Skip to main content Accessibility help

A Review of the Relation of Aerobic Fitness and Physical Activity to Brain Structure and Function in Children

  • Laura Chaddock (a1) (a2), Matthew B. Pontifex (a3), Charles H. Hillman (a2) (a3) and Arthur F. Kramer (a1) (a2)


A growing number of schools have increasingly de-emphasized the importance of providing physical activity opportunities during the school day, despite emerging research that illustrates the deleterious relationship between low levels of aerobic fitness and neurocognition in children. Accordingly, a brief review of studies that link fitness-related differences in brain structure and brain function to cognitive abilities is provided herein. Overall, the extant literature suggests that childhood aerobic fitness is associated with higher levels of cognition and differences in regional brain structure and function. Indeed, it has recently been found that aerobic fitness level even predicts cognition over time. Given the paucity of work in this area, several avenues for future investigations are also highlighted. (JINS, 2011, 17, 975–985)


Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Arthur F. Kramer, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 405 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801. E-mail:


Hide All
Aguiar, A.S., Speck, A.E., Prediger, R.D., Kapczinski, F., Pinho, R.A. (2008). Downhill training upregulates mice hippocampal and striatal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Journal of Neural Transmission, 115, 12511255.
Anderson, S.L. (2003). Trajectories of brain development: Point of vulnerability or window of opportunity? Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, 318.
Anderson, R.E., Crespo, C.J., Barlett, S.J., Cheskin, L.J., Pratt, M. (1998). Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 938942.
Aron, A.R., Poldrack, R.A., Wise, S.P. (2009). Cognition: Basal ganglia role. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, 2, 10691077.
Azizian, A., Polich, J. (2007). Evidence for attentional gradient in the serial position memory curve from event-related potentials. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 20712081.
Baddeley, A.D. (2007). Working Memory, Thought and Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Barde, Y.A. (1994). Neurotrophins: A family of proteins supporting the survival of neurons. Progress in Clinical Biological Research, 390, 4556.
Barkley, R.A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 6594.
Berchtold, N.C., Chinn, G., Chou, M., Kesslak, J.P., Cotman, C.W. (2005). Exercise primes a molecular memory for brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein induction in the rat hippocampus. Neuroscience, 133, 853861.
Booth, F.W., Lees, S.J. (2006). Physically active subjects should be the control group. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38, 405406.
Botvinick, M.M., Braver, T.S., Barch, D.M., Carter, C.S., Cohen, J.D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108, 624652.
Brocki, K.C., Brohlin, G. (2004). Executive functions in children aged 6-13: A dimensional and developmental study. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26, 571593.
Buckworth, J., Dishman, R.K. (2002). Exercise Psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Bull, R., Scerif, G. (2001). Executive functioning as a predictor of children's mathematics ability: Inhibition, switching, and working memory. Developmental Neuropsychology, 19, 273293.
Bunge, S.A., Crone, E.A. (2009). Neural correlates of the development of cognitive control. In J.M. Rumsey & M. Ernst (Eds.), Neuroimaging in Developmental Clinical Neuroscience. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Bunge, S.A., Dudukovic, N.M., Thomason, M.E., Vaidya, C.J., Gabrieli, J.D. (2002). Immature frontal lobe contributions to cognitive control in children: Evidence from fMRI. Neuron, 33, 301311.
Bunge, S.A., Mackey, A.P., Whitaker, K.J. (2009). Brain changes underlying the development of cognitive control and reasoning. In M.S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences (4th ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Carter, C.S., Braver, T.S., Barch, D.M., Botvinick, M.M., Noll, D., Cohen, J.D. (1998). Anterior cingulate cortex, error detection, and the online monitoring of performance. Science, 280, 747749.
Casey, B.J., Getz, S., Galvan, A. (2008). The adolescent brain. Developmental Review, 28, 6277.
Casey, B.J., Tottenham, N., Liston, C., Durston, S. (2005). Imaging the developing brain: What have we learned about cognitive development? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 104110.
Castelli, D.M., Hillman, C.H., Buck, S.M., Erwin, H.E. (2007). Physical fitness and academic achievement in third- and fifth-grade students. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29, 239252.
Caviness, V.S., Kennedy, D.N., Richelme, C., Rademacher, J., Filipek, P.A. (1996). The human brain age 7–11 years: A volumetric analysis based on magnetic resonance images. Cerebral Cortex, 6, 726736.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). The Association Between School Based Physical Activity, Including Physical Education, and Academic Performance. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services.
Cepeda, N.J., Kramer, A.F., Gonzalez de Sather, J.C. (2001). Changes in executive control across the lifespan: Examination of task switching performance. Developmental Psychology, 37, 715730.
Chaddock, L., Erickson, K.I., Prakash, R.S., Kim, J.S., Voss, M.W., VanPatter, M., Kramer, A.F. (2010). A neuroimaging investigation of the association between aerobic fitness, hippocampal volume and memory performance in preadolescent children. Brain Research, 1358, 172183.
Chaddock, L., Erickson, K.I., Prakash, R.S., VanPatter, M., Voss, M.V., Pontifex, M.B., Kramer, A.F. (2010). Basal ganglia volume is associated with aerobic fitness in preadolescent children. Developmental Neuroscience, 32, 249256.
Chaddock, L., Hillman, C.H., Buck, S.M., Cohen, N.J. (2011). Aerobic fitness and executive control of relational memory in preadolescent children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43, 344349.
Chomitz, V.R., Slining, M.M., McGowan, R.J., Mitchell, S.E., Dawson, G.F., Hacker, K.A. (2009). Is there a relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement?: Positive results from public school children in the northeastern United States. Journal of School Health, 79, 3037.
Cohen, N.J., Eichenbaum, H. (1993). Memory, Amnesia, and the Hippocampal System. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Colcombe, S.J., Erickson, K.I., Raz, N., Webb, A.G., Cohen, N.J., McAuley, E., Kramer, A.F. (2003). Aerobic fitness reduces brain tissue loss in aging humans. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 58, 176180.
Colcombe, S.J., Erickson, K.I., Scalf, P.E., Kim, J.S., Prakash, R., McAuley, E., Kramer, A.F. (2006). Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61, 11661170.
Colcombe, S.J., Kramer, A.F. (2003). Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Science, 14, 125130.
Colcombe, S.J., Kramer, A.F., Erickson, K.I., Scalf, P., McAuley, E., Cohen, N.J., Elavsky, S. (2004). Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 33163321.
Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research (1999). Fitnessgram: Test administration manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Cotman, C.W., Berchtold, N.C. (2002). Exercise: A behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Trends in Neurosciences, 25, 295301.
Davidson, M.C., Amso, D., Anderson, L.C., Diamond, A. (2006). Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4 to 13 years: Evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition, and task switching. Neuropsychologia, 44, 20372078.
Dehaene, S., Posner, M.I., Tucker, D.M. (1994). Localization of a neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychological Science, 5, 303305.
Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS] and Department of Education [DOE]. (2000). Promoting better health for young people through physical activity and sports. A Report to the President from the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Education. Silver Spring, MD: Centers for Disease Control.
DeStefano, D., LeFevre, J.A. (2004). The role of working memory in mental arithmetic. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 16, 353386.
Di Martino, A., Scheres, A., Marguiles, D.S., Kelly, A.M., Uddin, L.Q., Shehzad, Z., Milham, M.P. (2008). Functional connectivity of human striatum: A resting state fMRI study. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 27352747.
Diamond, A. (2006). The early development of executive functions. In E. Bialystok, & F.I.M. Craik (Eds.), Lifespan Cognition: Mechanisms of Change. New York: Oxford University Press.
Diamond, A., Taylor, C. (1996). Development of an aspect of executive control: Development of the abilities to remember what I say and to “do as I say, not as I do”. Developmental Psychobiology, 29, 315334.
Ding, Y.H., Luan, X.D., Li, J., Rafols, J.A., Guthinkonda, M., Diaz, F.G., Ding, Y. (2004). Exercise-induced overexpression of angiogenic factors and reduction of ischemia/reperfusion injury in stroke. Current Neurovascular Research, 1, 411420.
Donnelly, J.E., Greene, J.L., Gibson, C.A., Smith, B.K., Washburn, R.A., Sullivan, D.K., Williams, S.L. (2009). Physical activity across the curriculum (PAAC): A randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and diminish overweight and obesity in elementary school children. Preventative Medicine, 49, 336341.
Draganski, B., Kherif, F., Kloppel, S., Cook, P.A., Alexander, D.C., Parker, G.J., Frackowiak, R.S. (2008). Evidence for segregated and integrative connectivity patterns in the human basal ganglia. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 71437152.
Duncan-Johnson, C.C. (1981). P3 latency: A new metric of information processing. Psychophysiology, 18, 207215.
Eadie, B.D., Redilla, V.A., Christie, B.R. (2005). Voluntary exercise alters the cytoarchitecture of the adult dentate gyrus by increasing cellular proliferation, dendritic complexity, and spine density. The Journal of Comparable Neurology, 486, 3947.
Eichenbaum, H., Cohen, N.J. (2001). From Conditioning to Conscious Recollection: Memory Systems of the Brain. New York: Oxford University Press.
Erickson, K.I., Prakash, R.S., Voss, M.W., Chaddock, L., Hu, L., Morris, K.S., Kramer, A.F. (2009). Aerobic fitness is associated with hippocampal volume in elderly humans. Hippocampus, 19, 10301039.
Erickson, K.I., Voss, M., Prakash, R., Basak, C., Chaddock, L., Kim, J., Kramer, A.F. (2011) Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(7), 30173022.
Eriksen, B.A., Eriksen, C.W. (1974). Effects of noise letters on the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143149.
Etnier, J.L., Salazar, W., Landers, D.M., Petruzello, S.J., Han, M., Nowell, P. (1997). The influence of physical fitness and exercise upon cognitive functioning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 19, 249277.
Falkenstein, M., Hohnsbein, J., Hoormann, J., Blanke, L. (1991). Effects of crossmodal divided attention on late ERP components. II. Error processing in choice reaction tasks. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 78, 447455.
Fordyce, D.E., Wehner, J.M. (1993). Physical activity enhances spatial learning performance with an associated alteration in hippocampal protein kinase C activity in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Brain Research, 619, 111119.
Freedman, D.S., Khan, L.K., Dietz, W.H., Srinivasan, S.R., Berenson, G.S. (2001). Relationship of childhood obesity to coronary heart disease risk factors in adulthood: The Bogalusa heart study. Pediatrics, 108, 712718.
Friedman, D., Nessler, D., Cycowicz, Y.M., Horton, C. (2009). Development of and change in cognitive control: A comparison of children, young adults, and older adults. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 9, 91102.
Gehring, W.J., Goss, B., Coles, M.G.H., Meyer, D.E., Donchin, E. (1993). A neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychological Science, 4, 385390.
Gehring, W.J., Knight, R.T. (2000). Prefrontal-cingulate interactions in action monitoring. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 516520.
Giedd, J.N., Blumenthal, J., Jeffries, N.O., Castellanos, F.X., Liu, H., Zijdenbos, A., Rapoport, J.L. (1999). Brain development during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal MRI study. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 861863.
Giedd, J.N., Snell, J.W., Lange, N., Rajapakse, J.C., Casey, B.J., Kozuch, P.L., Rapoport, J.L. (1996). Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of human brain development: Ages 4–18. Cerebral Cortex, 6, 551560.
Gogtay, N., Giedd, J.N., Lusk, L., Hayashi, K.M., Greenstein, D., Vaituzid, A.C., Thompson, P.M. (2004). Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 81478179.
Graybiel, A.M. (2005). The basal ganglia: Learning new tricks and loving it. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 15, 638644.
Graybiel, A.M. (2008). Habits, rituals and the evaluative brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 31, 359387.
Grissom, J.B. (2005). Physical fitness and academic achievement. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 8, 1125.
Heyn, P., Abreu, B.C., Ottenbacher, K.J. (2004). The effects of exercise training on elderly persons with cognitive impairment and dementia: A meta-analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85, 16941704.
Hillman, C.H., Belopolsky, A.V., Snook, E.M., Kramer, A.F., McAuley, E. (2004). Physical activity and executive control: Implications for increased cognitive health during older adulthood. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 75, 176185.
Hillman, C.H., Buck, S.M., Themanson, J.R., Pontifex, M.B., Castelli, D.M. (2009). Aerobic fitness and cognitive development: Event-related brain potential and task performance of executive control in preadolescent children. Developmental Psychology, 45, 114129.
Hillman, C.H., Castelli, D.M., Buck, S.M. (2005). Aerobic fitness and neurocognitive function in healthy preadolescent children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 37, 19671974.
Hillman, C.H., Erickson, K.I., Kramer, A.F. (2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: Exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 5865.
Hillman, C.H., Kramer, A.F., Belopolsky, A.V., Smith, D.P. (2006). A cross-sectional examination of age and physical activity on performance and event-related brain potentials in a task switching paradigm. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 59, 3039.
Hillman, C.H., Pontifex, M.B., Motl, R.W., O'Leary, K.C., Johnson, C.R., Scudder, M.R., Castelli, D.M. (submitted). From ERPs to academics.
Hillman, C.H., Weiss, E.P., Hagberg, J.M., Hatfield, B.D. (2002). The relationship of age and cardiovascular fitness to cognitive and motor processes. Psychophysiology, 39, 303312.
Jensen, A.R. (1992). The importance of intraindividual variation in reaction time. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 869881.
Jensen, A.R. (1998). The g factor: The science of mental ability. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Juster, T.F., Stafford, F., Ono, H. (2004). Major changes have taken place in how children and teens spend their time: Child development supplement. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.
Kok, A. (2001). On the utility of P3 amplitude as a measure of processing capacity. Psychophysiology, 38, 557577.
Kramer, A.F., Hahn, S., Cohen, N., Banich, M., McAuley, E., Harrison, C., Colcombe, A. (1999). Aging, fitness, and neurocognitive function. Nature, 400, 418419.
Kramer, A.F., Humphrey, D.G., Larish, J.F., Logan, G.B., Strayer, D.L. (1994). Aging and inhibition: Beyond a unitary view of inhibitory processing in attention. Psychology and Aging, 9, 491512.
Li, J., Ding, Y.H., Rafols, J.A., Lai, Q., McAllister, J.P., Ding, Y. (2005). Increased astrocyte proliferation in rats after running exercise. Neuroscience Letters, 386, 160164.
Liu-Ambrose, T., Donaldson, M. (2009). Exercise and cognition in older adults: Is there a role for resistance training programmes? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43, 2527.
Lopez-Lopez, C., LeRoith, D., Torres-Aleman, I. (2004). Insulin-like growth factor I is required for vessel remodeling in the adult brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 98339838.
Lu, B., Chow, A. (1999). Neurotrophins and hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 58, 176180.
MacDonald, A.W., Cohen, J.D., Stenger, V.A., Carter, C.S. (2000). Dissociating the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in cognitive control. Science, 288, 18351838.
Mahar, M.T., Murphy, S.K., Rowe, D.A., Golden, J., Shields, A.T., Raedeke, T.D. (2006). Effects of a classroom-based program on physical activity and on-task behavior. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38, 20862094.
Marais, L., Stein, D.J., Daniels, W.M. (2009). Exercise increases BDNF levels in the striatum and decreases depressive-like behavior in chronically stressed rats. Metabolic Brain Disease, 24, 587597.
Marques, E., Vasconcelos, F., Rolo, M.R., Pereira, F.C., Silva, A.P., Macedo, T.R., Ribeiro, C.F. (2008). Influence of chronic exercise on the amphetamine-induced dopamine release and neurodegeneration in the striatum of the rat. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1139, 222231.
Meyer, D.E., Kieras, D.E. (1997). A computational theory of executive cognitive processes and multi-task performance: Part 1. Basic Mechanisms. Psychological Review, 104, 365.
Miltner, W.H., Lemke, U., Weiss, T., Holroyd, C., Scheffers, M.K., Coles, M.G. (2003). Implementation of error-processing in the human anterior cingulated cortex: A source analysis of the magnetic equivalent of the error-related negativity. Biological Psychology, 64, 157166.
Miyake, A., Friedman, N.P., Emerson, M.J., Witzki, A.H., Howerter, A. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49100.
Neeper, S., Gomez-Pinilla, F., Choi, J., Cotman, C.W. (1995). Exercise and brain neurotrophins. Nature, 373, 109.
Nieuwenhuis, S., Ridderinkhof, K.R., Blom, J., Band, G.P., Kok, A. (2001). Error-related brain potentials are differentially related to awareness of response errors: Evidence from an antisaccade task. Psychophysiology, 38, 752760.
Norman, D.A., Shallice, T. (1986). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behavior. In R.J. Davidson G.E. Schwartz & D. Shapiro (Eds.), Consciousness and Self-Regulation: Vol. 4. Advances in Research and Theory. New York: Plenum Press.
Ogden, C., Carroll, M. (2010). Prevalence of Obesity Among Children and Adolescents: United States, Trends 1963–1965 Through 2007–2008. Retrieved from
Olshansky, S.J., Passaro, D.J., Hershow, R.C., Layden, J., Carnes, B.A., Brody, J., Ludwig, D.S. (2005). A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. The New England Journal of Medicine, 352, 11381143.
Pate, R.R., Baranowski, T., Dowda, M., Trost, S. (1996). Tracking of physical activity in young children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 28, 9296.
Peligrini, A.D., Smith, P.K. (1993). School recess: Implications for education and development. Review of Educational Research, 63, 5167.
Pereira, A.C., Huddleston, D.E., Brickman, A.M., Sosunov, A.A., Hen, R., McKhann, G.M., Small, S.A. (2007). An in vivo correlate of exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 56385643.
Polich, J. (1987). Task difficulty, probability and inter-stimulus interval as determinants of P300 from auditory stimuli. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 63, 251259.
Polich, J. (2007). Updating P300: An integrative theory of P3a and P3b. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 21282148.
Polich, J., Heine, M.R. (1996). P3 topography and modality effects from a single-stimulus paradigm. Psychophysiology, 33, 747752.
Polich, J., Lardon, M. (1997). P300 and long-term physical exercise. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 103, 493498.
Pontifex, M.B., Hillman, C.H., Polich, J. (2009). Age, physical fitness, and attention: P3a and P3b. Psychophysiology, 46, 379387.
Pontifex, M.B., Raine, L.B., Johnson, C.R., Chaddock, L., Voss, M.W., Cohen, N.J., Hillman, C.H. (2010). Cardiorespiratory fitness and the flexible modulation of cognitive control in preadolescent children. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, [Epub ahead of print].
Ragozzino, M.E., Jih, J., Tzavos, A. (2002). Involvement of the dorsomedial striatum in behavioral flexibility: Role of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Brain Research, 953, 205214.
Ridderinkhof, K.R., Ullsperger, M., Crone, E.A., Nieuwenhuis, S. (2004). The role of the medial frontal cortex in cognitive control. Science, 306, 443447.
Ridderinkhof, K.R., van der Molen, M.W. (1995). A psychophysiological analysis of developmental differences in the ability to resist interference. Child Development, 66, 10401056.
Roberts, C.K., Freed, B., McCarthy, W.J. (2010). Low aerobic fitness and obesity are associated with lower standardized test scores in children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 156, 711718.
Rohde, T.E., Thompson, L.A. (2007). Predicting academic achievement with cognitive ability. Intelligence, 35, 8392.
Rueda, M.R., Rothbart, M.K., McCandliss, B.D., Saccomanno, L., Posner, M.I. (2005). Training, maturation, and genetic influences on the development of executive attention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 1493114936.
Sallis, J.F., McKenzie, T.L., Kolody, B., Lewis, M., Marshall, S., Rosengard, P. (1999). Effects of health-related physical education on academic achievement: Project SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70, 127134.
Shi, L.H., Luo, F., Woodward, D.J., Chang, J.Y. (2004). Neural responses in multiple basal ganglia regions during spontaneous and treadmill locomotion tasks in rats. Experimental Brain Research, 157, 303314.
Sibley, B.A., Etnier, J.L. (2003). The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: A meta-analysis. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 243256.
Sisson, S.B., Church, T.S., Martin, C.K., Tudor-Locke, C., Smith, S.R., Bouchard, C., Katzmarzyk, P.T. (2009). Profiles of sedentary behavior in children and adolescents: The US national health and nutrition examination survey, 2001-2006. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 4, 353359.
Smith, P.J., Blumenthal, J.A., Hoffman, B.M., Cooper, H., Strauman, T.A., Welsh-Bohmer, K., Sherwood, A. (2010). Aerobic exercise and neurocognitive performance: A meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72, 239252.
St. Clair-Thompson, H.L., Gathercole, S.E. (2006). Executive functions and achievements in school: Shifting, updating, inhibition, and working memory. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 745759.
The Psychological Corporation. (2001). WIAT-II-A: Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
Themanson, J.R., Hillman, C.H. (2006). Cardiorespiratory fitness and acute aerobic exercise effects on neuroelectric and behavioral measures of action monitoring. Neuroscience, 141, 757767.
Themanson, J.R., Hillman, C.H., Curtin, J.J. (2006). Age and physical activity influences on action monitoring during task switching. Neurobiology of Aging, 27, 13351345.
Themanson, J.R., Pontifex, M.B., Hillman, C.H. (2008). Fitness and action monitoring: Evidence for improved cognitive flexibility in young adults. Neuroscience, 157, 319328.
Tillerson, J.L., Cohen, A.D., Philhower, J., Miller, G.W., Zigmond, M.J., Schallert, T. (2001). Forced limb-use effects on the behavioral and neurochemical effects of 6-hydroxydopamine. The Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 44274435.
Travis, F. (1998). Cortical and cognitive development in 4th, 8th, and 12th grade students: The contribution of speed of processing and executive functioning to cognitive development. Biological Psychology, 48, 3756.
van Praag, H., Christie, B.R., Sejnowski, T.J., Gage, F.H. (1999). Running enhances neurogenesis, learning, and long-term potentiation in mice. Neurobiology, 96, 1342713431.
van Praag, H., Shubert, T., Zhao, C., Gage, F.H. (2005). Exercise enhances learning and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 86808685.
van Veen, V., Carter, C.S. (2002). The timing of action-monitoring processes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 593602.
Vaynman, S., Gomez-Pinilla, F. (2006). Revenge of the “sit”: How lifestyle impacts neuronal and cognitive health through molecular systems that interface energy metabolism with neuronal plasticity. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 84, 699715.
Vaynman, S., Ying, Z., Gomez-Pinilla, F. (2004). Hippocampal BDNF mediates the efficacy of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition. European Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 25802590.
Verleger, R. (1997). On the utility of P3 latency as an index of mental chronometry. Psychophysiology, 34, 131156.
Voss, M.W., Chaddock, L., Kim, J.S., VanPatter, M., Pontifex, M.B., Raine, L.B., Kramer, A.F. (submitted). Aerobic fitness is associated with greater efficiency of the network underlying cognitive control in preadolescent children. Journal of Neuroscience.
Welk, G.J., Morrow, J.R.J., Falls, H.B. (2002). Fitnessgram Reference Guide. Dallas, TX: The Cooper Institute.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed