Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Verbal memory in first-episode schizophrenia: Heterogeneity in performance?

  • JASPER NUYEN (a1), MARGRIET M. SITSKOORN (a1), WIEPKE CAHN (a1) and RENÉ S. KAHN (a1)
Abstract

It is unclear if the commonly observed “subcortical” verbal memory profile in schizophrenic patients is present at the onset of the disease. Therefore, the performance of 43 first-episode patients with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder on the Dutch version of the California Verbal Learning Test (VLGT) was compared to that of 43 normal comparison participants. We hypothesized that the first-episode patients would exhibit a “subcortical” memory profile, that is, they would show a primary retrieval deficit. This hypothesis was not confirmed: the patients displayed a profile suggestive of a prominent storage deficit, that is, a “cortical” memory profile. Subsequently, patients' VLGT performance was cluster analyzed to determine whether subgroups could be identified exhibiting a cortical, subcortical, and normal profile, respectively. Two subgroups (N = 22; N = 13) exhibited memory impairments, while one subgroup (N = 8) was unimpaired. The memory profiles of the two impaired subgroups differed both qualitatively and quantitatively, but did not conform neatly to a cortical and a subcortical profile. Demographic and verbal fluency data provided limited validation of the subgroup classification. Our results may suggest that combining the verbal memory performance of first-episode patients obscures meaningful heterogeneity. Alternatively, the cluster solution could merely reflect a continuum of severity. (JINS, 2005, 11, 152–162.)

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Margriet M. Sitskoorn, Director, Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht (HPN B.01.206), P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht, 3508 GA, The Netherlands. E-mail: M.Sitskoorn@azu.nl
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Albus, M., Hubmann, W., Ehrenberg, Ch., Forcht, U., Mohr, F., Sobizack, N., Wahlheim, Ch., & Hecht, S. (1996). Neuropsychological impairment in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 246, 249255.

Bilder, R.M., Goldman, R.S., Robinson, D., Reiter, G., Bell, L., Bates, J.A., Pappadopulos, E., Willson, D.F., Alvir, J.M.J., Woerner, M.G., Geisler, S., Kane, J.M., & Lieberman, J.A. (2000). Neuropsychology of first-episode schizophrenia: Initial characterization and clinical correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 549559.

Binder, J., Albus, M., Hubmann, W., Scherer, J., Sobizack, N., Franz, U., Mohr, F., & Hecht, S. (1998). Neuropsychological impairment and psychopathology in first-episode schizophrenic patients related to the early course of illness. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 248, 7077.

Buchsbaum, M.S., Haier, R.J., Potkin, S.G., Nuechterlein, K., Bracha, H.S., Katz, M., Lohr, J., Wu, J., Lottenberg, S., Jerabek, P.A., Trenary, M., Tafalla, R., Reynolds, C., & Bunney, W.E. (1992). Frontostriatal disorder of cerebral metabolism in never-medicated schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 935942.

Butters, N., Delis, D.C., & Lucas, J.A. (1995). Clinical assessment of memory disorders in amnesia and dementia. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 493523.

Delis, D.C., Massman, P.J., Butters, N., Salmon, D.P., Cermak, L.S., & Kramer, J.H. (1991). Profiles of demented and amnesic patients on the California Verbal Learning Test: Implications for the assessment of memory disorders. Psychological Assessment, 3, 1926.

Elvevåg, B., Weinstock, D.M., Akil, M., Kleinman, J.E., & Goldberg, T.E. (2001). A comparison of verbal fluency tasks in schizophrenic patients and normal controls. Schizophrenia Research, 51, 119126.

Fletcher, P., McKenna, P.J., Friston, K.J., Frith, C.D., & Dolan, R.J. (1999). Abnormal cingulate modulation of fronto-temporal connectivity in schizophrenia. Neuroimage, 9, 337342.

Gourovitch, M.L., Goldberg, T.E., & Weinberger, D.R. (1996). Verbal fluency deficits in patients with schizophrenia: Semantic fluency is differentially impaired as compared with phonologic fluency. Neuropsychology, 10, 573577.

Gourovitch, M.L., Kirkby, B.S., Goldberg, T.E., Weinberger, D.R., Gold, J.M., Esposito, G., Van Horn, J.D., & Berman, K.F. (2000). A comparison of rCBF patterns during letter and semantic fluency. Neuropsychology, 14, 353360.

Harvey, P.D., Moriarty, P.J., Bowie, C., Friedman, J.I., Parrella, M., White, L., & Davis, K.L. (2002). Cortical and subcortical cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: convergence of classifications based on language and memory skill areas. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 5566.

Heinrichs, R.W. & Zakzanis, K.K. (1998). Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: A quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology, 12, 426445.

Kremen, W.S., Seidman, L.J., Faraone, S.V., & Tsuang, M.T. (2003). Is there disproportionate impairment in semantic or phonemic fluency in schizophrenia?Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 7988.

Manoach, D.S., Gollub, R.L., Benson, E.S., Searl, M.M., Goff, D.C., Halpern, E., Saper, C.B., & Rauch, S.L. (2000). Schizophrenic subjects show aberrant fMRI activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia during working memory performance. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 99109.

Massman, P.J., Delis, D.C., Butters, N., Dupont, R.M., & Gillin, J.C. (1992). The subcortical dysfunction hypothesis of memory deficits in depression: Neuropsychological validation in a subgroup of patients. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 687706.

Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Poline, J.-B., Kohn, P.D., Holt, J.L., Egan, M.F., Weinberger, D.R., & Berman, K.F. (2001). Evidence for abnormal cortical functional connectivity during working memory in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 18091817.

Mohamed, S., Paulsen, J.S., O'Leary, D., Arndt, S., & Andreasen, N. (1999). Generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 749754.

Monsch, A.U., Bondi, M.W., Butters, N., Paulsen, J.S., Salmon, D.P., Brugger, P., & Swenson, M.R. (1994). A comparison of category and letter fluency in Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Neuropsychology, 8, 2530.

Mummery, C.J., Patterson, K., Hodges, J.R., & Wise, R.J. (1996). Generating ‘tiger’ as an animal name or a word beginning with T: Differences in brain activation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 263, 989995.

Nelson, M.D., Saykin, A.J., Flashman, L.A., & Riordan, H.J. (1998). Hippocampal volume reduction in schizophrenia as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging: A meta-analytic study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 433440.

Paulesu, E., Goldacre, B., Scifo, P., Cappa, S.F., Gilardi, M.C., Castiglioni, I., Perani, D., & Fazio, F. (1997). Functional heterogeneity of left inferior frontal cortex as revealed by fMRI. Neuroreport, 8, 20112017.

Paulsen, J.S., Heaton, R.K., Sadek, J.R., Perry, W., Delis, D.C., Braff, D., Kuck, J., Zisook, S., & Jeste, D.V. (1995). The nature of learning and memory impairments in schizophrenia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1, 8899.

Resnick, S.M. (1992). Matching for education in studies of schizophrenia [letter; comment]. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 246.

Rosser, A. & Hodges, J.R. (1994). Initial letter and semantic category fluency in Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 57, 13891394.

Rund, B.R. (1998). A review of longitudinal studies of cognitive functions in schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24, 425435.

Savage, C.R. (1997). Neuropsychology of subcortical dementias. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20, 911931.

Saykin, A.J., Gur, R.C., Gur, R.E., Mozley, P.D., Mozley, L.H., Resnick, S.M., Kester, D.B., & Stafiniak, P. (1991). Neuropsychological function in schizophrenia. Selective impairment in memory and learning. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 618624.

Saykin, A.J., Shtasel, D.L., Gur, R.E., Kester, D.B., Mozley, L.H., Stafiniak, P., & Gur, R.C. (1994). Neuropsychological deficits in neuroleptic naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 124131.

Seaton, B.E., Goldstein, G., & Allen, D.N. (2001). Sources of heterogeneity in schizophrenia: The role of neuropsychological functioning. Neuropsychology Review, 11, 4567.

Silverstein, A.B. (1982). Two- and four-subtest short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Revised. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 415418.

Sitskoorn, M.M., Nuyen, J., Appels, M.C.M., Van der Wee, N.J.A., & Kahn, R.S. (2002). Release from proactive inhibition in schizophrenia and its potential as a genotypic marker. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 6781.

Sweeney, J.A., Haas, G.L., Keilp, J.G., & Long, M. (1991). Evaluation of the stability of neuropsychological functioning after acute episodes of schizophrenia: One-year followup study. Psychiatry Research, 38, 6376

Turetsky, B.I., Moberg, P.J., Mozley, L.H., Moelter, S.T., Agrin, R.N., Gur, R.C., & Gur, R.E. (2002). Memory-delineated subtypes of schizophrenia: Relationship to clinical, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological measures. Neuropsychology, 16, 481490.

Zakzanis, K.K. & Heinrichs, R.W. (1999). Schizophrenia and the frontal brain: A quantitative review. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 5, 556566.

Zakzanis, K.K., Poulin, P., Hansen, K.T., & Jolic, D. (2000). Searching the schizophrenic brain for temporal lobe deficits: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 30, 491504.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 3 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 25 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.