Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The Crystallography and Possible Origin of Barium Sulphate in Deep Sea Rhizopod Protists (Xenophyophorea)

  • J.D. Hopwood (a1), S. Mann (a1) and A.J. Gooday (a2)
Abstract

Xenophyophores are a group of giant deep sea protists characterized by intracellular barium sulphate (BaSO4) crystals. X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction and electron microscopy studies have been performed on barium sulphate crystals from three xenophyophore species (Aschemonella ramuliformis, Reticulammina labyrinthica, Galatheammina lamina) obtained at bathyal and abyssal depths in the north-eastern Atlantic. Two populations of crystals were observed. The first were tablets, ~2μm in length and rhombic or hexagonal in outline. In both cases, the tabular face was of index (100). The second population consisted of much smaller particles (<0·5 μm) of poor crystallinity. A comparison of the larger xenophyophore crystals with synthetically grown crystals indicated that the former probably grew at low supersaturation (S<25) in solutions of low to moderate ionic strength (I<l·0 M). Some preliminary observations of the cellular organisation of A. ramuliformis are reported. The protoplasm is multinucleate and characterized by what seems to be a system of extracellular lacunae formed by imaginations of the cell wall. Similar features have been observed in the deep sea foraminiferan Rhizammina algaeformis. Possible origins of the BaSO4 crystals and the taxonomic relationship between xenophyophores and certain foraminiferans are discussed.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

G. Arrhenius & E. Bonatti , 1965. Neptunism and vulcanism in the ocean. Progress in Oceanography, 3, 722.

W.B. Benton , I.R. Collins , I.M. Grimsey , G.M. Parkinson & S.A. Rodger , 1993. Nucleation, growth and inhibition of barium sulphate-controlled modification with organic and inorganic additives. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Faraday Discussions, 95, 281297.

M.A. Bertram & J.P. Cowen , 1994. Testate rhizopod growth and mineral deposition on experimental substrates from Cross Seamount. Deep-Sea Research, 41, 575601.

J.K.B. Bishop , 1988. The barite-opal-organic carbon association in oceanic particulate matter. Nature, London, 332, 341343.

S.N. Black , L.A. Bromley , D. Cottier , R.J. Davey , B. Dobbs & J.E. Rour , 1991. Interactions at the organic/inorganic interface: binding motifs for phosphonates at the surface of barite crystals. Journal of the Chemical Society. Faraday Transactions, 87, 34093414.

T.J. Chow & E.D. Goldberg , 1960. On the marine chemistry of barium. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 20, 192198.

F. Dehairs , W. Baeyens & L. Goeyens , 1992b. Accumulation of suspended barite at mesopelagic depths and export production in the Southern Ocean. Science, New York, 258, 13321335.

F. Dehairs , R. Chesselet & J. Jedwab , 1980. Discrete suspended particles of barite and the barium cycle in the open ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 49, 528550.

F. Dehairs , C.E. Lambert , R. Chesselet & N. Risler , 1987. The biological production of marine suspended barite and the barium cycle in the western Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry, 4, 119139.

F. Dehairs , N. Stroobants & L. Goeyens , 1991. Suspended barite as a tracer of biological activity in the Southern Ocean. Marine Chemistry, 35, 399410.

J. Dymond , E. Suess & M. Lyle , 1992. Barium in deep-sea sediment: a geochemical proxy for paleoproductivity. Paleoceanography, 7, 163181.

H. Espig & H. Neels , 1967. Precipitation of barium, strontium and lead sulphates. Kristall und Technik, 2, 1967, 401413.

B.J. Finlay , N.B. Hetherington & W. Davison , 1983. Active biological participation in lacustrine barium chemistry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 47, 13251329.

A.J. Gooday , 1990. Recent deep-sea agglutinated Foraminifera: a brief review. In Paleoecology, biostratigraphy, paleoceanography and taxonomy of agglutinated Foraminifera (ed. Hemleben C. et al.), pp. 271304. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

A.J. Gooday , B.J. Bett & D.N. Pratt , 1993. Direct observation of episodic growth in an abyssal xenophyophore (Protista). Deep-Sea Research, 40, 21312143.

A.J. Gooday & O.S. Tendal , 1988. New xenophyophores (Protista) from the bathyal and abyssal north-east Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Natural History, 22, 413434.

J.D. Icely & J.A. Nott , 1980. Accumulations of copper within the ‘hepatopancreatic’ caeca of Corophium volutator (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Marine Biology, 57, 193199.

D. Lea & E. Boyle , 1989. Barium content of benthic Foraminifera controlled by bottom-water composition. Nature, London, 338, 751753.

D. Lea & E. Boyle , 1992. Barium in planktonic Foraminifera. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 55, 33213331.

L.A. Levin , 1994. Paleoecology and ecology of xenophyophores. Palaios, 9, 3241.

L.A. Levin & A.J. Gooday , 1992. Possible roles for xenophyophores in deep-sea carbon cycling. In Deep-sea food chains and the global carbon cycle (ed. Rowe G.T. and Pariente V. ), pp. 93104. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

N.D. Levine et al., 1980. A newly revised classification of the Protozoa. Journal of Protozoology, 27, 3758.

A. Paytan , M. Kastner , E.E. Martin , J.D. Macdougall & T. Herbert , 1993. Marine barite as a monitor of seawater strontium isotope composition. Nature, London, 366, 445449.

F. Riemann , O.S. Tendal & F.X. Gingele , 1993. Reticulammina antarctica nov. spec. (Xenophyophora, Protista) from the Weddell Sea, and aspects of the nutrition of xenophyophores. Polar Biology, 13, 543547.

K. Schröter , A. Läuchli & A. Sievers , 1975. Mikroanalytische Indentifikation von Bariumsulfat-Kristallen in den Statolithen der Rhizoid Chara fragilis, Desv. Planta, 122, 213225.

K. Simkiss , 1979. Metal ions in cells. Endeavour, 3, 26.

N. Stroobants , F. Dehairs , L. Goeyens , N. Vanderheijden & R. Van Grieken , 1991. Barite formation in the Southern Ocean water column. Marine Chemistry, 35, 411421.

J.R. Wilcock , C.C. Perry , R.J.P. Williams & A.J. Brook , 1989. Biological minerals formed from strontium and barium sulphates. II. Crystallography and control of mineral morphology in desmids. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 238, 203221.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×