This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1JC McMillen & JS Robinson (2005) Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming. Physiol Rev 85, 571–633.
2JE Harding (2001) The nutritional basis of the fetal origins of adult disease. Int J Epidemiol 30, 15–23.
3EG De Moura , PC Lisboa & MC Passos (2008) Neonatal programming of neuroimmunomodulation role of adipocytokines and neuropeptides. Neuroimmunomodulation 15, 176–188.
4MJ West-Eberhard (1989) Phenotypic plasticity and the origins of diversity. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 20, 249–278.
6DJ Barker , CN Hales , CH Fall , . (1993) Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia 36, 62–67.
7K Holemans , L Aerts , A Van Assche , . (1998) Fetal growth and long-term consequences in animal models of growth retardation. Eur J Obst Gynecol 81, 149–156.
8CE Bertram & MA Hanson (2001) Animal models and programming of the metabolic syndrome. Br Med Bull 60, 103–121.
12PD Gluckman , MA Hanson , HG Spencer , . (2005) Environmental influences during development and their later consequences for health and disease: implications for the interpretation of empirical studies. Proc Biol Sci 272, 671–677.
13C Lau & JM Rogers (2004) Embryonic and fetal programming of physiological disorders in adulthood. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 72, 300–312.
15PW Nathanielsz (2006) Animal models that elucidate basic principles of the development origins of adult diseases. ILAR J 47, 73–82.
17ME Symonds , T Stephenson & DS Gardner (2007) Long-term effects of nutritional programming of the embryo and fetus: mechanisms and critical windows. Reprod Fertil Dev 19, 53–63.
20SJ Mulvihill , MM Stone , HT Debas , . (1985) The role of amniotic fluid in fetal nutrition. J Pediatr Surg 20, 668–672.
21TL Buchmiller , EW Fonkalsrud , C Kim , . (1992) Upregulation of nutrient transport in fetal rabbit intestine by transamniotic substrate administration. J Surg Res 52, 443–447.
22JD Phillips , EW Fonkalsrud , A Mirzayan , . (1991) Uptake and distribution of continuously infused intraamniotic nutrients in fetal rabbits. J Pediatr Surg 26, 374–378.
23MW Smith (1981) Autoradiographic analysis of alanine uptake by newborn pig intestine. Experientia 37, 868–870.
27RK Buddington (1993) Nutrition and ontogenic development of the intestine. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 72, 251–259.
32DH Alpers (2002) Enteral feeding and gut atrophy. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 5, 155–159.
35J Jänne , L Alhonen , M Pietilä , . (2004) Genetic approaches to the cellular functions of polyamines in mammals. Eur J Biochem 271, 877–894.
36KM Godfrey (2002) The role of the placenta in fetal programming – a review. Placenta 23, Suppl. A, S20–S27.
37L Myatt (2006) Placental adaptive responses and fetal programming. J Physiol 572, 25–30.
38TP Fleming , WY Kwong , R Porter , . (2004) The embryo and its future. Biol Reprod 71, 1046–1054.
42K Herrick , DI Phillips , S Haselden , . (2003) Maternal consumption of a high-meat, low-carbohydrate diet in late pregnancy: relation to adult cortisol concentrations in the offspring. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 3554–3560.
43J Bispham , DS Gardner , MG Gnanalingham , . (2005) Maternal nutritional programming of fetal adipose tissue development: differential effects on messenger ribonucleic acid abundance for uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated and prolactin receptors. Endocrinology 146, 3943–3949.
44I Swenne , CJ Crace & RD Milner (1987) Persistent impairment of insulin secretory response to glucose in adult rats after limited period of protein–calorie malnutrition early in life. Diabetes 36, 454–458.
45SC Langley-Evans , L Bellinger & S McMullen (2005) Animal models of programming: early life influences on appetite and feeding behaviour. Matern Child Nutr 1, 142–148.
46Z Harel & GS Tannenbaum (1995) Long-term alterations in growth hormone and insulin secretion after temporary dietary protein restriction in early life in the rat. Pediatr Res 38, 747–753.
47AS Moura , CC Franco de Sá , HG Cruz , . (2002) Malnutrition during lactation as a metabolic imprinting factor inducing the feeding pattern of offspring rats when adults. The role of insulin and leptin. Braz J Med Biol Res 35, 617–622.
50RA Waterland (2006) Epigenetic mechanisms and gastrointestinal development. J Pediatr 149, S137–S142.
52A Snoeck , C Remacle , B Reusens , . (1990) Effects of low protein diet during pregnancy on the fetal rat endocrine pancreas. Biol Neonate 57, 107–118.
53S Dahri , A Snoeck , B Reusens-Billen , . (1991) Islet function in offspring of mothers on low-protein diet during gestation. Diabetes 40, Suppl. 2, 115–120.
54T Adachi , C Mori , K Sakurai , . (2003) Morphological changes and increased sucrase and isomaltase activity in small intestines of insulino-deficient and type 2 diabetic rats. Endocr J 50, 271–279.
55H Gartner , P Shukla , DC Markesich , . (2002) Developmental expression of trehalase: role of transcriptional activation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1574, 329–336.
56YA Bobetsis , SP Barros , DM Lin , . (2007) Bacterial infection promotes DNA hypermethylation. J Dent Res 86, 169–174.
59DJ Barker (2004) The developmental origins of adult disease. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 588S–595S.
60M Kramer (2005) Maternal nutrition and adverse pregnancy outcomes: lessons from epidemiology. In The Impact of Maternal Nutrition on the Offspring, Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series Pediatric Programme, pp. 1–15 [G Hornstra , R Uauy and X Yang , editors]. Paris: Karger.
61SE Ozanne (2001) Metabolic programming in animals. Br Med Bull 60, 143–152.
62JA Armitage , PD Taylor & L Poston (2005) Experimental models of developmental programming: consequences of exposure to an energy rich diet during development. J Physiol 565, 3–8.
63EB Gauda (2006) Knowledge gained from animal studies of the fetus and newborn: application to the human premature infant. ILAR J 47, 1–30.
64JF Trahair & PT Singled (2002) Studying the development of the small intestine: philosophical and anatomical perspectives. In Biology of the Intestine in Growing Animals, pp. 1–54 [R Zabielski , PC Gregory and B Weström , editors]. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
65K Baintner (2002) Vacuolisation in the young. In Biology of the Intestine in Growing Animals, pp. 55–110 [R Zabielski , PC Gregory and B Weström , editors]. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
73ER Miller & DE Ullrey (1987) The pig as a model for human nutrition. Ann Rev Nutr 7, 361–382.
75A Kiciak , J Woliñski , K Borycka , . (2007) Roux-en-Y or ‘uncut’ Roux procedure? Relation of intestinal migrating motor complex recovery to the preservation of the network of interstitial cells of Cajal in pigs. Exp Physiol 92, 399–408.
76MJ Truty & RL Smoot (2008) Animal models in pancreatic surgery: a plea for pork. Pancreatology 8, 546–550.
77R Zabielski , V Leśniewska & P Guilloteau (1997) Collection of pancreatic juice in experimental animals: mini-review of materials and methods. Reprod Nutr Dev 37, 385–399.
80G Rispat , M Slaoui , D Weber , . (1993) Haematological and plasma biochemical values for healthy Yucatan micropigs. Lab Anim Sci 27, 368–373.
83M Eberhard , U Hennig , S Kuhla , . (2007) Effect of inulin supplementation on selected gastric, duodenal, and caecal microbiota and short chain fatty acid pattern in growing piglets. Arch Anim Nutr 61, 235–246.
84CA Waddell & ID Desai (1981) The use of laboratory animals in nutrition research. World Rev Nutr Diet 36, 206–222.
85P Puiman & B Stoll (2008) Animal models to study neonatal nutrition in humans. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 11, 601–606.
88R Zabielski , Z Gajewski , JL Valverde Pietra , . (2007) The perinatal development of the gastrointestinal tract in piglets can be modified by supplementation of sow diet with bioactive substances. Livest Sci 109, 34–37.
89AJ Darragh & PJ Moughan (1995) The three-week-old piglet as a model animal for studying protein digestion in human infants. J Pediat Gastroenterol Nutr 21, 387–393.
91T Dziaman , D Gackowski , R Różalski , . (2007) Urinary excretion rates of 8-oxoGua and 8-oxodG and antioxidant vitamins level as a measure of oxidative status in healthy, full-term newborns. Free Radic Res 41, 997–1004.
93PT Sangild , M Schmidt , J Elnif , . (2002) Prenatal development of gastrointestinal function in the pig and the effects of fetal esophageal obstruction. Pediatr Res 52, 416–424.
94PG Traber & DG Silberg (1996) Intestine-specific gene transcription. Annu Rev Physiol 58, 275–297.
95SJ Henning (1985) Ontogeny of enzymes in the small intestine. Annu Rev Physiol 47, 231–245.
98RK Buddington & C Malo (1996) Intestinal brush-border membrane enzyme activities and transport functions during prenatal development of pigs. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 23, 51–64.
99A Lukinius , JLE Ericsson , L Grimelius , . (1992) Ultrastructural studies of the ontogeny of fetal human and porcine endocrine pancreas, with special reference to colocalization of four major islet hormones. Dev Biol 153, 376–385.
100S Reddy & RB Elliott (1988) Ontogenic development of peptide hormones in the mammalian fetal pancreas. Experientia 44, 1–9.
105BR Weström , R Ekman , L Svendsen , . (1987) Levels of immunoreactive insulin, neurotensin, and bombesin in porcine colostrum and milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 6, 460–465.
106JW Blum & H Hammon (2000) Colostrum effects on the gastrointestinal tract, and on nutritional, endocrine and metabolic parameters in neonatal calves. Livest Prod Sci 66, 151–159.
107LS Svendsen , BR Weström , J Svendsen , . (1986) Insulin involvement in intestinal macromolecular transmission and closure in neonatal pigs. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 5, 299–304.
110WH Shen & RJ Xu (1996) Stability of epidermal growth factor in the gastrointestinal lumen of suckling and weaned pigs. Life Sci 59, 197–208.
111RJ Xu & T Wang (1996) Gastrointestinal absorption of insulin like growth factor-I in neonatal pigs. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 23, 430–437.
112JW Blum & CR Baumrucker (2008) Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF binding proteins, and other endocrine factors in milk: role in the newborn. Adv Exp Med Biol 606, 397–422.
116PT Sangild , JF Trahair , MK Loftager , . (1999) Intestinal macromolecule absorption in the fetal pig after infusion of colostrums in utero. Pediatr Res 45, 595–602.
117BR Weström , BG Ohlsson , J Svendsen , . (1985) Intestinal transmission of macromolecules (BSA and FITC-dextran) in the neonatal pig: enhancing effect of colostrum, proteins and proteinase inhibitors. Biol Neonate 47, 359–366.
120JI Groner , SM Altschuler & MM Ziegler (1990) The newborn piglet: a model of neonatal gastrointestinal motility. J Pediatr Surg 25, 315–318.
121HJ Rothkötter , E Sowa & R Pabst (2002) The pig as a model of developmental immunology. Hum Exp Toxicol 21, 533–536.
122M Bailey , K Haverson , C Inman , . (2005) The influence of environment on development of the mucosal immune system. Vet Immunol Immunopath 108, 189–198.
124G Zoppi , G Andreotti , F Pajno-Ferrara , . (1972) Exocrine pancreas function in premature and full term neonates. Pediatr Res 6, 880–886.
125S Githens (1990) Postnatal maturation of the exocrine pancreas in mammals. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 10, 160–163.
127ML Hediger , MD Overpeck , RJ Kuczmarski , . (1998) Miscularity and fatness of infants and young children born small- or large-for-gestatioanal-age. Pediatrics 102, E60.
129N Quiniou , J Dagorn & D Gaudré (2002) Variation of piglets birth weight and consequences on subsequent performance. Livest Prod Sci 78, 63–70.
131AM Finch , C Antipatis , AR Pickard , . (2002) Patterns of fetal growth within Large White x Landrace and Chinese Meishan gilt litters at three stages of gestation. Reprod Fertil Dev 14, 419–425.
132JP Royston , PA Flecknell & R Wootton (1982) New evidence that the intra uterine growth retarded piglet is a member of a discrete subpopulation. Biol Neonate 42, 100–104.
133R Wootton , PA Flecknell , JP Royston , . (1983) Intrauterine growth retardation detected in several species by non-normal birthweight distributions. J Reprod Fert 69, 659–663.
134N Mamelle , V Cochet & O Claris (2001) Definition of fetal growth restriction according to constitutional growth potential. Biol Neonate 80, 277–285.
136PA Flecknell , R Wootton & M John (1981) Total body-glucose turnover in normal and intra-uterine growth retardation neonatal piglets. Clin Sci (Lond) 60, 335–338.
138RJ Xu , DJ Mellor , MJ Birtles , . (1994) Impact of intrauterine growth retardation on the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas in newborn pigs. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 18, 231–240.
139G Wu , FW Bazer , IR McFadyen , . (2006) Intrauterine growth retardation: implication for the animal sciences. J Anim Sci 84, 2316–2337.
140JE Cooper (1975) The use of the pig as a model to study problems associated with low birth weight. Lab Anim Bull 9, 329–336.
143T Wang , YJ Huo & F Shi (2005) Effects of intrauterine growth retardation on development of the gastrointestinal tract in neonatal pigs. Biol Neonate 88, 62–71.
144G Boehm , U Bierbach , H Senger , . (1991) Activities of lipase and trypsin in duodenal juice of infants small for gestational age. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 12, 324–327.
145S Kolacek , JWL Puntis , DR Lloyd , . (1990) Ontogeny of pancreatic function. Arch Dis Child 65, 178–181.
146EM Widdowson (1971) Intra-uterine growth retardation in the pig. Biol Neonate 19, 329–340.
147J Marion , YM Petersen , V Rome , . (2005) Early weaning stimulates intestinal brush border enzyme activities in piglets, mainly at the posttranscriptional level. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 41, 401–410.
148KR Poore & AL Fowden (2002) The effect of birth weight on glucose tolerance in pigs at 3 and 12 months of age. Diabetologia 45, 1247–1254.
149KR Poore & AL Fowden (2004) Insulin sensitivity in juvenile and adult Large White pigs of low and high birthweight. Diabetologia 47, 340–348.
150KR Poore & AL Fowden (2004) The effects of birth weight and postnatal growth patterns on fat depth and plasma leptin concentrations in juvenile and adult pigs. J Physiol 558, 295–304.
152E Hyppönen , MG Kenward , SM Virtanen , . (1999) Infant feeding, early weight gain, and risk of type 1 diabetes. Childhood Diabetes in Finland (DiMe) Study Group. Diabetes Care 22, 1961–1965.
156G Marchini , H Lagercrantz , J Milerad , . (1988) Plasma levels of somatostatin and gastrin in sick infants and small for gestational age infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 7, 641–644.
157H Budge , MG Gnanalingham , DS Gardner , . (2005) Maternal nutritional programming of fetal adipose tissue development: long-term consequences for later obesity. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 75, 193–199.
158M Knip & HK Akerblom (2005) Early nutrition and later diabetes risk. Adv Exp Med Biol 569, 142–150.
159M Kurishita , K Nakashima & H Kozu (1994) A retrospective study of glucose metabolism in mothers of large babies. Diabetes Care 17, 649–652.
160TW Leung & TT Lao (2000) Placental size and large-for-gestational-age infants in women with abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Diabet Med 17, 48–52.
161Y Watanabe (1995) Clinical study of heavy-for-dates neonates. Acta Paediatr Jpn 37, 437–443.
162PM Clark , PC Hindmarsh , AW Shiell , . (1996) Size at birth and adrenocortical function in childhood. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 45, 721–726.
163MG Eide , N Øyen , R Skjaerven , . (2005) Size at birth and gestational age as predictors of adult height and weight. Epidemiology 16, 175–181.
164LS Adair (2007) Size at birth and growth trajectories to young adulthood. Am J Hum Biol 19, 327–337.
166J Wohlfahrt & M Melbye (1999) Maternal risk of breast cancer and birth characteristics of offspring by time since birth. Epidemiology 10, 441–444.
167BL Stavola , R Hardy , D Kuh , . (2000) Birthweight, childhood growth and risk of breast cancer in a British cohort. Br J Cancer 83, 964–968.
168N Potischman & R Troisi (1999) In-utero and early life exposures in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 10, 561–573.
174MC Père (2003) Materno–foetal exchanges and utilization of nutrients by the foetus: comparison between species. Reprod Nutr Dev 43, 1–15.
176MC Père (2001) Effects of meal intake on materno–foetal exchanges of energetic substrates in the pig. Reprod Nutr Dev 41, 285–296.
177MC Père & M Etienne (2000) Uterine blood flow in sows: effects of pregnancy stage and litter size. Reprod Nutr Dev 40, 369–382.
179B German & VR Young (2004) Nutrtion and genomics. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Clin Perform Programme 9, 243–263.
181P Gruenwald (1963) Chronic fetal distress and placental insufficiency. Biol Neonat 5, 261–265.
182ML Chiswick (1985) Intrauterine growth retardation. BMJ 291, 845–848.
183R Bauer , B Walter , A Hoppe , . (1998) Body weight distribution and organ size in newborn swine (Sus scrofa domestica) – a study describing an animal model for asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation. Exp Toxicol Pathol 50, 59–65.
188O Koldovski (1984) Development of human gastrointestinal functions: interaction of changes in diet composition, hormonal maturation, and fetal genetic programming. J Am Coll Nutr 3, 131–138.
190CE Commare & KA Tappenden (2007) Development of the infant intestine: implications for nutrition support. Nutr Clin Pract 22, 159–173.
191MZ Fan , O Adeola , EK Asem , . (2002) Postnatal ontogeny of kinetics of porcine jejunal brush border membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase N and sucrase activities. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 132, 599–607.
192RJ Schulman , SJ Henning & BL Nichols (1988) The miniature pig as an animal model for the study of intestinal enzyme development. Pediatr Res 23, 311–315.
193PJ Mooghan , MJ Birtles , PD Cranwell , . (1992) The piglet as a model animal for studying aspects of digestion and absorption in milk-fed human infant. World Rev Nutr Diet 67, 40–113.
207PT Sangild , M Silver , M Schmidt , . (1996) The perinatal pig in pediatric gastroenterology. In Advances in Swine in Biomedical Research, pp. 745–756 [ME Tumbleson and L Schnook , editors]. New York: Plenum Press.
208LK Bustad & RO McClellan (1965) Use of pigs in biomedical research. Nature 208, 531–536.
212FA Simmen , KY Whang & RC Simmen (1990) Lactational variation and relationship to postnatal growth of insulin-like growth factor-I in mammary secretions from genetically diverse sows. Domest Anim Endocrinol 7, 199–206.
213SM Donovan , LK McNeil , R Jiménez-Flores , . (1994) Insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in porcine serum and milk throughout lactation. Pediatr Res 36, 159–168.
214N Shehadeh , E Khaesh-Goldberg , R Shamir , . (2003) Insulin in human milk: postpartum changes and effect of gestational age. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 88, F214–F216.
215J Woliński , M Biernat , P Guilloteau , . (2003) Exogenous leptin controls the development of the small intestine in neonatal piglets. J Endocrinol 177, 215–222.
216S Aydin , Y Ozkan , F Erman , . (2008) Presence of obestatin in breast milk: relationship among obestatin, ghrelin, and leptin in lactating women. Nutrition 24, 689–693.
217MJ Estienne , AF Harper , DM Kozink , . (2003) Serum and milk concentration of leptin in gilts fed a high- or low-energy diet during gestation. Anim Reprod Sci 75, 95–105.
219AN Corps , KD Brown , LH Rees , . (1988) The insulin-like growth factor I content in human milk increases between early and full lactation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67, 25–29.
221E Telemo & LA Hanson (1996) Antibodies in milk. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 1, 243–249.
223E Harada , M Shizuyama & N Ihara (2003) Impaired pancreatic endocrine and exocrine responses in growth-retarded piglets. J Vet Med A 50, 433–441.
227DR Shanklin & RJ Cooke (1993) Effects of intrauterine growth retardation on intestinal length in the human foetus. Biol Neonate 64, 76–81.
228ST Kempley , HR Gamsu & K Nicolaides (1991) Effects of intrauterine growth retardation on postnatal visceral and cerebral blood flow velocity. Arch Dis Child 66, 1115–1118.
230G Latini , B De Mitri , A Del Vecchio , . (2004) Foetal growth of kidneys, liver and spleen in intrauterine growth restriction: ‘programming’ causing ‘metabolic syndrome’ in adult age. Acta Pediatr 93, 1635–1639.