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I Thessalonians 2. 13–16: The Fate of the Unbelieving Jews

  • G. E. Okeke (a1)
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1 Pearson, Birger A., ‘I Thessalonians 2: 13–16: a Deutero-Pauline interpolation,’ H.T.R. 64 (1971), 7994. Baur, F. C., Paul the Apostle of Jesus Christ: His Life and Work, His Epistles and His Doctrine, revised by Edward, Zeller, translated by Menzies, A., 2 vols. (2nd edn, London: Williams and Norgate, 18751876), II, 8497.

2 Knox, John, Chapters in a Life of Paul, p. 87.

3 Schubert, Paul, Form and Function of the Pauline-Thanksgiving (Zeit. N. T. Wiss. 20, Berlin: Alfred Töpelmann, 1939), p. 17. Kümmel, W. G., Introduction to the N.T. (New York and Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1965), p. 185. John, Lee White, The Form and Function of the Body of the Greek Letter. A Study of the Letter-Body in the non-literary Papyri and in Paul the Apostle (Vanderbilt Ph.D. Dissertation 1970), pp. 116–18.

4 Baur, op. cit. p. 88.

5 Extent of interpolation: (a) 2. 16c only, so Albrecht Ritschl, Spitta, Pfleiderer, Teichmann, and Moffatt, J., who cites the foregoing scholars, Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament (3rd ednEdinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1927), p. 73; so also Bailey, J., Interpreter's Bible, 11, 280. (b) vv. 15–16; so P. Schmiedel, in Pearson, loc. cit. p. 80; Schmithals, Paul and the Gnostics, pp. 127, 180. (c), vv. 14–16. So Holtmann cited by Frame, J. E., Thessalonians, p. 109.

6 Brandon, S. G. F., The Fall of Jerusalem, pp. 92–3, says that the invectives against the Jews reflect the spirit and language of Christians immediately before and following the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. For Schmiedel's view see Schmithals, , Paul and the Gnostics, p. 180.

7 See Johannes Munck, Paul and the Salvation of Mankind, pp. 286–8 in disagreement with Karl, Holl, ‘Der Kirchenbegriff des Paulus in seinem Verhältnis zu der Urgemeinde,’ Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Kirchengeschichte 11, n.d., in Munck, Ibid. pp. 44–67. Also Hurd, J. C., ‘The collection,’ J.B.L. 86 (1967), 346–7; Keith, Nickle, The Collection: a Study in St Paul's Strategy (London: SCM, 1966), p. 74.

8 See Hurd, John Jr, ‘The sequence of Paul's letters,’ Can. J. Theol. 14, 3 (1968), 159200.

9 Josephus, , Jewish Antiquities, XX. V. 1.

10 E.g.Pearson, loc. cit. pp. 85–7.

11 Frame, J. E. (Thessalonians, p. 114) suggests that έϕθασεν is employed proleptically, as is natural in prophetic utterances.

12 von Dobschütz, E., Die Thesslonicher-Briefe – ‘Kritisch-exegetischer Kommentar’ (7th ednGöttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1909), p. 115, cited by Munck, , Christ and Israel, p. 62; Gaston, No Stone on Another.

13 ⊓уℶ in Brown-Driver-Briggs, English-Hebrew Lexicon, p. 664; Ackroyd, P. R., εΙς τέλος = ⊓уℶ, Exp. T. 70 (1969), 126; εΙς and τέλος in Arndt and Gingrich, , Greek-English Lexicon, pp. 228 and 819.

14 Pearson, loc. cit. pp. 85–6.

15 Oscar, Cullmann, ‘Le Caractère eschatologique du devoir missionnaire et de la conscience apostolique de S. Paul,’ Revue d' Histoire et de Philosophie Religieuses, 16 (1936), 210–45. In German in Vorträge und Aufsätze 1925–1962 (Tübingen and Zürich, 1966), pp. 305–36.

16 έϕθακεν, 3rd person sing. Perf. Indicative Active of ϕθάνω, is supported by B and D.

17 Johannes, Munck, Christ and Israel. An Interpretation of Romans 9–11 (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1967), pp. 63–4, 89–99.

18 John Hurd, Jr, op. cit. p. 198; see also Buck, Charles Jr, ‘The Collection for the saints,’ H.T.R. 43, 1 (1950), 129.

19 Stauffer, Ethelbert, New Testament Theology, translated by Marsh, John (London: SCM, 1955), pp. 190–1.

20 Schoeps, Hans-Joachim, Paul: the Theology of the Apostle in the Light of Jewish Religious History (London: Lutterworth Press, 1961), pp. 260–2. He and some modern scholars like Pearson so over-emphasize the creativeness of Paul that he becomes a total innovator.

21 Dodd, C. H., The Apostolic Preaching, pp. 71, 204–5.

22 Bultmann, Rudolf, Theology of the New Testament 1, 293.

23 Schoeps (Paul, pp. 225–9) suggests that Paul came from the circle of Hillel and Gamaliel who were favourable to Gentile mission; for them the conversion of the gerim was a necessary step for the coming of the Kingdom of God.

24 See Davies, W. D., Paul and Rabbinic Judaism, pp. 110–22.

25 Dodd, C. H., New Testament Studies, pp. 72–4, 118–19.

26 Rom. 3. 22; 9–12; Gal. 3. 28; Col. 3. 2. For fuller discussion of the near expectation of the Parousia in the early church see Moore, A. L., The Parousia in the New Testament, esp. ch. 19, pp. 160 ff.

27 Rom. 9. 25–33. God's merciful election is purposed to be a means of reaching out to those who are without the light of God's love and righteousness. So Paul considers his mission among the Gentiles as God's means of saving the Jews who are in the darkness of unenlightened zeal (Rom. 10. 2).

28 Gaston, L., No Stone, p. 457.

29 Jeremias, J., The Parables of Jesus, ET by Hooke, S. H. (London: SCM, 1963), pp. 224–6.

30 Dodd, C. H., ‘The Mind of Paul. 11,’ New Testament Studies, pp. 122–4.

31 Cullmann, Oscar, ‘Eschatology and Mission in the New Testament’, The Background of the New Testament and its Eschatology. Essays in Honour of C. H. Dodd, ed. by Davies, W. D. and Daube, D. (Cambridge: CUP, 1956), pp. 409–21. See Vorträge und Aufsätze, pp. 348–60.

32 See Hyldahl, N., ‘Jesus og Jøderne ifølge 1 Thess. 2, 14–16’ (‘Jesus and the Jews according to I Thess. 2. 14–16’), Svensk Exeg. Års. 37–38 (19721973), 238–54. He argues unpersuasively that I Thess. 2. 16 is not in conflict with Rom. 11 in that the later passage teaches that only a miracle can save Israel.

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