Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Two new species of Syllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae) from South Africa, one of them viviparous, with remarks on larval development and vivipary

  • Carol Simon (a1), Guillermo San Martín (a2) and Georgina Robinson (a3)

Abstract

Two new species of South African Syllidae of the genus Syllis Lamarck, 1818 are described. Syllis unzima sp. nov. is characterized by having unidentate compound chaetae with long spines on margin, a characteristic colour pattern and its reproduction by vivipary. Vivipary is not common among the polychaetes, but most representatives occur in the family Syllidae Grube, 1850 (in five other Syllis species, two species of Dentatisyllis Perkins, 1981 and two species of Parexogone Mesnil & Caullery, 1818). Syllis unzima sp. nov. differs from the other viviparous species in having large broods (>44 juveniles) which develop synchronously. Development of the juveniles is similar to that of free-spawning Syllis species, but the appearance of the first pair of eyespots and the differentiation of the pharynx and proventricle occur later in S. unzima. Syllis amicarmillaris sp. nov., is characterized by having an elongated body with relatively short, fusiform dorsal cirri and the presence of one or two pseudosimple chaeta on midbody parapodia by loss of blade and enlargement of shaft. Syllis unzima sp. nov. was found in high densities on cultured Holothuria scabra Jaeger, 1833 with single specimens found on a cultured Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 and on coralline algae, respectively, while S. amicarmillaris was found mainly in sediment outside an abalone farm and less frequently on cultured Haliotis midae Linnaeus, 1758. We discuss the possible benefits of the association with H. scabra to S. unzima sp. nov.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: C. Simon, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa email: csimon@sun.ac.za

References

Hide All
Aguado, M.T., San Martín, G. and Nishi, E. (2006) Two new species of Syllidae (Polychaeta) from Japan. Scientia Marina 70, 916.
Aguado, M.T. and San Martín, G. (2006) Sílidos (Syllidae: Polychaeta) del Parque Nacional de Coiba (Pacífico, Panamá). Revista de Biología Tropical 54, 725743.
Aguado, M.T., Nygren, A. and Siddall, M.E. (2007) Phylogeny of Syllidae (Polychaeta) based on combined molecular analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Cladistics 23, 552564.
Aguado, M.T., San Martín, G. and Siddall, M.E. (2012) Systematics and evolution of syllids (Annelida, Syllidae). Cladistics 28, 234250.
Allen, M.J. (1964) Embryological development of the syllid, Autolytus fasciatus (Bosc) (Class Polychaeta). Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole 127, 187205.
Barnes, R.S.K., Calow, P., Olive, P.J.W., Golding, D.W. and Spicer, J.I. (2001) The invertebrates: a synthesis. 3rd editionOxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Ben-Eliahu, N.M. (1977) Polychaete cryptofauna from rims of similar intertidal vermetid reefs on the Mediterranean coast of Israel and in the Gulf of Elat: Syllinae and Eusyllinae (Polychaeta Errantia: Syllidae). Israel Journal of Zoology 26, 158.
Britayev, T.A. and Lyskin, S.A. (2002) Feeding of the symbiotic polychaete Gastrolepidia clavigera (Polynoidae) and its interactions with its hosts. Doklady Biological Sciences 385, 352356.
Britayev, T.A. and San Martín, G.L.A. (2001) Description and life-history traits of a new species of Proceraea with larvae infecting Abietinaria turgida (Polychaeta, Syllidae & hydrozoa, sertulariidae). Ophelia 54, 105113.
Capa, M., San Martín, G. and López, E. (2001) Description of a new species of Parasphaerosyllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae: Syllinae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 114, 280284.
Cazaux, C. (1969) Étude morphologique du développement larvaire d'annélides polychètes (Bassin d'Arcachon). II Phylodocidae, Syllidae, Nereidae. Archives de Zoologie experimentale et générale 110, 145202.
Cazaux, C. (1972) Développement larvaire d'annélides polychètes (Bassin d'Arcachon). Archives de Zoologie experimentale et général 113, 71108.
Cazaux, C. (1984) Reproduction et développement larvaire du Syllidae Syllis variegata Grube, 1860 (Annélide, Polychèate). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 25, 123139.
Chia, F-S. (1974) Classification and adaptive significant of developmental patterns in marine invertebrates. Thalassia Jugoslavica 10, 121130.
Day, J.H. (1967) A monograph on the Polychaeta of Southern Africa. Part 1. Errantia. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), pp. 233287.
Ding, Z., Licher, F. and Westheide, W. (1998) New and newly assigned species of the genus Dentatisyllis (Polychaeta, Syllidae, Syllinae), with comments on the reproduction, together with a key and a synoptic table of all species of the genus. Sarsia 83, 2943.
Ehlers, E. (1901) Die Polychaeten des magellanischen und chilenischen Strandes. Ein faunistischer Versuch. Festschrift zur Feier des Hundertfünfzigjährigen Bestehens der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen. Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Physikalischen Klasse 1901, 1232.
Fauchald, K. and Jumars, P.A. (1979) The diet of worms: a study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 17, 193284.
Fauvel, P. (1923) Polychètes Errantes. Faune de France 5, 1488.
Fischer, A. and Fischer, U. (1995) On the life-style and life-cycle of the luminescent polychaete Odontosyllis enopla (Annelida: Polychaeta). Invertebrate Biology 114, 236247.
Franke, H.D. (1999) Reproduction of the Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) Hydrobiologia 402, 3955.
Garwood, P. (1991) Reproduction and the classification of the family Syllidae (Polychaeta). Ophelia Supplement 5, 8187.
Giangrande, A. (1997) Polychaete reproductive patterns, life cycles and life histories: an overview. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 35, 323386.
Giangrande, A., Licciano, M. and Pagliara, P. (2000) The diversity of diets in Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 41, 5565.
Glasby, C.J. (2000) Family Syllidae. In Beesley, P.L., Ross, G.J.B. and Glasby, C.J. (eds) Polychaetes and allies: the southern synthesis. Fauna of Australia. Volume 4: Polychaeta, Myzostomida, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing, pp. 161167.
Glasby, C.J. and Watson, C. (2001) A new genus and species of Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) commensal with octocorals. The Beagle, Records of the Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory 17, 4351.
Goodrich, E.S. (1900) Observations on Syllis vivipara, Krohn. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 28, 105108.
Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1962) Zweiter Beitrag zur Polychaetenfauna von Peru. Kieler Meeresforschungen 18, 109147.
Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1982) Die Polychaeten der subtropisch-antiborealen Westküste Australiens (zwischen Cervantes im Norden und Cape Naturaliste im Süden). Teil 8. In Hartmann-Schröder, G. and Hartman, G. (eds) Zur Kenntnis des Eulitorals der australischen Küsten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Polychaeten und Ostracoden. Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut 79, 51–118.
Haswell, M.A. (1920) Australian Syllidae, Eusyllidae and Autolytinae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 45, 90112.
Heacox, A.E. (1980) Reproduction and development of Typosyllis pulchra (Berkeley & Berkeley) (Polychaeta: Syllidae). Pacific 34, 245259.
Hendler, G. and Meyer, D.L. (1982) As association of a polychaete, Branchiosyllis exilis, with an ophiuroid Ophicoma echinata, in Panama. Bulletin of Marine Science 32, 736744.
Herpin, R. (1925) Recherches biologiques sur la reproduction et le développement de quelques Annélides polychètes. Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles de l‘Quest de la France 5, 1250.
Krohn, A. (1869) Ueber eine lebendiggebärende Syllis-Art. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 35, 197200.
Laubier, L. (1960) Une nouvelle sous-espèce de Syllidien: Haplosyllis depressa Augener ssp. nov. chamaeleon, ectoparasite sur l'octocoralliaire Muricea chamaeleon von Koch. Vie et Millieu 11, 7587.
Licher, F. (1999) Revision der Gattung Typosyllis Langerhans, 1879 (Polychaeta: Syllidae). Morphologie, Taxonomie und Phylogenie. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 551, 1336.
López, E., Britayev, T.A., Martín, D. and San Martín, G. (2001) New symbiotic associations involving Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta), with taxonomic and biological remarks on Pionosyllis magnifica and Syllis armillaris. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81, 399409.
Martin, D. and Britayev, T.A. (1998) Symbiotic polychaetes: review of known species. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 36, 217340.
Martin, D., Núñez, J., Riera, R. and Gil, J. (2002) On the associations between Haplosyllis (Polychaeta, Syllidae) and gorgonians (Cnidaria, Octocorallaria), with a description of a new species. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 77, 455477.
Nygren, A. (2004) Revision of Autolytinae (Syllidae: Polychaeta). Zootaxa 680, 1314.
Okada, Y.P. (1930) A remark on the constitution of larval syllids. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 16, 479487.
Olive, P.J.W. (1985) Covariability of reproductive traits in marine invertebrates: implications for the phylogeny of the lower invertebrates. In Conway Morris, S. (ed.) The origin and relationships between of lower invertebrates. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 4259.
Pearse, J.S., Mooi, R., Lockhart, S.J. and Brandt, A. (2009) Brooding and species diversity in the Southern Ocean: selection for brooders or speciation within brooding clades? In Krupnik, I., Lang, M.A. and Miller, S.E. (eds) Smithsonian at the Poles. Contributions to International Polar Year Science. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Scholarly Press, pp. 181195.
Pernet, B. (1998) Benthic egg masses and larval development of Amblyosyllis speciosa (Polychaeta: Syllidae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 78, 13691372.
Pocklington, P. and Hutcheson, M.S. (1983) New record of viviparity for the dominant benthic invertebrate Exogone hebes: Polychaeta: Syllidae) from the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. Marine Ecology Progress Series 11, 239244.
Qian, P.-Y. and Chia, F.-S. (1989) Larval development of Autolytus alexandri Malmgren, 1867 (Polychaeta, Syllidae). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 15, 4956.
Russell, D.E. (1995) Description of a new viviparous species of Dentatisyllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae) from Belize with an assessment of growth and variation, and emendation of the genus. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108, 568576.
Salcedo-Oropeza, D.L., San Martín, G. and Solís-Weiss, V. (2012) The genus Syllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae: Syllinae) in the southern Mexican Pacific, with the description of two new species and three new records. Zootaxa 3263, 4762.
San Martín, G. (1984) Estudio biogeográfico, faunístico y sistemático de los Poliquetos de la familia Sílidos (Syllidae: Polychaeta) en Baleares. PhD thesis. Editorial de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
San Martín, G. (2003) Familia Syllidae. In Ramos, M.A. (ed.) Annelida, Polychaeta II. Fauna Ibéricavol. 21. Madrid: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, pp. 1554.
San Martín, G. (2005) Exogoninae (Polychaeta: Syllidae) from Australia, with the description of a new genus and twenty-two new species. Records of the Australian Museum, 57, 39152.
San Martín, G. and Aguado, M.T. (2012) Contribution of scanning electron microscope to the study of morphology, biology, reproduction, and phylogeny of the family Syllidae (Polychaeta). In Viacheslav, K. (ed.) The scanning electron microscope. Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH, pp. 129146.
San Martín, G., Hutchings, P. and Aguado, M.T. (2008) Syllinae (Polychaeta, Syllidae) from Australia. Part. 2. Genera Inermosyllis, Megasyllis n. gen., Opisthosyllis, and Trypanosyllis. Zootaxa 1840, 153.
Schiedges, K.-L. (1979) Reproductive biology and ontogenesis in the polychaete genus Autolytus (Annelida: Syllidae): observations on laboratory cultured individuals. Marine Biology 54, 239250.
Schroeder, P.C. and Hermans, C.O. (1975) Annelida: Polychaeta. In Giese, A.C. and Pearse, J.S. (eds) Reproduction of marine invertebrates III. New York: Academic Press, pp. 1213.
Wesenberg-Lund, E. (1962) Polychaeta Errantia. In Reports of the Lund University Chile Expedition 1948–49. Acta Universitatis Lundensis 257, 1137.
Wilson, R.S., Hutchings, P.A. and Glasby, C.J. (2003) Polychaetes. An interactive identification guide. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.
Wilson, W.H. (1991) Sexual reproductive modes in polychaetes: classification and diversity. Bulletin of Marine Science 48, 500516.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed