neuropsychology, 13, 135143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dubois, B., & Pillon, B. (1997). Cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, 244, 28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fahn, S., & Elton, R.L. (1987). Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (Vol. 2). Florham Park NJ: Macmillan Health Care Information.Google Scholar
Farina, E., Gattellaro, G., Pomati, S., Magni, E., Perretti, A., Cannata, A.P., et al. (2000). Researching a differential impairment of frontal functions and explicit memory in early Parkinson’s disease. European Journal of Neurology, 7, 259267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E., & McHugh, P.R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graham, J.M., & Sagar, H.J. (1999). A data-driven approach to the study of heterogeneity in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: Identification of three distinct subtypes. Movement Disorders, 14, 1020.3.0.CO;2-4>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Higginson, C.I., King, D.S., Levine, D., Wheelock, V.L., Khamphay, N.O., & Sigvardt, K.A. (2003). The relationship between executive function and verbal memory in Parkinson’s disease. Brain Cognition, 52, 343352.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoehn, M.M., & Yahr, M.D. (1967). Parkinsonism: Onset, progression and mortality. Neurology, 17, 427442.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huang, C., Mattis, P.J., Perrine, K., Brown, N., Dhawan, V., & Eidelberg, D. (2008). Metabolic abnormalities associated with mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology, 15, 14701477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobs, D.M., Marder, K., Cote, L.F., Sano, M., Stern, Y., & Mayeuz, R. (1995). Neuropsychological characteristics of preclinical dementia in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology, 45, 16911696.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Janvin, C., Aarsland, D., & Larsen, J.P. (2005). Cognitive predictors of dementia in Parkinson’s disease: A community-based, 4-year longitudinal study. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 18, 149154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Janvin, C., Aarsland, D., Larsen, J.P., & Hugdahl, K. (2003). Neuropsychological profile of patients with Parkinson’s disease without dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 15, 126131.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jurica, P.J., Leitten, C.L., & Mattis, S. (2001). DRS-2 Dementia Rating Scale-2. Professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
Levin, B.E., & Katzen, H.L. (1995). Early cognitive changes and nondementing behavioral abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease. Advances in Neurology, 65, 8595.Google ScholarPubMed
Lewis, S.J., Foltynie, T., Blackwell, A.D., Robbins, T.W., Owen, A.M., & Barker, R.A. (2005). Heterogeneity of Parkinson’s disease in the early clinical stages using a data driven approach. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 76, 343348.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lezak, M.D. (1995). Neuropsychological assessment (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Marie, R.M., Barre, L., Dupuy, B., Viader, F., Defer, G., & Baron, J.C. (1999). Relationships between striatal dopamine denervation and frontal executive tests in Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience Letters, 260, 7780.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N.A., Verhey, F.R., Middelkoop, H.A., Stiggelbout, A.M., et al. (2003). Assessment of cognition in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology, 61, 12221228.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McKinlay, A., Grace, R.C., Dalrymple-Alford, J.C., Anderson, T.J., Fink, J., & Roger, D. (2008a). Neuropsychiatric problems in Parkinson’s disease: Comparisons between self and significant other report. Aging and Mental Health, 5, 649655.Google Scholar
McKinlay, A., Grace, R.C., Kaller, C.P., Dalrymple-Alford, J.C., Anderson, T.J., Fink, J., et al. (2009). Planning deficits in Parkinson’s disease: A comparison of two tower tasks. Applied Neuropsychology, 16, 77185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKinlay, A., Kaller, C.P., Grace, R.C., Dalrymple-Alford, J.C., Anderson, T.J., Fink, J., et al. (2008b). Planning in Parkinson’s disease: A matter of problem structure? Neuropschologia, 46, 384389.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muslimovic, D., Post, B., Speelman, J.D., & Schmand, B. (2005). Cognitive profile of patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease. Neurology, 65, 12391245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Owen, A.M. (2004). Cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: The role of frontostriatal circuitry. Neuroscientist, 10, 525537.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pillon, B., Boller, F., Levy, R., & Dubois, B. (2001). Cognitive deficits and dementia in Parkinson’s disease. In Boller, F. & Cappa, S.F. (Eds.), Handbook of neuropsychology (2nd ed.), Vol. 6. (pp. 311371). New York: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
Riedel, O., Klotsche, J., Spottke, A., Deuschl, G., Forstl, H., Henn, F., et al. (2008). Cognitive impairment in 873 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Results from the German Study on Epidemiology of Parkinson’s Disease with Dementia (GEPAD). Journal of Neurology, 255, 255264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Royall, D.R., Cordes, J.A., & Polk, M. (1998). CLOX: An executive clock drawing task. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 64, 588594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salthouse, T.A. (2005). Relations between cognitive abilities and measures of executive functioning. Neuropsychology, 19, 532545.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sammer, G., Reuter, I., Hullmann, K., Kaps, M., & Vaitl, D. (2006). Training of executive functions in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 248, 115119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schrag, A., Jahanshahi, M., & Quinn, N. (2000). What contributes to quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease? Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 69, 308312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sinforiani, E., Banchier, L., Zucchella, C., Pacchetti, C., & Sandrini, G. (2004). Cognitive rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 9, 387391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spreen, O., & Strauss, E. (1998). A compendium of neuropsychological tests (3rd ed.). Victoria: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Tamaru, F. (1997). Disturbances in higher function in Parkinson’s disease. European Neurology, 38(Suppl 2), 3336.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, A.E., & Saint-Cyr, J.A. (1995). The neuropsychology of Parkinson’s disease. Brain Cognition, 28, 281296.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Troster, A.I., & Fields, J.A. (1995). Frontal cognitive function and memory in Parkinson’s disease: Toward a distinction between prospective and declarative memory impairments? Behavioural Neurology, 8, 5974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uekermann, J., Daum, I., Bielawski, M., Muhlack, S., Peters, S., Przuntek, H., et al. (2004). Differential executive control impairments in early Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neural Transmission, Suppl(68), 3951.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waterfall, M.L., & Crowe, S.F. (1995). Meta-analytic comparison of the components of visual cognition in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 17, 759772.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wechsler, D.A. (1997). WAIS-III, WMS-III technical manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Wechsler, D.A. (1999). Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Weintraub, D., & Stern, M.B. (2005). Psychiatric complications in Parkinson disease. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 844851.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Welsh, M.C., Revilla, V., Strongin, D., & Kepler, M. (2000). Towers of Hanoi and London: Is the nonshared variance due to differences in task administration? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90, 562572.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, B.A., Alderman, N., Burgess, P.W., Emslie, H., & Evan, J.J. (1996). Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome. Bury St Edmonds, UK: Thames Valley Test Company.Google Scholar
Witt, K., Daniels, C., Daniel, V., Schmitt-Eliassen, J., Volkmann, J., & Deuschl, G. (2006). Patients with Parkinson’s disease learn to control complex systems: An indication for intact implicit cognitive skill learning. Neuropsychologia, 44, 24452451.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woods, S.P., & Troster, A.I. (2003). Prodromal frontal/executive dysfunction predicts incident dementia in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 1724.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zamarian, L., Visani, P., Delazer, M., Seppi, K., Mair, K.J., & Diem, A. (2006). Parkinson’s disease and arithmetics: The role of executive functions. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 248, 124130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zgaljardic, D.J., Borod, J.C., Foldi, N.S., & Mattis, P. (2003). A review of the cognitive and behavioral sequelae of Parkinson’s disease: Relationship to frontostriatal circuitry. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 16, 193210.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
87
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Characteristics of executive function impairment in Parkinson’s disease patients without dementia
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Characteristics of executive function impairment in Parkinson’s disease patients without dementia
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Characteristics of executive function impairment in Parkinson’s disease patients without dementia
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *