Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-ct24h Total loading time: 0.51 Render date: 2022-05-17T21:12:05.513Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Nutrition across the curriculum: a scoping review exploring the integration of nutrition education within primary schools

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 April 2021

Berit M. Follong
School of Health Sciences, College of Health, Medicine and Wellbeing, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW2308, Australia Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW2308, Australia Priority Research Centre for Health Behaviour, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW2308, Australia
Angeliek Verdonschot
School of Health Sciences, College of Health, Medicine and Wellbeing, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW2308, Australia Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW2308, Australia Priority Research Centre for Health Behaviour, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW2308, Australia Consumption and Healthy Lifestyles, Wageningen University & Research, 6700 EWWageningen, The Netherlands
Elena Prieto-Rodriguez
Teachers and Teaching Research Centre, School of Education, College of Human and Social Futures, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW2308, Australia
Andrew Miller
Teachers and Teaching Research Centre, School of Education, College of Human and Social Futures, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW2308, Australia
Clare E. Collins
School of Health Sciences, College of Health, Medicine and Wellbeing, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW2308, Australia Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW2308, Australia
Tamara Bucher*
Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW2308, Australia Priority Research Centre for Health Behaviour, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW2308, Australia School of Environmental and Life Sciences, College of Engineering, Science and Environment, The University of Newcastle, Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW2258, Australia
*Corresponding author: Dr Tamara Bucher, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah NSW 2258, Australia. Email:


Primary schools contribute to promoting healthy eating behaviour and preventing overweight and obesity by providing nutrition education. Research highlights the importance of improving teachers’ programme implementation to enhance intervention effectiveness. An integrative approach has been suggested to reduce time barriers that teachers currently experience in teaching nutrition. This scoping review explores use and effectiveness of integrative teaching in primary-school-based nutrition education programmes. Six databases were searched for primary-school-based interventions on nutrition education. Papers reporting on integration of nutrition topics within core curriculum were included. Abstracts and full texts of potentially relevant articles were screened to determine eligibility. Next, data were extracted and tabulated. Findings were collated and summarised to describe intervention characteristics, subject integration and effectiveness of the included programmes. Data describing integration of nutrition into the primary school curriculum were extracted from 39 eligible papers. Nutrition education programmes often involve lessons about food groups and are frequently embedded within the mathematics, science or literacy syllabus. Although articles report on the integration of nutrition, the use of this approach was not commonly described in detail. Only seven papers discussed student outcomes related to the integration of nutrition education within core subjects. The ability to draw strong conclusions about school-based nutrition intervention effectiveness is limited by the current lack of programme description and methodological issues. Hence, more research is warranted to inform evidence on effectiveness of integrative nutrition education for both teacher and student outcomes. Future studies that include greater detail regarding the integrative approach are needed.

Review Article
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


World Health Organization (2018) Healthy diet. Overview - For infants and young children. Google Scholar
O’Dea, JA & Mugridge, AC (2012) Nutritional quality of breakfast and physical activity independently predict the literacy and numeracy scores of children after adjusting for socioeconomic status. Health Educ Res 27, 975985.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Correa-Burrows, P, Burrows, R, Blanco, E et al. (2016) Nutritional quality of diet and academic performance in Chilean students. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 94, 185192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nyaradi, A, Li, J, Foster, JK et al. (2016) Good-quality diet in the early years may have a positive effect on academic achievement. Acta Paediatr 105, e209e218.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization (2016) Consideration of the evidence on childhood obesity for the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity: report of the ad hoc working group on science and evidence for ending childhood obesity. Geneva no. 9241565330. World Health Organization.Google Scholar
Moreno, LA & Rodríguez, G (2007) Dietary risk factors for development of childhood obesity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 10, 336341.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization (2003) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. WHO Tech Rep Ser. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
Wang, X, Ouyang, Y, Liu, J et al. (2014) Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ 349, g4490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Craigie, AM, Lake, AA, Kelly, SA et al. (2011) Tracking of obesity-related behaviours from childhood to adulthood: a systematic review. Maturitas 70, 266284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Madruga, SW, Araújo, CLP, Bertoldi, AD et al. (2012) Tracking of dietary patterns from childhood to adolescence. Rev Saude Publica 46, 376386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicklaus, S & Remy, E (2013) Early origins of overeating: tracking between early food habits and later eating patterns. Curr Obes Rep 2, 179184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dudley, DA, Cotton, WG & Peralta, LR (2015) Teaching approaches and strategies that promote healthy eating in primary school children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 12, 28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strawser, CL & Wachob, DA (2016) A review of current outcome measures for school health policy interventions. Health Behav Policy Rev 3, 6269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pérez-Rodrigo, C & Aranceta, J (2003) Nutrition education in schools: experiences and challenges. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, S82S85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Story, M (1999) School-based approaches for preventing and treating obesity. Int J Obes 23, S43S51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, A (2009) Health-promoting schools. Appl Health Econ Health Policy 7, 1117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, SM (2011) School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
Pérez-Rodrigo, C & Aranceta, J (2001) School-based nutrition education: lessons learned and new perspectives. Public Health Nutr 4, 131139.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waters, E, de Silva-Sanigorski, A, Burford, BJ et al. (2011) Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, D & Stewart, D (2013) The implementation and effectiveness of school-based nutrition promotion programmes using a health-promoting schools approach: a systematic review. Public Health Nutr 16, 10821100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Cauwenberghe, E, Maes, L, Spittaels, H et al. (2010) Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe to promote healthy nutrition in children and adolescents: systematic review of published and ‘grey’ literature. Br J Nutr 103, 781797.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, Y, Cai, L, Wu, Y et al. (2015) What childhood obesity prevention programmes work? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 16, 547565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Follong, BM, Prieto-Rodriguez, E, Miller, A et al. (2020) An exploratory survey on teaching practices integrating nutrition and mathematics in Australian primary schools. Int J Res Educ Sci 6, 1433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McIsaac, J-LD, Spencer, R, Chiasson, K et al. (2019) Factors influencing the implementation of nutrition policies in schools: a scoping review. Health Educ Behav 46, 224250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kipping, RR, Payne, C & Lawlor, DA (2008) Randomised controlled trial adapting US school obesity prevention to England. Arch Dis Child 93, 469473.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hall, E, Chai, W & Albrecht, JA (2016) A qualitative phenomenological exploration of teachers’ experience with nutrition education. Am J Health Ed 47, 136148.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, AM & Zidenberg-Cherr, S (2015) Exploring nutrition education resources and barriers, and nutrition knowledge in teachers in California. J Nutr Educ Behav 47, 162169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, J-H & Hong, Y-S (2015) Identifying barriers to the implementation of nutrition education in South Korea. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 24, 533539.Google ScholarPubMed
Upton, P, Taylor, C & Upton, D (2012) Exploring primary school teachers’ experiences of implementing a healthy eating intervention. Educ Health 30, 3539.Google Scholar
Perera, T, Frei, S, Frei, B et al. (2015) Improving nutrition education in US elementary schools: challenges and opportunities. J Educ Pract 6, 4150.Google Scholar
Pittman, DW, Bland, IR, Cabrera, ID et al. (2018) The Boss’ Healthy Buddies nutrition resource is effective for elementary school students. J Obes 2018, 110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Love, P, Booth, A, Margerison, C et al. (2020) Food and nutrition education opportunities within Australian primary schools. Health Promot Int 35, 111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Vlieger, N, Riley, N, Miller, A et al. (2019) Nutrition education in the Australian New South Wales primary school curriculum: an exploration of time-allocation, translation and attitudes in a sample of teachers. Health Promot J Austr 30, 94101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peralta, LR, Dudley, DA & Cotton, WG (2016) Teaching healthy eating to elementary school students: a scoping review of nutrition education resources. J Sch Health 86, 334345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arksey, H & O’Malley, L (2005) Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. Int J Soc Res Methodol 8, 1932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peters, M, Godfrey, C, McInerney, P et al. (2020) Chapter 11: Scoping Reviews (2020 version). In Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewer’s Manual, JBI [E Aromataris and Z Munn, editors]: Aromataris E, Munn Z (Editors). JBI Manual for Evidence Synthesis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levac, D, Colquhoun, H & O’Brien, KK (2010) Scoping studies: advancing the methodology. Implement Sci 5, 69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peters, MD, Godfrey, CM, Khalil, H et al. (2015) Guidance for conducting systematic scoping reviews. Int J Evid Based Healthc 13, 141146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hickmott, D, Prieto-Rodriguez, E & Holmes, K (2018) A scoping review of studies on computational thinking in K–12 mathematics classrooms. Digit Exp Mathematics Educ 4, 4869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Head, MK (1974) A nutrition education program at three grade levels. J Nutr Educ 6, 5659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belansky, ES, Romaniello, C, Morin, C et al. (2006) Adapting and implementing a long-term nutrition and physical activity curriculum to a rural, low-income, biethnic community. J Nutr Educ Behav 38, 106113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Puma, J, Romaniello, C, Crane, L et al. (2013) Long-term student outcomes of the Integrated Nutrition and Physical Activity Program. J Nutr Educ Behav 45, 635642.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Auld, GW, Romaniello, C, Heimendinger, J et al. (1998) Outcomes from a school-based nutrition education program using resource teachers and cross-disciplinary models. J Nutr Educ 30, 268280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Auld, GW, Romaniello, C, Heimendinger, J et al. (1999) Outcomes from a school-based nutrition education program alternating special resource teachers and classroom teachers. J Sch Health 69, 403408.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Webb, AN & Rule, AC (2014) Effects of teacher lesson introduction on second graders’ creativity in a science/literacy integrated unit on health and nutrition. Early Child Educ J 42, 351360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tinsley, AM, Houtkooper, LB, Engle, M et al. (1985) Evaluation of implementation methods using a nutrition-fitness curriculum in fifth and sixth grades. J Nutr Educ 17, 100104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roseno, AT, Carraway-Stage, VG, Hoerdeman, C et al. (2015) Applying mathematical concepts with hands-on, food-based science curriculum. Sch Sci Math 115, 1421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carraway-Stage, V, Kolasa, KM, Díaz, SR et al. (2018) Exploring the associations among nutrition, science, and mathematics knowledge for an integrative, food-based curriculum. J Sch Health 88, 1522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hovland, JA, Carraway-Stage, VG, Cela, A et al. (2013) Food-based science curriculum increases 4th graders multidisciplinary science knowledge. J Food Sci Educ 12, 8186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carraway-Stage, V, Hovland, J, Showers, C et al. (2015) Food-based science curriculum yields gains in nutrition knowledge. J Sch Health 85, 231240.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duffrin, MW, Hovland, J, Carraway-Stage, V et al. (2010) Using food as a tool to teach science to 3rd grade students in Appalachian Ohio. J Food Sci Educ 9, 4146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koch, PA, Contento, IR, Gray, HL et al. (2019) Food, Health, & Choices: curriculum and wellness interventions to decrease childhood obesity in fifth-graders. J Nutr Educ Behav 51, 440455.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burgermaster, M, Koroly, J, Contento, I et al. (2017) A mixed-methods comparison of classroom context during Food, Health & Choices, a childhood obesity prevention intervention. J Sch Health 87, 811822.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burgermaster, M, Gray, HL, Tipton, E et al. (2017) Testing an integrated model of program implementation: the Food, Health & Choices school-based childhood obesity prevention intervention process evaluation. Prev Sci 18, 7182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Linnell, JD, Smith, MH, Briggs, M et al. (2016) Evaluating the relationships among teacher characteristics, implementation factors, and student outcomes of children participating in an experiential school-based nutrition program. Pedagogy Health Promot 2, 256265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, JC, Zidenberg-Cherr, S, Linnell, JD et al. (2018) Impact of a multicomponent, school-based nutrition intervention on students’ lunchtime fruit and vegetable availability and intake: a pilot study evaluating the Shaping Healthy Choices Program. J Hunger Environ Nutr 13, 415428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scherr, RE, Linnell, JD, Dharmar, M et al. (2017) A multicomponent, school-based intervention, the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, improves nutrition-related outcomes. J Nutr Educ Behav 49, 368379. e361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meyers, LD & Jansen, GR (1977) A nutrient approach in the fifth grade. J Nutr Educ 9, 127130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jakubowski, TL, Perron, T, Farrell, A et al. (2018) The Smart Nutrition and Conditioning for Kids (SNACK) Program: an approach to increasing nutrition knowledge of second-grade students. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 43, 278284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foster, GD, Sherman, S, Borradaile, KE et al. (2008) A policy-based school intervention to prevent overweight and obesity. Pediatrics 121, e794e802.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnston, CA, Moreno, JP, El-Mubasher, A et al. (2013) Impact of a school-based pediatric obesity prevention program facilitated by health professionals. J Sch Health 83, 171181.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foerster, SB, Gregson, J, Beall, DL et al. (1998) The California Children’s 5 a Day-Power Play! campaign: evaluation of a large-scale social marketing initiative. Fam Community Health 21, 4664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keihner, AJ, Meigs, R, Sugerman, S et al. (2011) The Power Play! Campaign’s School Idea & Resource Kits improve determinants of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity among fourth-and fifth-grade children. J Nutr Educ Behav 43, S122S129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, JL, Briggs, M & Zidenberg-Cherr, S (2002) Development and evaluation of a garden-enhanced nutrition education curriculum for elementary schoolchildren. J Child Nutr Manag 26.Google Scholar
Morris, JL & Zidenberg-Cherr, S (2002) Garden-enhanced nutrition curriculum improves fourth-grade school children’s knowledge of nutrition and preferences for some vegetables. J Acad Nutr Diet 102, 91.Google ScholarPubMed
Morris, JL, Koumjian, KL, Briggs, M et al. (2002) Nutrition to grow on: a garden-enhanced nutrition education curriculum for upper-elementary schoolchildren. J Nutr Educ Behav 34, 175176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wall, DE, Least, C, Gromis, J et al. (2012) Nutrition education intervention improves vegetable-related attitude, self-efficacy, preference, and knowledge of fourth-grade students. J Sch Health 82, 3743.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gortmaker, SL, Cheung, LW, Peterson, KE et al. (1999) Impact of a school-based interdisciplinary intervention on diet and physical activity among urban primary school children: eat well and keep moving. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 153, 975983.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Francis, M, Nichols, SS & Dalrymple, N (2010) The effects of a school-based intervention programme on dietary intakes and physical activity among primary-school children in Trinidad and Tobago. Public Health Nutr 13, 738747.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Devadas, R, Chandrasekhar, U & Vasanthamani, G (1975) Integrating nutrition education to the primary school curriculum. Indian J Nutr Diet 12, 7176.Google Scholar
Panunzio, MF, Antoniciello, A, Pisano, A et al. (2007) Nutrition education intervention by teachers may promote fruit and vegetable consumption in Italian students. Nutr Res 27, 524528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tilles-Tirkkonen, T, Nuutinen, O, Sinikallio, S et al. (2018) Theory-informed nutrition education curriculum Tools For Feeling Good promotes healthy eating patterns among fifth grade pupils: cross-sectional study. J Hum Nutr Diet 31, 647657.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, RW, McAuley, KA, Barbezat, W et al. (2007) APPLE Project: 2-y findings of a community-based obesity prevention program in primary school–age children. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 735742.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAuley, KA, Taylor, RW, Farmer, VL et al. (2010) Economic evaluation of a community-based obesity prevention program in children: the APPLE project. Obesity 18, 131136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, RW, McAuley, KA, Williams, SM et al. (2006) Reducing weight gain in children through enhancing physical activity and nutrition: the APPLE project. Int J Pediatr Obes 1, 146152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Angelopoulos, P, Milionis, H, Grammatikaki, E et al. (2009) Changes in BMI and blood pressure after a school based intervention: the CHILDREN study. Eur J Public Health 19, 319325.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fairclough, SJ, Hackett, AF, Davies, IG et al. (2013) Promoting healthy weight in primary school children through physical activity and nutrition education: a pragmatic evaluation of the CHANGE! randomised intervention study. BMC Public Health 13, 626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Food and Argriculture Organization of the United Nations (2020) Food-based dietary guidelines. (accessed 22/09/2020 2020)Google Scholar
Mihrshahi, S, Myton, R, Partridge, SR et al. (2019) Sustained low consumption of fruit and vegetables in Australian children: findings from the Australian National Health Surveys. Health Promot J Austr 30, 8387.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Banfield, EC, Liu, Y, Davis, JS et al. (2016) Poor adherence to US dietary guidelines for children and adolescents in the national health and nutrition examination survey population. J Acad Nutr Diet 116, 2127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Minaker, L & Hammond, D (2016) Low frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption among Canadian youth: findings from the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey. J Sch Health 86, 135142.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yngve, A, Wolf, A, Poortvliet, E et al. (2005) Fruit and vegetable intake in a sample of 11-year-old children in 9 European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey. Ann Nutr Metab 49, 236245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Albani, V, Butler, LT, Traill, WB et al. (2017) Fruit and vegetable intake: change with age across childhood and adolescence. Br J Nutr 117, 759765.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murimi, MW, Sample, AD, Guthrie, J et al. (2007) Nutrition education in Team Nutrition middle schools: teachers’ perceptions of important topics to be taught and teaching curriculum used. J Child Nutr Manag, 112.Google Scholar
Eliassen, EK & Wilson, MW (2007) Selecting appropriate elementary school nutrition education resources. Am J Health Stud 22, 224227.Google Scholar
Sahoo, K, Sahoo, B, Choudhury, AK et al. (2015) Childhood obesity: causes and consequences. J Fam Med Prim Care 4, 187192.Google ScholarPubMed
Güngör, NK (2014) Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 6, 129143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swinburn, BA, Caterson, I, Seidell, JC et al. (2004) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity. Public Health Nutr 7, 123146.Google ScholarPubMed
Coulson, NS, Eiser, C & Eiser, JR (1998) Nutrition education in the National Curriculum. Health Educ J 57, 8188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
James, DC & Adams, TL (1998) Curriculum integration in nutrition and mathematics. J Sch Health 68, 36.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hyman, B (2008) Integrating math and nutrition education: teaching with the FDA food label. Am J Health Ed 39, 113117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, M (2014) Nutrition literacy needs cross-curriculum learning. Google Scholar
Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (2009) Shape of the Australian curriculum: Mathematics. Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority.Google Scholar
Sullivan, P (2011) Teaching mathematics: using research-informed strategies. Australian Education Review. Camberwell: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
Duffrin, MW, Cuson, D & Phillips, SK (2005) Using food to boost math and science skills. J Fam Consum Sci 97, 6465.Google Scholar
Smith, JM & Kovacs, PE (2011) The impact of standards-based reform on teachers: the case of ‘No Child Left Behind’. Teach Teach Theory Pract 17, 201225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linnell, JD, Zidenberg-Cherr, S, Briggs, M et al. (2016) Using a systematic approach and theoretical framework to design a curriculum for the Shaping Healthy Choices Program. J Nutr Educ Behav 48, 6069.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Llargues, E, Franco, R, Recasens, A et al. (2011) Assessment of a school-based intervention in eating habits and physical activity in school children: the AVall study. J Epidemiol Community Health 65, 896901.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prelip, M, Kinsler, J, Le Thai, C et al. (2012) Evaluation of a school-based multicomponent nutrition education program to improve young children’s fruit and vegetable consumption. J Nutr Educ Behav 44, 310318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friel, S, Kelleher, C, Campbell, P et al. (1999) Evaluation of the nutrition education at primary school (NEAPS) programme. Public Health Nutr 2, 549555.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jaenke, RL, Collins, CE, Morgan, PJ et al. (2012) The impact of a school garden and cooking program on boys’ and girls’ fruit and vegetable preferences, taste rating, and intake. Health Educ Behav 39, 131141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morgan, PJ, Warren, JM, Lubans, DR et al. (2010) The impact of nutrition education with and without a school garden on knowledge, vegetable intake and preferences and quality of school life among primary-school students. Public Health Nutr 13, 19311940.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fung, C, Kuhle, S, Lu, C et al. (2012) From “best practice” to “next practice”: the effectiveness of school-based health promotion in improving healthy eating and physical activity and preventing childhood obesity. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 9, 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tran, BX, Ohinmaa, A, Kuhle, S et al. (2014) Life course impact of school-based promotion of healthy eating and active living to prevent childhood obesity. PLoS One 9, e102242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown, G, Wyse, BW & Hansen, RG (1979) A nutrient density-nutrition education program for elementary schools. J Nutr Educ 11, 3136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekwaru, JP, Ohinmaa, A, Tran, BX et al. (2017) Cost-effectiveness of a school-based health promotion program in Canada: a life-course modeling approach. PLoS One 12, e0177848.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shilts, MK, Lamp, C, Horowitz, M et al. (2009) Pilot study: EatFit impacts sixth graders’ academic performance on achievement of Mathematics and English education standards. J Nutr Educ Behav 41, 127131.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Campbell, R, Rawlins, E, Wells, S et al. (2015) Intervention fidelity in a school-based diet and physical activity intervention in the UK: Active for Life Year 5. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 12, 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharma, M (2011) Dietary education in school-based childhood obesity prevention programs. Adv Nutr 2, 207S216S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sharma, M (2016) Theoretical foundations of health education and health promotion: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.Google Scholar
Murimi, MW, Moyeda-Carabaza, AF, Nguyen, B et al. (2018) Factors that contribute to effective nutrition education interventions in children: a systematic review. Nutr Rev 76, 553580.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Connell, DB, Turner, RR & Mason, EF (1985) Summary of findings of the school health education evaluation: health promotion effectiveness, implementation, and costs. J Sch Health 55, 316321.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perikkou, A, Kokkinou, E, Panagiotakos, DB et al. (2015) Teachers’ readiness to implement nutrition education programs: beliefs, attitudes, and barriers. J Res Child Educ 29, 202211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunn, CG, Burgermaster, M, Adams, A et al. (2019) A systematic review and content analysis of classroom teacher professional development in nutrition education programs. Adv Nutr 10, 351359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carraway-Stage, V, Roseno, A, Hodges, CD et al. (2016) Implementation of a food-based science curriculum improves fourth-grade educators’ self-efficacy for teaching nutrition. Am J Health Ed 47, 155162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fahlman, M, McCaughtry, N, Martin, J et al. (2011) Efficacy, intent to teach, and implementation of nutrition education increases after training for health educators. Am J Health Ed 42, 181190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Britten, P & Lai, MK (1998) Structural analysis of the relationships among elementary teachers’ training, self-efficacy, and time spent teaching nutrition. J Nutr Educ 30, 218224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metos, JM, Sarnoff, K & Jordan, KC (2019) Teachers’ perceived and desired roles in nutrition education. J Sch Health 89, 6876.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sadegholvad, S, Yeatman, H, Parrish, AM et al. (2017) Experts’ views regarding Australian school-leavers’ knowledge of nutrition and food systems. Aust N Z J Public Health 41, 502507.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nanayakkara, J, Margerison, C & Worsley, A (2018) Teachers’ perspectives of a new food literacy curriculum in Australia. Health Educ 118, 4861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Contento, I, Balch, GI, Bronner, YL et al. (1995) The effectiveness of nutrition education and implications for nutrition education policy, programs, and research: a review of research. J Nutr Educ (USA) 27, 284418.Google Scholar
Hoelscher, DM, Evans, A, Parcel, G et al. (2002) Designing effective nutrition interventions for adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 102, S52S63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baranowski, T, Cullen, KW, Nicklas, T et al. (2003) Are current health behavioral change models helpful in guiding prevention of weight gain efforts? Obes Res 11, 23S43S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kropski, JA, Keckley, PH & Jensen, GL (2008) School-based obesity prevention programs: an evidence-based review. Obesity 16, 10091018.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Winter, MJ, Stanton, L & Boushey, CJ (1999) The effectiveness of a food preparation and nutrition education program for children. Top Clin Nutr 14, 4859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelder, SH, Perry, CL, Klepp, K-I et al. (1994) Longitudinal tracking of adolescent smoking, physical activity, and food choice behaviors. Am J Public Health 84, 11211126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zeinstra, GG, Koelen, MA, Kok, FJ et al. (2007) Cognitive development and children’s perceptions of fruit and vegetables; a qualitative study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 4, 30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wardle, J, Brodersen, NH, Cole, TJ et al. (2006) Development of adiposity in adolescence: five year longitudinal study of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of young people in Britain. BMJ 332, 11301135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Nutrition across the curriculum: a scoping review exploring the integration of nutrition education within primary schools
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Nutrition across the curriculum: a scoping review exploring the integration of nutrition education within primary schools
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Nutrition across the curriculum: a scoping review exploring the integration of nutrition education within primary schools
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *