Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-56f9d74cfd-rbfsf Total loading time: 0.359 Render date: 2022-06-27T19:33:40.086Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Two new species of Syllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae) from South Africa, one of them viviparous, with remarks on larval development and vivipary

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 January 2014

Carol Simon*
Affiliation:
Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa
Guillermo San Martín
Affiliation:
Departamento de Biología (Zoología), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Georgina Robinson
Affiliation:
School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle NE3 7RU, UK and Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries Science, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa
*
Correspondence should be addressed to: C. Simon, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa email: csimon@sun.ac.za

Abstract

Two new species of South African Syllidae of the genus Syllis Lamarck, 1818 are described. Syllis unzima sp. nov. is characterized by having unidentate compound chaetae with long spines on margin, a characteristic colour pattern and its reproduction by vivipary. Vivipary is not common among the polychaetes, but most representatives occur in the family Syllidae Grube, 1850 (in five other Syllis species, two species of Dentatisyllis Perkins, 1981 and two species of Parexogone Mesnil & Caullery, 1818). Syllis unzima sp. nov. differs from the other viviparous species in having large broods (>44 juveniles) which develop synchronously. Development of the juveniles is similar to that of free-spawning Syllis species, but the appearance of the first pair of eyespots and the differentiation of the pharynx and proventricle occur later in S. unzima. Syllis amicarmillaris sp. nov., is characterized by having an elongated body with relatively short, fusiform dorsal cirri and the presence of one or two pseudosimple chaeta on midbody parapodia by loss of blade and enlargement of shaft. Syllis unzima sp. nov. was found in high densities on cultured Holothuria scabra Jaeger, 1833 with single specimens found on a cultured Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 and on coralline algae, respectively, while S. amicarmillaris was found mainly in sediment outside an abalone farm and less frequently on cultured Haliotis midae Linnaeus, 1758. We discuss the possible benefits of the association with H. scabra to S. unzima sp. nov.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aguado, M.T., San Martín, G. and Nishi, E. (2006) Two new species of Syllidae (Polychaeta) from Japan. Scientia Marina 70, 916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aguado, M.T. and San Martín, G. (2006) Sílidos (Syllidae: Polychaeta) del Parque Nacional de Coiba (Pacífico, Panamá). Revista de Biología Tropical 54, 725743.Google Scholar
Aguado, M.T., Nygren, A. and Siddall, M.E. (2007) Phylogeny of Syllidae (Polychaeta) based on combined molecular analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Cladistics 23, 552564.Google Scholar
Aguado, M.T., San Martín, G. and Siddall, M.E. (2012) Systematics and evolution of syllids (Annelida, Syllidae). Cladistics 28, 234250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allen, M.J. (1964) Embryological development of the syllid, Autolytus fasciatus (Bosc) (Class Polychaeta). Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole 127, 187205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnes, R.S.K., Calow, P., Olive, P.J.W., Golding, D.W. and Spicer, J.I. (2001) The invertebrates: a synthesis. 3rd editionOxford: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
Ben-Eliahu, N.M. (1977) Polychaete cryptofauna from rims of similar intertidal vermetid reefs on the Mediterranean coast of Israel and in the Gulf of Elat: Syllinae and Eusyllinae (Polychaeta Errantia: Syllidae). Israel Journal of Zoology 26, 158.Google Scholar
Britayev, T.A. and Lyskin, S.A. (2002) Feeding of the symbiotic polychaete Gastrolepidia clavigera (Polynoidae) and its interactions with its hosts. Doklady Biological Sciences 385, 352356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Britayev, T.A. and San Martín, G.L.A. (2001) Description and life-history traits of a new species of Proceraea with larvae infecting Abietinaria turgida (Polychaeta, Syllidae & hydrozoa, sertulariidae). Ophelia 54, 105113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Capa, M., San Martín, G. and López, E. (2001) Description of a new species of Parasphaerosyllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae: Syllinae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 114, 280284.Google Scholar
Cazaux, C. (1969) Étude morphologique du développement larvaire d'annélides polychètes (Bassin d'Arcachon). II Phylodocidae, Syllidae, Nereidae. Archives de Zoologie experimentale et générale 110, 145202.Google Scholar
Cazaux, C. (1972) Développement larvaire d'annélides polychètes (Bassin d'Arcachon). Archives de Zoologie experimentale et général 113, 71108.Google Scholar
Cazaux, C. (1984) Reproduction et développement larvaire du Syllidae Syllis variegata Grube, 1860 (Annélide, Polychèate). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 25, 123139.Google Scholar
Chia, F-S. (1974) Classification and adaptive significant of developmental patterns in marine invertebrates. Thalassia Jugoslavica 10, 121130.Google Scholar
Day, J.H. (1967) A monograph on the Polychaeta of Southern Africa. Part 1. Errantia. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), pp. 233287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ding, Z., Licher, F. and Westheide, W. (1998) New and newly assigned species of the genus Dentatisyllis (Polychaeta, Syllidae, Syllinae), with comments on the reproduction, together with a key and a synoptic table of all species of the genus. Sarsia 83, 2943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehlers, E. (1901) Die Polychaeten des magellanischen und chilenischen Strandes. Ein faunistischer Versuch. Festschrift zur Feier des Hundertfünfzigjährigen Bestehens der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen. Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Physikalischen Klasse 1901, 1232.Google Scholar
Fauchald, K. and Jumars, P.A. (1979) The diet of worms: a study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 17, 193284.Google Scholar
Fauvel, P. (1923) Polychètes Errantes. Faune de France 5, 1488.Google Scholar
Fischer, A. and Fischer, U. (1995) On the life-style and life-cycle of the luminescent polychaete Odontosyllis enopla (Annelida: Polychaeta). Invertebrate Biology 114, 236247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Franke, H.D. (1999) Reproduction of the Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) Hydrobiologia 402, 3955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garwood, P. (1991) Reproduction and the classification of the family Syllidae (Polychaeta). Ophelia Supplement 5, 8187.Google Scholar
Giangrande, A. (1997) Polychaete reproductive patterns, life cycles and life histories: an overview. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 35, 323386.Google Scholar
Giangrande, A., Licciano, M. and Pagliara, P. (2000) The diversity of diets in Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 41, 5565.Google Scholar
Glasby, C.J. (2000) Family Syllidae. In Beesley, P.L., Ross, G.J.B. and Glasby, C.J. (eds) Polychaetes and allies: the southern synthesis. Fauna of Australia. Volume 4: Polychaeta, Myzostomida, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing, pp. 161167.Google Scholar
Glasby, C.J. and Watson, C. (2001) A new genus and species of Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) commensal with octocorals. The Beagle, Records of the Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory 17, 4351.Google Scholar
Goodrich, E.S. (1900) Observations on Syllis vivipara, Krohn. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 28, 105108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1962) Zweiter Beitrag zur Polychaetenfauna von Peru. Kieler Meeresforschungen 18, 109147.Google Scholar
Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1982) Die Polychaeten der subtropisch-antiborealen Westküste Australiens (zwischen Cervantes im Norden und Cape Naturaliste im Süden). Teil 8. In Hartmann-Schröder, G. and Hartman, G. (eds) Zur Kenntnis des Eulitorals der australischen Küsten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Polychaeten und Ostracoden. Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut 79, 51–118.Google Scholar
Haswell, M.A. (1920) Australian Syllidae, Eusyllidae and Autolytinae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 45, 90112.Google Scholar
Heacox, A.E. (1980) Reproduction and development of Typosyllis pulchra (Berkeley & Berkeley) (Polychaeta: Syllidae). Pacific 34, 245259.Google Scholar
Hendler, G. and Meyer, D.L. (1982) As association of a polychaete, Branchiosyllis exilis, with an ophiuroid Ophicoma echinata, in Panama. Bulletin of Marine Science 32, 736744.Google Scholar
Herpin, R. (1925) Recherches biologiques sur la reproduction et le développement de quelques Annélides polychètes. Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles de l‘Quest de la France 5, 1250.Google Scholar
Krohn, A. (1869) Ueber eine lebendiggebärende Syllis-Art. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 35, 197200.Google Scholar
Laubier, L. (1960) Une nouvelle sous-espèce de Syllidien: Haplosyllis depressa Augener ssp. nov. chamaeleon, ectoparasite sur l'octocoralliaire Muricea chamaeleon von Koch. Vie et Millieu 11, 7587.Google Scholar
Licher, F. (1999) Revision der Gattung Typosyllis Langerhans, 1879 (Polychaeta: Syllidae). Morphologie, Taxonomie und Phylogenie. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 551, 1336.Google Scholar
López, E., Britayev, T.A., Martín, D. and San Martín, G. (2001) New symbiotic associations involving Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta), with taxonomic and biological remarks on Pionosyllis magnifica and Syllis armillaris. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81, 399409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, D. and Britayev, T.A. (1998) Symbiotic polychaetes: review of known species. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 36, 217340.Google Scholar
Martin, D., Núñez, J., Riera, R. and Gil, J. (2002) On the associations between Haplosyllis (Polychaeta, Syllidae) and gorgonians (Cnidaria, Octocorallaria), with a description of a new species. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 77, 455477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nygren, A. (2004) Revision of Autolytinae (Syllidae: Polychaeta). Zootaxa 680, 1314.Google Scholar
Okada, Y.P. (1930) A remark on the constitution of larval syllids. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 16, 479487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olive, P.J.W. (1985) Covariability of reproductive traits in marine invertebrates: implications for the phylogeny of the lower invertebrates. In Conway Morris, S. (ed.) The origin and relationships between of lower invertebrates. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 4259.Google Scholar
Pearse, J.S., Mooi, R., Lockhart, S.J. and Brandt, A. (2009) Brooding and species diversity in the Southern Ocean: selection for brooders or speciation within brooding clades? In Krupnik, I., Lang, M.A. and Miller, S.E. (eds) Smithsonian at the Poles. Contributions to International Polar Year Science. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Scholarly Press, pp. 181195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pernet, B. (1998) Benthic egg masses and larval development of Amblyosyllis speciosa (Polychaeta: Syllidae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 78, 13691372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pocklington, P. and Hutcheson, M.S. (1983) New record of viviparity for the dominant benthic invertebrate Exogone hebes: Polychaeta: Syllidae) from the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. Marine Ecology Progress Series 11, 239244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qian, P.-Y. and Chia, F.-S. (1989) Larval development of Autolytus alexandri Malmgren, 1867 (Polychaeta, Syllidae). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 15, 4956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, D.E. (1995) Description of a new viviparous species of Dentatisyllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae) from Belize with an assessment of growth and variation, and emendation of the genus. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108, 568576.Google Scholar
Salcedo-Oropeza, D.L., San Martín, G. and Solís-Weiss, V. (2012) The genus Syllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae: Syllinae) in the southern Mexican Pacific, with the description of two new species and three new records. Zootaxa 3263, 4762.Google Scholar
San Martín, G. (1984) Estudio biogeográfico, faunístico y sistemático de los Poliquetos de la familia Sílidos (Syllidae: Polychaeta) en Baleares. PhD thesis. Editorial de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.Google Scholar
San Martín, G. (2003) Familia Syllidae. In Ramos, M.A. (ed.) Annelida, Polychaeta II. Fauna Ibéricavol. 21. Madrid: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, pp. 1554.Google Scholar
San Martín, G. (2005) Exogoninae (Polychaeta: Syllidae) from Australia, with the description of a new genus and twenty-two new species. Records of the Australian Museum, 57, 39152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
San Martín, G. and Aguado, M.T. (2012) Contribution of scanning electron microscope to the study of morphology, biology, reproduction, and phylogeny of the family Syllidae (Polychaeta). In Viacheslav, K. (ed.) The scanning electron microscope. Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH, pp. 129146.Google Scholar
San Martín, G., Hutchings, P. and Aguado, M.T. (2008) Syllinae (Polychaeta, Syllidae) from Australia. Part. 2. Genera Inermosyllis, Megasyllis n. gen., Opisthosyllis, and Trypanosyllis. Zootaxa 1840, 153.Google Scholar
Schiedges, K.-L. (1979) Reproductive biology and ontogenesis in the polychaete genus Autolytus (Annelida: Syllidae): observations on laboratory cultured individuals. Marine Biology 54, 239250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schroeder, P.C. and Hermans, C.O. (1975) Annelida: Polychaeta. In Giese, A.C. and Pearse, J.S. (eds) Reproduction of marine invertebrates III. New York: Academic Press, pp. 1213.Google Scholar
Wesenberg-Lund, E. (1962) Polychaeta Errantia. In Reports of the Lund University Chile Expedition 1948–49. Acta Universitatis Lundensis 257, 1137.Google Scholar
Wilson, R.S., Hutchings, P.A. and Glasby, C.J. (2003) Polychaetes. An interactive identification guide. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.Google Scholar
Wilson, W.H. (1991) Sexual reproductive modes in polychaetes: classification and diversity. Bulletin of Marine Science 48, 500516.Google Scholar
8
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Two new species of Syllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae) from South Africa, one of them viviparous, with remarks on larval development and vivipary
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Two new species of Syllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae) from South Africa, one of them viviparous, with remarks on larval development and vivipary
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Two new species of Syllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae) from South Africa, one of them viviparous, with remarks on larval development and vivipary
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *