Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 64
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ben-David, Vered 2016. A Focus on Neglect: Comparing the Characteristics of Children and Parents in Cases of Neglect, Abuse, and Non-CAN (Child Abuse and Neglect) in Israeli Rulings on Termination of Parental Rights. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, p. 1.

    Bick, Johanna and Nelson, Charles A 2016. Early Adverse Experiences and the Developing Brain. Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 41, Issue. 1, p. 177.

    Calvo, M.G. and Gutiérrez-García, A. 2016. Stress: Concepts, Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior.

    Dargis, Monika and Newman, Joseph 2016. Altered emotion modulated startle in women with a history of childhood neglect. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 89, p. 187.

    De Rose, Paola Salvaguardia, Fortunata Bergonzini, Paola Cirillo, Flavia Demaria, Francesco Casini, Maria Pia Menghini, Deny and Vicari, Stefano 2016. Current Psychopathological Symptoms in Children and Adolescents Who Suffered Different Forms of Maltreatment. The Scientific World Journal, Vol. 2016, p. 1.

    Dileo, J. F. Brewer, W. Northam, E. Yucel, M. and Anderson, V. 2016. Investigating the neurodevelopmental mediators of aggression in children with a history of child maltreatment: An exploratory field study. Child Neuropsychology, p. 1.

    Fegert, Jörg M. and Plener, Paul L. 2016. Forensische Arbeit mit Kindern und Jugendlichen.

    Fisher, Philip A. Leve, Leslie D. Delker, Brianna Roos, Leslie E. and Cooper, Bryna 2016. Developmental Psychopathology.

    Jankowski, Kathryn F. Bruce, Jacqueline Beauchamp, Kathryn G. Roos, Leslie E. Moore, William E. and Fisher, Philip A. 2016. Preliminary evidence of the impact of early childhood maltreatment and a preventive intervention on neural patterns of response inhibition in early adolescence. Developmental Science,

    Kavanaugh, Brian C. Dupont-Frechette, Jennifer A. Jerskey, Beth A. and Holler, Karen A. 2016. Neurocognitive Deficits in Children and Adolescents Following Maltreatment: Neurodevelopmental Consequences and Neuropsychological Implications of Traumatic Stress. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, p. 1.

    Kiesel, Lisa R. Piescher, Kristine N. and Edleson, Jeffrey L. 2016. The Relationship Between Child Maltreatment, Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, and Academic Performance. Journal of Public Child Welfare, p. 1.

    Morey, Rajendra A Haswell, Courtney C Hooper, Stephen R and De Bellis, Michael D 2016. Amygdala, Hippocampus, and Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex Volumes Differ in Maltreated Youth with and without Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 41, Issue. 3, p. 791.

    Palmier-Claus, Jasper Berry, Katherine Darrell-Berry, Hannah Emsley, Richard Parker, Sophie Drake, Richard and Bucci, Sandra 2016. Childhood adversity and social functioning in psychosis: Exploring clinical and cognitive mediators. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 238, p. 25.

    Perfect, Michelle M. Turley, Matt R. Carlson, John S. Yohanna, Justina and Saint Gilles, Marla Pfenninger 2016. School-Related Outcomes of Traumatic Event Exposure and Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Students: A Systematic Review of Research from 1990 to 2015. School Mental Health, Vol. 8, Issue. 1, p. 7.

    Porche, Michelle V. Costello, Darcé M. and Rosen-Reynoso, Myra 2016. Adverse Family Experiences, Child Mental Health, and Educational Outcomes for a National Sample of Students. School Mental Health, Vol. 8, Issue. 1, p. 44.

    Ribaudo, Julie 2016. RESTORING SAFETY: AN ATTACHMENT-BASED APPROACH TO CLINICAL WORK WITH A TRAUMATIZED TODDLER. Infant Mental Health Journal, Vol. 37, Issue. 1, p. 80.

    Shin, Sunny H. Cook, Amy K. Morris, Nancy A. McDougle, Robyn and Groves, Lauren Peasley 2016. The different faces of impulsivity as links between childhood maltreatment and young adult crime. Preventive Medicine, Vol. 88, p. 210.

    Teicher, Martin H. and Samson, Jacqueline A. 2016. Annual Research Review: Enduring neurobiological effects of childhood abuse and neglect. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 57, Issue. 3, p. 241.

    Tolan, Patrick H. 2016. Developmental Psychopathology.

    Ben-David, Vered 2015. Profiles of Families at High Risk of Child Maltreatment in Israeli Court Cases Dealing with the Termination of Parental Rights. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, Vol. 32, Issue. 4, p. 359.

  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 15, Issue 6
  • November 2009, pp. 868-878

Neuropsychological findings in childhood neglect and their relationships to pediatric PTSD

  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 November 2009

Although child neglect is the most prevalent form of child maltreatment, the neurocognitive effects of neglect are understudied. We examined IQ, reading, mathematics, and neurocognitive domains of fine-motor skills, language, visual-spatial, memory/learning, and attention/executive functions in two groups of nonsexually abused medically healthy neglected children, one with DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and one without, and a demographically similar healthy nonmaltreated control group. Significantly lower IQ, reading, mathematics, and selected differences in complex visual attention, visual memory, language, verbal memory and learning, planning, problem solving, and speeded naming were seen in Neglect Groups. The Neglect with PTSD Group performed worse than controls on NEPSY Design Copying, NEPSY Tower, and Mathematics; and performed worse than controls and Neglect without PTSD on NEPSY Memory for Faces-Delayed. Negative correlations were seen between PTSD symptoms, PTSD severity, and maltreatment variables, and IQ, Academic Achievement, and neurocognitive domains. Neglected children demonstrated significantly lower neurocognitive outcomes and academic achievement than controls. Lower IQ, neurocognitive functions, and achievement may be associated with more PTSD symptoms (particularly re-experiencing symptoms), greater PTSD severity, and a greater number of maltreatment experiences. Trauma experiences may additionally contribute to subsequent neurodevelopmental risk in neglected children. (JINS, 2009, 15, 868–878.)

Corresponding author
*Correspondence and reprint requests to: Michael D. De Bellis, MD, MPH, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3613, Durham, North Carolina, 27710. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R.E. Allen , & J.M. Oliver (1982). The effects of child maltreatment on language development. Child Abuse and Neglect, 6(3), 299305.

A.F.T. Arnsten (1998). The biology of being frazzled. Science, 17111712.

S.R. Beers , & M.D. De Bellis (2002). Neuropsychological function in children with maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 483486.

B.J. Burns , S.D. Philips , H.R. Wagner , R.P. Barth , D.J. Kolko , Y. Campbell , (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 960970.

N.J. Carrey , H.J. Butter , M.A. Persinger , & R.J. Bialik (1995). Physiological and cognitive correlates of child abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(8), 10671075.

V.G. Carrion , C.F. Weems , R.D. Ray , & A.L. Reiss (2001). Toward an empirical definition of pediatric PTSD: The phenomenology of PTSD symptoms in youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 166173.

V.G. Carrion , C.F. Weems , & A.L. Reiss (2007). Stress predicts brain changes in children: A pilot longitudinal study on youth stress, PTSD and the hippocampus. Pediatrics, 119, 509516.

J.A. Cohen , E. Deblinger , A.P. Mannarino , & R.A. Steer (2004). A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 393402.

W. Copeland , G. Keeler , A. Angold , & E. Costello (2007). Traumatic Events and Posttraumatic Stress in Childhood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 577584.

M.D. De Bellis (2001). Developmental traumatology: The psychobiological development of maltreated children and its implications for research, treatment, and policy. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 537561.

M.D. De Bellis (2005). The psychobiology of neglect. Child Maltreatment, 10, 150172.

M.D. De Bellis , M. Keshavan , D.B. Clark , B.J. Casey , J. Giedd , A.M. Boring , (1999). A.E. Bennett Research Award. Developmental traumatology, Part II: Brain development. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 12711284.

M.D. De Bellis , M. Keshavan , H. Shifflett , S. Iyengar , S.R. Beers , J. Hall , G. Moritz (2002). Brain structures in pediatric maltreatment-related PTSD: A sociodemographically matched study. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 10661078.

M. Duyme , A.-C. Dumaret , & S. Tomkiewicz (1999). How can we boost IQs of “dull children”?: A late adoption study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 87908794.

J. Eckenrode , M. Laird , & J. Doris (1993). School performance and disciplinary problems among abused and neglected children. Developmental Psychology, 29, 5362.

M.L. Eisen , G.S. Goodman , J. Qin , S. Davis , & J. Crayton (2007). Maltreated children’s memory: Accuracy, suggestibility, and psychopathology. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 12751294.

A.L. Hazen , C.D. Connelly , K. Kelleher , J. Landsverk , & R. Barth (2004). Intimate partner violence among female caregivers of children reported for child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect 28, 301319.

J. Kaufman , B. Birmaher , D. Brent , U. Rao , C. Flynn , P. Moreci , (1997). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for school-age children–Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): Initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(7), 980988.

J. Kaufman , B. Jones , E. Stieglitz , L. Vitulano , & A. Mannarino (1994). The use of multiple informants to assess children’s maltreatment experiences. Journal of Family Violence, 9, 227248.

K.A. Kendall-Tackett , & J. Eckenrode (1996). The effects of neglect on academic achievement and disciplinary problems: A developmental perspective. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20(3), 161169.

E.M. Kinard (2001). Perceived and actual academic competence in maltreated children. Child Abuse and Neglect 25, 3345.

D. Kolko (1992). Characteristics of child victims of physical violence: Research findings and clinical implications. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 244276.

J. Koluchova (1972). Severe deprivation in twins: A case study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 13, 107114.

J. Koluchova (1976). The further development of twins after severe and prolonged deprivation: A second report. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 181188.

M. Korkman , S.L. Kemp , & U. Kirk (2001). Developmental assessment of neuropsychological function with the aid of the NEPSY. In A.S. Kaufman & N.L. Kaufman (Eds.), Specific learning disabilities and difficulties in children and adolescents: Psychological assessment and evaluation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

V. Lee , & P.N.S. Hoaken (2007). Cognition, emotion, and neurobiological development: Mediating the relation between maltreatment and aggression. Child Maltreatment, 12(3), 281298.

S.J. Lupien , A. Fiocco , & N. Wan (2005). Stress hormones and human memory function across the lifespan. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 225242.

M.L. Macklin , L.J. Metzger , B.T. Litz , R.J. McNally , N.B. Lasko , S.P. Orr , & R.K. Pitman (1998). Lower precombat intelligence is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(2), 323326.

J.M. McGloin , & C.S. Widom (2001). Resilience among abused and neglected children grown up. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 10211038.

P. Nolin , & L. Ethier (2007). Using neuropsychological profiles to classify neglected children with or without physical abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31, 631643.

C. Perez , & C.S. Widom (1994). Childhood victimization and long-term intellectual and academic outcomes. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18(8), 617633.

K. Saltzman , C.F. Weems , & V.G. Carrion (2006). IQ and posttraumatic stress symptoms in children exposed to interpersonal violence. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 36, 261272.

M.S. Scheeringa , M.J. Wright , J.P. Hunt , & C.H. Zeanah (2006). Factors affecting the diagnosis and prediction of PTSD symptomatology in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(4), 644651.

N. Schmitt (1996). Uses and abuses of coefficient alpha. Psychological Assessment, 8, 350353.

L. Strathearn , P.H. Gray , F. O’Callaghan , & D.O. Wood (2001). Childhood neglect and cognitive development in extremely low birth weight infants: A prospective study. Pediatrics, 108, 142151.

M.H. Teicher , Y. Ito , C.A. Glod , S.L. Andersen , N. Dumont , & E. Ackerman (Eds.). (1997). Preliminary evidence for abnormal cortical development in physically and sexually abused children using EEG coherence and MRI. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821.

P.K. Trickett , & C. McBride-Chang (1995). The developmental impact of different forms of child abuse and neglect. Developmental Review, 15, 311337.

C.S. Widom , K. DuMont , & S.J. Czaja (2007). A prospective investigation of major depressive disorder and comorbidity in abused and neglected children grown up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(1), 4956.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *