The efficiencies of present-day modes of transportation are reviewed. Future sustainable options are discussed.
Transportation takes about 20% of the energy use worldwide , and this figure is likely to increase. The fact that transportation requires some form of mobile energy storage makes this topic especially challenging for the post-fossil-fuel era. When looking at alternatives, we should realize that nothing matches the energy density of liquid fuels like gasoline or diesel, if the system as a whole is considered. It is, therefore, important to consider the efficiency of various modes of transportation. To assess the possibilities of improvements in efficiency, a brief introduction into the physics of transportation is given first. Subsequently, the efficiencies of present-day modes of transportation—cars, buses, trains, air transport, and bicycles—are reviewed. Finally, new technologies relying on biofuel, electricity, solar power, and hydrogen are discussed.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.
Altmetric attention score
* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 9th February 2017 - 22nd January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.