Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Emotion perception deficits following traumatic brain injury: A review of the evidence and rationale for intervention

  • CRISTINA BORNHOFEN (a1) and SKYE MCDONALD (a1)
Abstract

While the cognitive disturbances that frequently follow severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are relatively well understood, the ways in which these affect the psychosocial functioning of people with TBI are yet to be determined and have thus received little attention in treatment research. Growing evidence indicates that a significant proportion of individuals with TBI demonstrate an inability to recognize affective information from the face, voice, bodily movement, and posture. Because accurate interpretation of emotion in others is critical for the successful negotiation of social interactions, effective treatments are necessary. Until recently, however, there have been no rehabilitation efforts in this area. The present review examines the literature on emotion perception deficits in TBI and presents a theoretical rationale for targeted intervention. Several lines of research relevant to the remediation of emotion perception in people with TBI are considered. These include work on emotion perception remediation with other cognitively impaired populations, current neuropsychological models of emotion perception and underlying neural systems, and recent conceptualizations of remediation processes. The article concludes with a discussion of the importance of carrying out efforts to improve emotion perception within a contextualized framework in which the day-to-day relevance of training is clear to all recipients. (JINS, 2008, 14, 511–525.)

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Emotion perception deficits following traumatic brain injury: A review of the evidence and rationale for intervention
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Emotion perception deficits following traumatic brain injury: A review of the evidence and rationale for intervention
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Emotion perception deficits following traumatic brain injury: A review of the evidence and rationale for intervention
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Cristina Bornhofen, School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. E-mail: cristinab@iinet.net.au
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J.H. Adams , D.I. Graham , & B. Jennett (2001). The structural basis of moderate disability after traumatic brain damage. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 71, 521524.

J. Addington , H. Saeedi , & D. Addington (2006). Facial affect recognition: A mediator between cognitive and social functioning in psychosis? Schizophrenia Research, 85, 142150.

R. Adolphs (1999). Social cognition and the human brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 469479.

R. Adolphs (2001). The neurobiology of social cognition. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11, 231239.

R. Adolphs (2002a). Neural systems for recognizing emotion. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12, 169177.

R. Adolphs (2002b). Recognizing emotion from facial expressions: Psychological and neurological mechanisms. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 1, 2162.

R. Adolphs (2003). Investigating the cognitive neuroscience of social behavior. Neuropsychologia, 41, 119126.

R. Adolphs , H. Damasio , & D. Tranel (2002). Neural systems for recognition of emotional prosody: A 3-D lesion study. Emotion, 2, 2351.

R. Adolphs , A. Jansari , & D. Tranel (2001a). Hemispheric perception of emotional valence from facial expressions. Neuropsychology, 15, 516524.

R. Adolphs & D. Tranel (1999). Intact recognition of emotional prosody following amygdala damage. Neuropsychologia, 37, 12851292.

R. Adolphs & D. Tranel (2003). Amygdala damage impairs emotion recognition from scenes only when they contain facial expressions. Neuropsychologia, 41, 12811289.

R. Adolphs & D. Tranel (2004). Impaired judgments of sadness but not happiness following bilateral amygdala damage. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 453462.

R. Adolphs , D. Tranel , & H. Damasio (2001b). Emotion recognition from faces and prosody following temporal lobectomy. Neuropsychology, 15, 396404.

M. Aigner , G. Sachs , E. Bruckmuller , B. Winklbaur , W. Zitterl , I. Kryspin-Exner , R. Gur , & H. Katschnig (2007). Cognitive and emotion recognition deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 149, 121128.

M. Anderson (2001). Annotation: Conceptions of intelligence. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 42, 287298.

A. Angrilli , D. Palomba , A. Cantagallo , A. Maietti , & L. Stegagno (1999). Emotional impairment after right orbitofrontal lesion in a patient without cognitive deficits. Neuroreport, 10, 17411746.

J. Barrash , D. Tranel , & S.W. Anderson (2000). Acquired personality disturbances associated with bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal region. Developmental Neuropsychology, 18, 355381.

N. Besenski , R. Broz , D. Jadro-Santel , D. Pavi , & D. Mikuli (1996). The course of the traumatising force in acceleration head injury: CT evidence. Neuroradiology, 38(Suppl. 1), S36S41.

H. Bibby & S. McDonald (2005). Theory of mind after traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychologia, 43, 99114.

K.R. Biddle , A. McCabe , & L.S. Bliss (1996). Narrative skills following traumatic brain injury in children and adults. Journal of Communication Disorders, 29, 446469.

R.J. Blair & L. Cipolotti (2000). Impaired social response reversal: A case of “acquired sociopathy”. Brain, 123, 11221141.

R.J. Blair , J.S. Morris , C.C. Frith , D.I. Perrett , & R.J. Dolan (1999). Dissociable neural responses to facial expressions of sadness and anger. Brain, 122, 883893.

R. Boice (1983). Observation skills. Psychological Bulletin, 93, 329.

S. Bolte , S. Feineis-Matthews , S. Leber , T. Dierks , D. Hubl , & F. Poustka (2002). The development and evaluation of a computer-based program to test and to teach the recognition of facial affect. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 61(Suppl. 2), 6168.

S. Bolte , D. Hubl , S. Feineis-Matthews , D. Prvulovic , T. Dierks , & F. Poustka (2006). Facial affect recognition training in autism: Can we animate the fusiform gyrus? Behavioral Neuroscience, 120, 211216.

F. Bond & H.P. Godfrey (1997). Conversation with traumatically brain-injured individuals: A controlled study of behavioural changes and their impact. Brain Injury, 11, 319329.

Z. Boraston , S.J. Blakemore , R. Chilvers , & D. Skuse (2007). Impaired sadness recognition is linked to social interaction deficit in autism. Neuropsychologia, 45, 15011510.

C. Bornhofen & S. McDonald (2008a). Treating emotion perception deficits following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 18, 2244.

C. Bornhofen & S. McDonald (2008b). Comparing strategies for treating emotion perception deficits in traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 23, 103115.

J.C. Borod (1993). Cerebral mechanisms underlying facial, prosodic and lexical emotional expression: A review of neuropsychological studies and methodological issues. Neuropsychology, 7, 445463.

J.C. Borod , B.A. Cicero , L.K. Obler , J. Welkowitz , H.M. Erhan , C. Santschi , I.S. Grunwald , R.M. Agosti , & J.R. Whalen (1998). Right hemisphere emotional perception: Evidence across multiple channels. Neuropsychology, 12, 446458.

M. Brüne , M. Abdel-Hamid , C. Lehmkamper , & C. Sonntag (2007). Mental state attribution, neurocognitive functioning, and psychopathology: What predicts poor social competence in schizophrenia best? Schizophrenia Research, 92, 151159.

W.H. Burke , A.H. Zencius , M.D. Wesolowski , & F. Doubleday (1991). Improving executive function disorders in brain-injured clients. Brain Injury, 5, 241252.

S.A. Burleigh , R.S. Farber , & M. Gillard (1998). Community integration and life satisfaction after traumatic brain injury: Long-term findings. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52, 4552.

A.J. Calder , J. Keane , F. Manes , N. Antoun , & A.W. Young (2000). Impaired recognition and experience of disgust following brain injury. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 10771078.

A.J. Calder , J. Keane , T. Manly , R. Sprengelmeyer , S. Scott , I. Nimmo-Smith , & A.W. Young (2003). Facial expression recognition across the adult life span. Neuropsychologia, 41, 195202.

A.J. Calder , A.D. Lawrence , & A.W. Young (2001). Neuropsychology of fear and loathing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 352363.

J.A. Calhoun (2006). Executive functions: A discussion of the issues facing children with autism spectrum disorders and related disorders. Seminars in Speech & Language, 27, 6072.

R.N. Cardinal , J.A. Parkinson , J. Hall , & B.J. Everitt (2002). Emotion and motivation: The role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 26, 321352.

S.B. Chapman (1997). Cognitive-communication abilities in children with closed head injury. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 6, 5058.

S.B. Chapman , H.S. Levin , J. Matejka , H.N. Harward , & J. Kufera (1995). Discourse ability in head injured children: Consideration of linguistic, psychosocial, and cognitive factors. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 10, 3654.

S.B. Chapman , R. Watkins , C. Gustafson , S. Moore , H.S. Levin , & J.A. Kufera (1997). Narrative discourse in children with closed head injury, children with language impairment, and typically developing children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 6, 6676.

K.D. Cicerone & L.N. Tanenbaum (1997). Disturbance of social cognition after traumatic orbitofrontal brain injury. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 12, 173188.

D.R. Combs , S.D. Adams , D.L. Penn , D. Roberts , J. Tiegreen , & P. Stem (2007). Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) for inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Preliminary findings. Schizophrenia Research, 91, 112116.

D.R. Combs , A. Tosheva , J. Wanner , & M.R. Basso (2006). Remediation of emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia: The use of attentional prompts. Schizophrenia Research, 87, 340341.

K. Cornelissen , M. Laine , A. Tarkiainen , T. Jarvensivu , N. Martin , & R. Salmelin (2003). Adult brain plasticity elicited by anomia treatment. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 444461.

H. Critchley , E.M. Daly , E.T. Bullmore , S.C. Williams , T. Van Amelsvoort , D.M. Robertson , A. Rowe , M. Phillips , G. McAlonan , P. Howlin , & D.G. Murphy (2000a). The functional neuroanatomy of social behaviour: Changes in cerebral blood flow when people with autistic disorder process facial expressions. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 123, 22032212.

H. Critchley , E. Daly , M. Phillips , M. Brammer , E. Bullmore , S. Williams , T. Van Amelsvoort , D. Robertson , A. David , & D. Murphy (2000b). Explicit and implicit neural mechanisms for processing of social information from facial expressions: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Human Brain Mapping, 9, 93105.

V. Croker & S. McDonald (2005). Recognition of emotion from facial expression following traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 19, 787789.

A.R. Damasio , D. Tranel , & H. Damasio (1990). Individuals with sociopathic behavior caused by frontal damage fail to respond autonomically to social stimuli. Behavioural Brain Research, 41, 8194.

J. Decety & P.L. Jackson (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral & Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 3, 71100.

M.L. Dombovy & A.C. Olek (1997). Recovery and rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 11, 305318.

Z.L. Dou , D.W.K. Man , H.N. Ou , J.L. Zheng , & S.F. Tam (2006). Computerized errorless learning-based memory rehabilitation for Chinese patients with brain injury: A preliminary quasi-experimental clinical design study. Brain Injury, 20, 219225.

C.J. Durgin (2000). Increasing community participation after brain injury: Strategies for identifying and reducing the risks. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 15, 11951207.

J. Edwards , H.J. Jackson , & P.E. Pattison (2002). Emotion recognition via facial expression and affective prosody in schizophrenia: A methodological review. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 789832.

H. Erhan , J.C. Borod , C.E. Tenke , & G.E. Bruder (1998). Identification of emotion in a dichotic listening task: Event-related brain potential and behavioral findings. Brain and Cognition, 37, 286307.

P.J. Eslinger , L.M. Grattan , & L. Geder (1995). Implications of frontal lobe lesions on rehabilitation and recovery from acute brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation, 5, 161182.

A. Fontaine , P. Azouvi , P. Remy , B. Bussel , & Y. Samson (1999). Functional anatomy of neuropsychological deficits after severe traumatic brain injury. Neurology, 53, 19631968.

J. Fridriksson , L. Morrow-Odom , D. Moser , A. Fridriksson , & G. Baylis (2006). Neural recruitment associated with anomia treatment in aphasia. Neuroimage, 32, 14031412.

N. Frommann , M. Streit , & W. Wolwer (2003). Remediation of facial affect recognition impairments in patients with schizophrenia: A new training program. Psychiatry Research, 117, 281284.

M. Gaetz (2004). The neurophysiology of brain injury. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115, 418.

M.S. George , P.I. Parekh , N. Rosinsky , T.A. Ketter , T.A. Kimbrell , K.M. Heilman , P. Herscovitch , & R.M. Post (1996). Understanding emotional prosody activates right hemisphere regions. Archives of Neurology, 53, 665670.

H.P. Godfrey , R.G. Knight , & S.N. Bishara (1991). The relationship between social skill and family problem-solving following very severe closed head injury. Brain Injury, 5, 207211.

H.P. Godfrey & D. Shum (2000). Executive functioning and the application of social skills following traumatic brain injury. Aphasiology, 14, 443444.

R. Gomez-Hernandez , J.E. Max , T. Kosier , S. Paradiso , & R.G. Robinson (1997). Social impairment and depression after traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 78, 13211326.

D. Grandjean , D. Sander , G. Pourtois , S. Schwartz , M.L. Seghier , K.R. Scherer , & P. Vuilleumier (2005). The voices of wrath: Brain responses to angry prosody in meaningless speech. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 145146.

M.F. Green , B. Olivier , J.N. Crawley , D.L. Penn , & S. Silverstein (2005). Social cognition in schizophrenia: Recommendations from the measurement and treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia new approaches conference. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31, 882887.

M. Green , R. Kern , D. Braff , & J. Mintz (2000). Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: Are we measuring the “right stuff”? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 119136.

R.E. Green , G.R. Turner , & W.F. Thompson (2004). Deficits in facial emotion perception in adults with recent traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychologia, 42, 133141.

G.M. Grimshaw , K.M. Kwasny , E. Covell , & R.A. Johnson (2003). The dynamic nature of language lateralization: Effects of lexical and prosodic factors. Neuropsychologia, 41, 10081019.

J.D. Hallett , N.D. Zasler , P. Maurer , & S. Cash (1994). Role change after traumatic brain injury in adults. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48, 241246.

M. Hallett (2001). Plasticity of the human motor cortex and recovery from stroke. Brain Research—Brain Research Reviews, 36, 169174.

F.M. Hammond , T. Hart , T. Bushnik , J.D. Corrigan , & H. Sasser (2004). Change and predictors of change in communication, cognition, and social function between 1 and 5 years after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 19, 314328.

J.V. Haxby , E.A. Hoffman , & M.I. Gobbini (2002). Human neural systems for face recognition and social communication. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 5967.

A.S. Heberlein & R. Adolphs (2005). Functional anatomy of human social cognition. In A. Easton & N.J. Emery (Eds.), The Cognitive Neuroscience of Social Behaviour (pp. 157194). New York: Psychology Press.

K.M. Heilman , D. Bowers , L. Speedie , & H.B. Coslett (1984). Comprehension of affective and nonaffective prosody. Neurology, 34, 917921.

E. Hill , S. Berthoz , & U. Frith (2004). Brief report: Cognitive processing of own emotions in individuals with autistic spectrum disorder and in their relatives. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 34, 229235.

A.L. Holland & J.C. Sonderman (1974). Effects of a program based on the token test for teaching comprehension skills to aphasics. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 17, 589598.

C. Hooker & S. Park (2002). Emotion processing and its relationship to social functioning in schizophrenia patients. Psychiatry Research, 112, 4150.

M.J. Hopkins , J. Dywan , & S.J. Segalowitz (2002). Altered electrodermal response to facial expression after closed head injury. Brain Injury, 16, 245257.

J. Hornak , J. Bramham , E. Rolls , R. Morris , J. O'Doherty , P. Bullock , & C. Polkey (2003). Changes in emotion after circumscribed surgical lesions of the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 126, 16911712.

J. Hornak , J. O'Doherty , J. Bramham , E. Rolls , R. Morris , P. Bullock , & C. Polkey (2004). Reward-related reversal learning after surgical excisions in orbito-frontal or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in humans. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 463478.

J. Hornak , E. Rolls , & D. Wade (1996). Face and voice expression identification in patients with emotional and behavioural changes following ventral frontal lobe damage. Neuropsychologia, 34, 247261.

K. Humphreys , N. Minshew , G.L. Leonard , & M. Behrmann (2007). A fine-grained analysis of facial expression processing in high-functioning adults with autism. Neuropsychologia, 45, 685695.

H.F. Jackson & N.J. Moffat (1987). Impaired emotional recognition following severe head injury. Cortex, 23, 293300.

M. Kahn (1970). Non-verbal communication and marital satisfaction. Family Processes, 9, 449456.

N. Kapur (1996). Paradoxical functional facilitation in brain-behaviour research: A critical review. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 119, 17751790.

I. Kats-Gold , A. Besser , & B. Priel (2007). The role of simple emotion recognition skills among school aged boys at risk of ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 363378.

A.S. Kayser & K.D. Miller (2002). Opponent inhibition: A developmental model of layer 4 of the neocortical circuit. Neuron, 33, 131142.

K.S. Kee , M.F. Green , J. Mintz , & J.S. Brekke (2003). Is emotion processing a predictor of functional outcome in schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29, 487497.

D.A. Kersel , N.V. Marsh , J.H. Havill , & J.W. Sleigh (2001). Psychosocial functioning during the year following severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 15, 683696.

H. Kessler , J. Roth , J. von Wietersheim , R.M. Deighton , & H.C. Traue (2007). Emotion recognition patterns in patients with panic disorder. Depression & Anxiety, 24, 223226.

K. Keyvani & T. Schallert (2002). Plasticity-associated molecular and structural events in the injured brain. Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, 61, 831840.

C.G. Kohler , W. Bilker , M. Hagendoorn , R.E. Gur , & R.C. Gur (2000). Emotion recognition deficit in schizophrenia: Association with symptomatology and cognition. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 127136.

B. Kolb (1999). Synaptic plasticity and the organization of behaviour after early and late brain injury. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 6276.

K. Kucharska-Pietura , M.L. Phillips , W. Gernand , & A.S. David (2003). Perception of emotions from faces and voices following unilateral brain damage. Neuropsychologia, 41, 10821090.

S. Leonard , M. Msall , C. Bower , M. Tremont , & H. Leonard (2002). Functional status of school-aged children with Down syndrome. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health, 38, 160165.

J.M. Leppanen & J.K. Hietanen (2001). Emotion recognition and social adjustment in school-aged girls and boys. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 42, 429435.

J. Liepert , H. Bauder , H.R. Wolfgang , W.H. Miltner , E. Taub , & C. Weiller (2000). Treatment-induced cortical reorganization after stroke in humans. Stroke, 31, 12101216.

J.L. Lindner & L.A. Rosen (2006). Decoding of emotion through facial expression, prosody and verbal content in children and adolescents with Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 36, 769777.

F. Longoni , W. Sturm , S. Weis , C. Holtel , K. Specht , H. Herzog , & K. Willmes (2000). Functional reorganization after training of alertness in two patients with right-hemisphere lesions. Zeitschrift fur Neuropsychologie, 11, 250261.

M.K. Mandal , R. Pandey , & A.B. Prasad (1998). Facial expressions of emotions and schizophrenia: A review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24, 399412.

C.A. Mateer & K.A. Kerns (2000). Capitalizing on neuroplasticity. Brain and Cognition, 42, 106109.

C.A. Mazefsky & D.P. Oswald (2007). Emotion perception in Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism: The importance of diagnostic criteria and cue intensity. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37, 10861095.

C. McAlpine , N.N. Singh , C.R. Ellis , K.A. Kendall , & C. Hampton (1992). Enhancing the ability of adults with mental retardation to recognize facial expressions of emotion. Behavior Modification, 16, 559573.

S. McDonald (1992). Communication disorders following closed head injury: New approaches to assessment and rehabilitation. Brain Injury, 6, 283292.

S. McDonald (1993). Pragmatic language skills after closed head injury: Ability to meet the informational needs of the listener. Brain and Language, 44, 2846.

S. McDonald (2000). Putting communication disorders in context after traumatic brain injury. Aphasiology, 14, 339347.

S. McDonald , C. Bornhofen , D. Shum , E. Long , C. Saunders , & K. Neulinger (2006). Reliability and validity of ‘The Awareness of Social Inference Test’ (TASIT): A clinical test of social perception. Disability and Rehabilitation, 28, 15291542.

S. McDonald & S. Flanagan (2004). Social perception deficits after traumatic brain injury: Interaction between emotion recognition, mentalizing ability, and social communication. Neuropsychology, 18, 572579.

S. McDonald , S. Flanagan , I. Martin , & C. Saunders (2004). The ecological validity of TASIT: A test of social perception. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 14, 285302.

S. McDonald , S. Flanagan , J. Rollins , & J. Kinch (2003). TASIT: A new clinical tool for assessing social perception after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 18, 219238.

S. McDonald & S. Pearce (1996). Clinical insights into pragmatic language theory: The case of sarcasm. Brain and Language, 53, 81104.

S. McDonald & J.C. Saunders (2005). Differential impairment in recognition of emotion across different media in people with severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 392399.

G.J. McHugo & C.A. Smith (1996). The power of faces: A review of John Lanzetta's research on facial expression and emotion. Motivation and Emotion, 20, 85120.

K. McKenzie , E. Matheson , K. McKaskie , L. Hamilton , & G.C. Murray (2000). Impact of group training on emotion recognition in individuals with a learning disability. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28, 143147.

A.K. Melton & M.S. Bourgeois (2005). Training compensatory memory strategies via the telephone for persons with TBI. Aphasiology, 19, 353364.

M.M. Merzenich & W.M. Jenkins (1993). Reorganization of cortical representations of the hand following alterations of skin inputs induced by nerve injury, skin island transfers, and experience. Journal of Hand Therapy, 6, 89104.

M.M. Merzenich , R.J. Nelson , M.P. Stryker , M.S. Cynader , A. Schoppmann , & J.M. Zook (1984). Somatosensory cortical map changes following digit amputation in adult monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 224, 591605.

M. Milders , S. Fuchs , & J.R. Crawford (2003). Neuropsychological impairments and changes in emotional and social behaviour following severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 25, 157172.

R.L. Mitchell , R. Elliott , M. Barry , A. Cruttenden , & P.W. Woodruff (2003). The neural response to emotional prosody, as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuropsychologia, 41, 14101421.

A.H. Mohammed , S.W. Zhu , S. Darmopil , J. Hjerling-Leffler , P. Ernfors , B. Winblad , M.C. Diamond , P.S. Eriksson , & N. Bogdanovic (2002). Environmental enrichment and the brain. Progress in Brain Research, 138, 109133.

B. Montagne , S. Schutters , H.G. Westenberg , J. van Honk , R.P. Kessels , & E.H. de Haan (2006). Reduced sensitivity in the recognition of anger and disgust in social anxiety disorder. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 11, 389401.

J.S. Morris , B. DeGelder , L. Weiskrantz , & R.J. Dolan (2001). Differential extrageniculostriate and amygdala responses to presentation of emotional faces in a cortically blind field. Brain, 124, 12411252.

J.S. Morris , C.D. Frith , D.I. Perrett , D. Rowland , A.W. Young , A.J. Calder , & R.J. Dolan (1996). A differential neural response in the human amygdala to fearful and happy facial expressions. Nature, 383, 812815.

J.S. Morris , S.K. Scott , & R.J. Dolan (1999). Saying it with feeling: Neural responses to emotional vocalizations. Neuropsychologia, 37, 11551163.

R.L. Morrison & A.S. Bellack (1981). The role of social perception in social skill. Behaviour Therapy, 12, 6979.

M.V. Morton & P. Wehman (1995). Psychosocial and emotional sequelae of individuals with traumatic brain injury: A literature review and recommendations. Brain Injury, 9, 8192.

K.T. Mueser , R. Doonan , D.L. Penn , J.J. Blanchard , A.S. Bellack , P. Nishith , & J. DeLeon (1996). Emotion recognition and social competence in chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 271275.

P.G. Nelson , M. Jia , & M.X. Li (2003). Protein kinases and Hebbian function. Neuroscientist, 9, 110116.

R.J. Nudo , B.M. Wise , F. SiFuentes , & G.W. Milliken (1996b). Neural substrates for the effects of rehabilitative training on motor recovery after ischemic infarct. Science, 272, 17911794.

M. Oddy , T. Coughen , A. Tyerman , & D. Jenkins (1985). Social adjustment after closed head injury: A further follow-up seven years after injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 48, 564568.

M. Oddy & M. Humphrey (1980). Social recovery during the year following severe head injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 43, 798802.

M. Oddy , M. Humphrey , & D. Uttley (1978). Subjective impairment and social recovery after closed head injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 41, 611616.

J.H. Olver , J.L. Ponsford , & C.A. Curran (1996). Outcome following traumatic brain injury: A comparison between 2 and 5 years after injury. Brain Injury, 10, 841848.

K. Pelc , C. Kornreich , M.L. Foisy , & B. Dan (2006). Recognition of emotional facial expressions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatric Neurology, 35, 9397.

M.D. Pell (2006). Cerebral mechanisms for understanding emotional prosody in speech. Brain and Language, 96, 221234.

M.D. Pell & S.R. Baum (1997). Unilateral brain damage, prosodic comprehension deficits, and the acoustic cues to prosody. Brain and Language, 57, 195214.

D.L. Penn & D. Combs (2000). Modification of affect perception deficits in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 46, 217229.

D.L. Penn , D.R. Combs , & S. Mohamed (2001). Social cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia. In P.W. Corrigan & D.L. Penn (Eds.), Social Cognition and Schizophrenia (pp. 97122). Washington, DC: APA Press.

L.C. Peters , M. Stambrook , A.D. Moore , & L. Esses (1990). Psychosocial sequelae of closed head injury: Effects on the marital relationship. Brain Injury, 4, 3947.

H. Pihan , E. Altenmuller , I. Hertrich , & H. Ackermann (2000). Cortical activation patterns of affective speech processing depend on concurrent demands on the subvocal rehearsal system: A DC-potential study. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 123, 23382349.

L. Pizzamiglio , D. Perani , S.F. Cappa , G. Vallar , S. Paolucci , F. Grassi , E. Paulesu , & F. Fazio (1998). Recovery of neglect after right hemispheric damage: H2(15)O positron emission tomographic activation study. Archives of Neurology, 55, 561568.

B. Pleger , A.F. Foerster , W. Widdig , M. Henschel , V. Nicolas , A. Jansen , A. Frank , S. Knecht , P. Schwenkreis , & M. Tegenthoff (2003). Functional magnetic resonance imaging mirrors recovery of visual perception after repetitive tachistoscopic stimulation in patients with partial cortical blindness. Neuroscience Letters, 335, 192196.

G. Pourtois , B. de Gelder , A. Bol , & M. Crommelinck (2005). Perception of facial expressions and voices and of their combination in the human brain. Cortex, 41, 4959.

G.P. Prigatano & K.H. Pribram (1982). Perception and memory of facial affect following brain injury. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 54, 859869.

F. Pulvermuller , B. Neininger , T. Elbert , B. Mohr , B. Rockstroh , P. Koebbel , & E. Taub (2001). Constraint-induced therapy of chronic aphasia after stroke. Stroke, 32, 16211626.

S.Z. Rapcsak , J.F. Comer , & A.B. Rubens (1993). Anomia for facial expressions: Neuropsychological mechanisms and anatomical correlates. Brain & Language, 45, 233252.

C. Rieffe , M. Meerum Terwogt , & K. Kotronopoulou (2007). Awareness of single and multiple emotions in high-functioning children with autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37, 455465.

I.H. Robertson & J.M. Murre (1999). Rehabilitation of brain damage: Brain plasticity and principles of guided recovery. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 544575.

J. Rojahn & V.J. Warren (1997). Emotion recognition as a function of social competence and depressed mood in individuals with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 41, 469475.

N. Russo , T. Flanagan , G. Iarocci , D. Berringer , P.D. Zelazo , & J.A. Burack (2007). Deconstructing executive deficits among persons with autism: Implications for cognitive neuroscience. Brain & Cognition, 65, 7786.

T. Rydin-Orwin , J. Drake , & A. Bratt (1999). The effects of training on emotion recognition skills for adults with an intellectual disability. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 12, 253262.

K. Sander & H. Scheich (2001). Auditory perception of laughing and crying activates human amygdala regardless of attentional state. Cognitive Brain Research, 12, 181198.

A.B. Satpute & M.D. Lieberman (2006). Integrating automatic and controlled processes into neurocognitive models of social cognition. Brain Research, 1079, 8697.

J.C. Saunders , S. McDonald , & R. Richardson (2006). Loss of emotional experience after traumatic brain injury: Findings with the startle probe procedure. Neuropsychology, 20, 224231.

S.K. Scott , A.W. Young , A.J. Calder , D.J. Hellawell , J.P. Aggleton , & M. Johnson (1997). Impaired auditory recognition of fear and anger following bilateral amygdala lesions. Nature, 385, 254257.

M.J. Sergi , Y. Rassovsky , K.H. Nuechterlein , & M.H. Green (2006). Social perception as a mediator of the influence of early visual processing on functional status in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 448454.

E.K. Silberman & H. Weingartner (1986). Hemispheric lateralization of functions related to emotion. Brain and Cognition, 5, 322353.

M. Solomon , B.L. Goodlin-Jones , & T.F. Anders (2004). A social adjustment enhancement intervention for high functioning autism, Asperger's syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder NOS. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 649668.

L.A. Spell & E. Frank (2000). Recognition of nonverbal communication of affect following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 24, 285300.

E.J. Squires , N.M. Hunkin , & A.J. Parkin (1997). Errorless learning of novel associations in amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 35, 11031111.

O. Stork & H.C. Pape (2002). Fear memory and the amygdala: Insights from a molecular perspective. Cell & Tissue Research, 310, 271277.

M. Streit , A.A. Ioannides , L. Liu , W. Wolwer , J. Dammers , J. Gross , W. Gaebel , & H.W. Muller-Gartner (1999). Neurophysiological correlates of the recognition of facial expressions of emotion as revealed by magnetoencephalography. Cognitive Brain Research, 7, 481491.

R.L. Tate , J. Lulham , G. Broe , B. Strettles , & A. Pfaff (1989). Psychosocial outcome for the survivors of severe blunt head injury: The results from a consecutive series of 100 patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 52, 11281134.

R.L. Tate , S. McDonald , & J.M. Lulham (1998). Incidence of hospital-treated traumatic brain injury in an Australian community. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 22, 419423.

E. Taub , J.E. Crago , & G. Uswatte (1998). Constraint-induced movement therapy: A new approach to treatment in physical rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Psychology, 43, 152170.

E. Temple , G.K. Deutsch , R.A. Poldrack , S.L. Miller , P. Tallal , M.M. Merzenich , & J.D. Gabrieli (2003). Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: Evidence from functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 28602865.

I.V. Thomsen (1984). Late outcome of very severe blunt head trauma: A 15 year second follow-up. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 47, 260268.

L.S. Turkstra (2001). Treating memory problems in adults with neurogenic communication disorders. Seminars in Speech and Language, 22, 147154.

M. van der Gaag , R.S. Kern , R.J. van den Bosch , & R.P. Liberman (2002). A controlled trial of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 28, 167176.

P. Vuilleumier , D. Hester , G. Assal , & F. Regli (1996). Unilateral spatial neglect recovery after sequential strokes. Neurology, 46, 184189.

A.J. Watts & J.M. Douglas (2006). Interpreting facial expression and communication competence following severe traumatic brain injury. Aphasiology, 20, 707722.

R. Weddell , M. Oddy , & D. Jenkins (1980). Social adjustment after rehabilitation: A 2 year follow-up of patients with severe head injury. Psychological Medicine, 10, 257263.

R.A. Weddell (1994). Effects of subcortical lesion site on human emotional behavior. Brain & Cognition, 25, 161193.

J.P. Welsh , E.S. Ahn , & D.G. Placantonakis (2005). Is autism due to brain desynchronization? International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 23, 253263.

B. Wild , M. Erb , & M. Bartels (2001). Are emotions contagious? Evoked emotions while viewing emotionally expressive faces: Quality, quantity, time course and gender differences. Psychiatry Research, 102, 109124.

K.R. Williams , J.G. Wishart , T.K. Pitcairn , & D.S. Willis (2005). Emotion recognition by children with down syndrome: Investigation of specific impairments and error patterns. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110, 378392.

B.A. Wilson (2002). Towards a comprehensive model of cognitive rehabilitation. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 12, 97110.

B.A. Wilson , J.J. Evans , & C. Keohane (2002). Cognitive rehabilitation: A goal-planning approach. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 17, 542555.

J.G. Wishart , K.R. Cebula , D.S. Willis , & T.K. Pitcairn (2007). Understanding of facial expressions of emotion by children with intellectual disabilities of differing aetiology. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51, 551563.

W. Wolwer , N. Frommann , S. Halfmann , A. Piaszek , M. Streit , & W. Gaebel (2005). Remediation of impairments in facial affect recognition in schizophrenia: Efficacy and specificity of a new training program. Schizophrenia Research, 80, 295303.

T.T. Yang , V. Menon , S. Eliez , C. Blasey , C.D. White , A.J. Reid , I.H. Gotlib , & A.L. Reiss (2002). Amygdalar activation associated with positive and negative facial expressions. Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research, 13, 17371741.

P.J. Yates (2003). Psychological adjustment, social enablement and community integration following acquired brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 13, 291306.

M. Ylvisaker (1993). Communication outcome in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 3, 367387.

M. Ylvisaker & T. Feeney (2000). Reflections on Dobermans, poodles, and social rehabilitation for difficult-to-serve individuals with traumatic brain injury. Aphasiology, 14, 407431.

M. Ylvisaker , R. Hanks , & D. Johnson-Greene (2002). Perspectives on rehabilitation of individuals with cognitive impairment after brain injury: Rationale for reconsideration of theoretical paradigms. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 17, 191209.

M. Ylvisaker , H.E. Jacobs , & T. Feeney (2003). Positive supports for people who experience behavioral and cognitive disability after brain injury: A review. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 18, 732.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: