Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

High-selenium wheat: biofortification for better health

  • Graham Lyons (a1), James Stangoulis (a1) and Robin Graham (a1)

The metalloid Se is ubiquitous in soils, but exists mainly in insoluble forms in high-Fe, low-pH and certain leached soils, and hence is often of limited availability to plants. Consequently, it is often supplied by plants to animals and human consumers at levels too low for optimum health. Se deficiency and suboptimality are manifested in populations as increased rates of thyroid dysfunction, cancer, severe viral diseases, cardiovascular disease and various inflammatory conditions. Se deficiency probably affects at least a billion individuals. Optimal cancer protection appears to require a supra-nutritional Se intake, and involves several mechanisms, which include promotion of apoptosis and inhibition of neo-angiogenesis. Evidence suggests that in some regions Se is declining in the food chain, and new strategies to increase its intake are required. These could include education to increase consumption of higher-Se foods, individual supplementation, food fortification, supplementation of livestock, Se fertilisation of crops and plant breeding for enhanced Se accumulation. Se levels in Australian residents and wheat appear to be above the global estimated mean. Wheat is estimated to supply nearly half the Se utilised by most Australians. Increasing the Se content of wheat represents a food systems approach that would increase population intake, with consequent probable improvement in public health and large health cost savings. The strategies that show most promise to achieve this are biofortification by Se fertilisation and breeding wheat varieties that are more efficient at increasing grain Se density. Research is needed in Australia to determine the most cost-effective fertilisation methods, and to determine the extent of genetic variability for grain Se accumulation. Before recommending large-scale fortification of the food supply with Se, it will be necessary to await the results of current intervention studies with Se on cancer, HIV and AIDS, and asthma.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      High-selenium wheat: biofortification for better health
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      High-selenium wheat: biofortification for better health
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      High-selenium wheat: biofortification for better health
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Graham Lyons, fax +61 8 8303 7109, email
Hide All
Alfthan G & Neve J (1996) Selenium intakes and plasma selenium levels in various populations. In Natural Antioxidants and Food Quality in Atherosclerosis and Cancer Prevention, pp. [Kumpulainen J and Salonen J editors]. Cambridge: UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 161167.
Allan CB, Lacourciere GM & Stadtman TC (1999) Responsiveness of selenoproteins to dietary selenium. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 19, 116.
Angstwurm MWA, Schottdorf J, Schopohl J & Gartner R (1999) Selenium replacement in patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome improves clinical outcome. Critical Care Medicine 27, 18071813.
Aro A, Alfthan G & Varo P (1995) Effects of supplementation of fertilizers on human selenium status in Finland. Analyst 120, 841843.
Ashour MN, Salem SI, El-Gadban HM, Elwan NM & Basu TK (1999) Antioxidant status in children with protein-calorie malnutrition (PEM) living in Cairo, Egypt. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 669673.
Babidge PJ (1990) Selenium concentrations in South Australian wheat and barley. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 18, 452.
Baeten JM, Mostad SB, Hughes MP, Overbaugh J, Bankson DD, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ & Kreiss JK (2001) Selenium deficiency is associated with shedding of HIV-1-infected cells in the female genital tract. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 26, 360364.
Barclay MNI & MacPherson A (1992) Selenium content of wheat for bread making in Scotland and the relationship between glutathione peroxidase levels in whole blood and bread consumption. British Journal of Nutrition 68, 261270.
Barclay MNI, MacPherson A & Dixon J (1995) Selenium content of a range of UK foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 8, 307318.
Barrett J, Patterson C, Reilly C & Tinggi U (1989) Selenium in the diet of children with phenylketonuria. In Nutrient Availability: Chemical and Biological Aspects, pp. 281283 [Southgate DAT, Johnson IT and Fenwick GR editors]. London: UK: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Barrington JW, Lindsay P, James D, Smith S & Roberts A (1996) Selenium deficiency and miscarriage: a possible link?. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 103, 130132.
Baum MK & Shor-Posner G (1998) Micronutrient status in relationship to mortality in HIV-1 disease. Nutrition Reviews 56, S135–S139.
Baum MK, Shor-Posner G & Lai S (1997) High risk of HIV-related mortality is associated with selenium deficiency. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 15, 370374.
Beath OA, Eppson HF & Gilbert CS (1937) Selenium distribution in and seasonal variation of vegetation occurring on seleniferous soil. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 26, 394398.
Beck MA (2001) Antioxidants and viral infections: host immune response and viral pathogenicity. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 20(Suppl. 5): S384–S388.
Beck MA, Esworthy RS, Ho YS & Chu FF (1998) Glutathione peroxidase protects mice from viral-induced myocarditis. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal 12, 11431149.
Beck MA, Shi Q, Morris VC & Levander OA (1995) Rapid genomic evolution of a non-virulent Coxsackievirus B3 in selenium-deficient mice results in selection of identical virulent isolates. Nature Medicine 1, 433436.
Beckett GJ, Beddows SE & Morrice PC (1987) Inhibition of hepatic deiodination of thyroxine is caused by selenium deficiency in rats. Biochemical Journal 248, 443447.
Behne D, Kyriakopoulos A & Kalcklosh M (1997) Two new selenoproteins found in the prostatic glandular epithelium and the spermatid nuclei. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 10, 340345.
Berrow ML & Ure AM (1989) Geological materials and soils. In Occurrence and Distribution of Selenium, pp. 226228 [Ihnat M editor]. Boca Raton: FL: CRC Press.
Bird SM, Uden PC, Tyson JF, Block E & Denoyer E (1997) Speciation of selenoamino acids and organoselenium compounds in selenium-enriched yeast using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 12, 785788.
Boila RJ, Stothers SC & Campbell LD (1993) The concentration of selenium in the grain from wheat, barley and oats grown at selected locations throughout Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 73, 217221.
Boyne R & Arthur J (1986) The response of selenium-deficient mice to Candida albicans infection. Journal of Nutrition 116, 816822.
Brock K, Gridley G, Morris J & Willett W (1991) Serum selenium level in relation to in situ cervical cancer in Australia. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 83, 292293.
Brooks JD, Metter EJ, Chan DW, Sokoll LJ, Landis P, Nelson WG, Muller D, Andres R & Carter HB (2001) Plasma selenium level before diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer development. Journal of Urology 166, 20342038.
Broyer TC, Lee DC & Asher CJ (1966) Selenium nutrition of green plants. Effect of selenite supply on growth and selenium content of alfalfa and subterranean clover. Plant Physiology 41, 14251428.
Bugel S, Sandstrom B, Larsen EH & Skibsted LH (2002) Is selenium from animal sources bioavailable? 11th Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals, 26 June 2002. Berkeley, CA: Trace Elements in Man and Animals Committee.
Burk RF (2002) Selenium, an antioxidant nutrient. Nutritional Clinical Care 5, 7579.
Campa A, Shor-Posner G & Indacochea F (1999) Mortality risk in selenium-deficient HIV-positive children. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 20, 508513.
Cary EE & Allaway WH (1969) The stability of different forms of selenium applied to low-selenium soils. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 33, 571.
Cary EE & Gissel-Nielsen G (1973) Effect of fertiliser anions on the solubility of native and applied selenium in soil. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 37, 590.
Chen X, Mikhael SS, Ding YW, Yang GY, Bondoc F & Yang CS (2000) Effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on esophageal adenocarcinogenesis in a surgical model with rats. Carcinogenesis 21, 15311536.
Clark LC, Combs GF, Turnbull BW, Slate EH, Chalker DK, Chow J, Davis LS, Glover RA, Graham GF, Gross EG, Krongrad A, Lesher JL, Park HK, Sanders BB, Smith CL & Taylor JR (1996) Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. Journal of the American Medical Association 276, 19571963.
Combs GF (1988) Selenium in foods. In Advances in Food Research, pp. 85113 [Chichester CO and Schweiger BS editors]. San Diego: CA: Academic Press.
Combs GF (2000) Considering the mechanisms of cancer prevention by selenium. In Nutrition and Cancer Prevention, pp. 107117 [Kluwer Academic AICR editor]. New York: NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Combs GF (2001) Selenium in global food systems. British Journal of Nutrition 85, 517547.
Combs GF & Gray WP (1998) Chemopreventive agents: selenium. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 79, 179192.
Cumming F, Fardy JJ & Woodward DR (1992) Selenium and human lactation in Australia: milk and blood selenium levels in lactating women and selenium intakes of their breast-fed infants. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 81, 292295.
Daniels LA, Gibson RA & Simmer KN (2000) Indicators of selenium status in Australian infants. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 36, 370374.
Deagen JT, Butler JA, Beilstein MA & Whanger PD (1987) Effects of dietary selenite, selenocysteine and selenomethionine on selenocysteine lyase and glutathione peroxidase activities and on selenium levels in rat tissue. Journal of Nutrition 117, 9198.
De las Heras Castano G, Garcia de la Paz A, Fernandez MD & Fernandez-Forcelledo JL (2000) Use of antioxidants to treat pain in chronic pancreatitis. Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas 92, 375385.
Dhindsa HS, Bergmingham MA, Mierzwa J & Sullivan D (1998) Plasma selenium concentrations in a Sikh population in Sydney, Australia. Analyst 123, 885887.
Dimitrov N, Meyer C & Ullrey D (1984) Selenium is a metabolic modulator of phagocytosis. In Selenium in Biology and Medicine, pp. 254262 [Combs GF, Levander OA, Spallholz J and Oldfield JE editors]. New York: NY: AVI Publishing.
Diplock A (1994) Antioxidants and disease prevention. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 15, 293376.
Djujic IS, Jozanov-Stankov ON, Djermanovic V, Demajo M & Bosni O (2000 a) Availability of essential trace elements and their interactions in blood of humans consuming selenium enriched wheat. In Selenium 2000. pp Venice: 1–5 October 2000 (poster). Accessed online 29 November 2001.
Djujic IS, Jozanov-Stankov ON, Milovac M, Jankovic V & Djermanovic V (2000) Bioavailability and possible benefits of wheat intake naturally enriched with selenium and its products. Biological Trace Element Research 77, 273285.
Duffield-Lillico AJ, Reid ME, Turnbull BW, Combs GF, Slate EH, Fischbach LA, Marshall JR & Clark LC (2002) Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 11, 630639.
Dylewski ML, Mastro AM & Picciano MF (2002) Maternal selenium nutrition and neonatal immune system development. Biology of the Neonate 82, 122127.
El-Bayoumy K (1991) The role of selenium in cancer prevention. In Practice of Oncology, 4th ed., pp. 115 [deVita VT, Hellman S and Rosenberg SS editors]. Philadelphia: PA: Lippincott.
Epstein E (1972) Mineral Nutrition of Plants: Principles and Perspectives. New York: NY: Wiley.
Eurola M, Efholm P, Ylinen M, Koivistoinen P & Varo P (1990) Effects of selenium fertilization on the selenium content of cereal grains, flour, and bread produced in Finland. Cereal Chemistry 67, 334337.
Eurola M & Hietaniemi V (editors) (2000) Report of the Selenium Monitoring Programme 1997–1999. Publications of Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, series B24. Jokioinen, Finland: Agricultural Research Centre of Finland.
Fardy JJ, McOrist GD & Farrar YJ (1989) The determination of selenium status in the Australian diet using neutron activation analysis. Journal of Radioanalysis and Nuclear Chemistry 133, 397408.
Finley JW (1999) The retention and distribution by healthy young men of stable isotopes of selenium consumed as selenite, selenate or hydroponically-grown broccoli are dependent on the isotopic form. Journal of Nutrition 129, 865871.
Finley JW & Davis CD (2001) Selenium from high-selenium broccoli is utilized differently than selenite, selenate and selenomethionine, but is more effective in inhibiting colon carcinogenesis. Biofactors 14, 191196.
Frost DV (1981) Selenium and vitamin E as antidotes to heavy metal toxicities. In Selenium in Biology and Medicine [Spallholz JE, Martin JL and Ganther HE editors]. Westport, CT: AVI Publishing.
Frost DV (1987) Why the level of selenium in the food chain appears to be decreasing. In Selenium in Biology and Medicine, part A, pp. 534547 [Combs GF, Levander OA and Spallholz JE editors]. New York, NY: AVI Van Nostrand.
Gibson RS (1994) Zinc nutrition and public health in developing countries. Nutrition Research Reviews 7, 151173.
Giovannucci E (1998) Selenium and the risk of prostate cancer. Lancet 352, 755756.
Gissel-Nielsen G (1998) Effects of selenium supplementation of field crops. In Environmental Chemistry of Selenium, pp. 99112 [Frankenberger WT and Engberg RA editors]. New York, NY: Dekker.
Godwin KO (1975) The role and the metabolism of selenium in the animal. In Trace Elements in Soil-Plant-Animal Systems, pp. 259270 [Nicholas DJD and Egan AR editors]. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Golubkina NA & Alfthan GV (1999) The human selenium status in 27 regions of Russia. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 13, 1520.
Graham RD (1984) Breeding for nutritional characteristics in cereals. Advances in Plant Nutrition 1, 57102.
Graham RD (1991) Breeding wheats for tolerance to micronutrient deficient soil: present status and priorities. In Wheat for the Nontraditional Warm Areas [Saunders DA editor]. Mexico City, Mexico: CIMMYT.
Graham RD, Senadhira D, Beebe SE, Iglesias C & Ortiz-Monasterio I (1999) Breeding for micronutrient density in edible portions of staple food crops: conventional approaches. Field Crops Research 60, 5780.
Graham RD, Senadhira D & Ortiz-Monasterio I (1997) A strategy for breeding staple-food crops with high micronutrient density. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 43, 11531157.
Graham RD & Welch RM (1996) Breeding for staple food crops with high micronutrient density. In Agricultural Strategies for Micronutrients – Working Paper 3. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Graham RD, Welch RM & Bouis HE (2001) Addressing micronutrient malnutrition through enhancing the nutritional quality of staple foods: principles, perspectives and knowledge gaps. Advances in Agronomy 70, 77142.
Grela ER (1996) Nutrient composition and content of antinutritional factors in spelt (T. Spelta L) cultivars. Journal of Science in Food and Agriculture 71, 399404.
Gupta UC & Gupta SC (2000) Selenium in soils and crops, its deficiencies in livestock and humans: implications for management. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 31, 17911807.
Gupta UC & Watkinson JH (1985) Agricultural significance of selenium. Outlook in Agriculture 14, 183189.
Gupta UC & Winter KA (1975) Selenium content of soils and crops and the effects of lime and sulfur on plant selenium. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 55, 161166.
Gupta UC, Winter KA & Sanderson JB (1993) Selenium content of barley as influenced by selenite- and selenate-enriched fertilizers. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 24, 11651170.
Hakkarainen J (1993) Bioavailability of selenium. Norwegian Journal of Agricultural Science 11, 2135.
Harrison P, Lanfear J & Wu L (1997) Chemopreventive and growth inhibitory effects of selenium. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 10, 235245.
Hawkes WC & Turek PJ (2001) Effects of dietary selenium on sperm motility in healthy men. Journal of Andrology 22, 764772.
Holden JM, Gebhardt S, Davis CS & Lurie DG (1991) A nationwide study of the selenium contents and variability in white bread. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 4, 183195.
House WA (1999) Trace element bioavailability as exemplified by iron and zinc. Field Crops Research 60, 115141.
Ip C (1998) Lessons from basic research in selenium and cancer prevention. Journal of Nutrition 128, 18451854.
Ip C, Hayes C, Budnick R & Ganther H (1991) Chemical form of selenium, critical metabolites, and cancer prevention. Cancer Research 51, 595600.
Ip C & Lisk D (1994) Characterisation of tissue selenium profiles and anticarcinogenic responses in rats fed natural sources of selenium-rich products. Carcinogenesis 15, 573576.
Jaakkola K, Tummavuori J, Pirinen A, Kurkela P, Tolonen M & Arstila AU (1983) Selenium levels in whole blood of Finnish volunteers before and during organic and inorganic selenium supplementation. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigations 43, 473476.
Jahnova E, Horvathova M, Gazdik F & Weissova S (2002) Effects of selenium supplementation on expression of adhesion molecules in corticoid-dependent asthmatics. Bratislavske Lekarske Listy 103, 1216.
Jeong D, Kim TS, Chung YW, Lee BJ & Kim IY (2002) Selenoprotein W is a glutathione-dependent antioxidant in vivo. Federation of European Biochemical Societies Letters 517, 225228.
Jiang C, Jiang W, Ip C, Ganther H & Lu J (1999) Selenium-induced inhibition of angiogenesis in mammary cancer at chemopreventive levels of intake. Molecular Carcinogenesis 26, 213225.
Judson GJ, Mattschoss KH & Thomas DW (1978) Selenium in whole blood of Adelaide residents. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia 3, 105.
Judson GJ & Reuter DJ (1999) Selenium. In Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual, pp. 325329 [Peverill KI, Sparrow LA and Reuter DJ editors]. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.
Judson GJ, Thomas DW & Mattschoss KH (1982) Blood selenium levels of Kangaroo Island residents. Medical Journal of Australia 2, 217.
Kauf E, Dawczynski H, Jahreis G, Janitsky E & Winnefeld K (1994) Sodium selenite therapy and thyroid-hormone status in cystic fibrosis and congenital hypothyroidism. Biological Trace Element Research 40, 247253.
Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Roy M, Wishe HI, Cohen MW & Stotzky G (1994) Supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. Biological Trace Element Research 41, 115127.
Kohrle J (1999) The trace element selenium and the thyroid gland. Biochimie 81, 527533.
Korotkov KV, Novoselov SV, Hatfield DL & Gladyshev VN (2002) Mammalian selenoprotein in which selenocysteine (Sec) incorporation is supported by a new form of Sec insertion sequence element. Molecular Cell Biology 22, 14021411.
Kowluru RA, Tang J & Kern TS (2001) Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes and experimental galactosemia. 7. Effect of long-term administration of antioxidants on the development of retinopathy. Diabetes 50, 19381942.
Kurihara M, Kumagai K, Nakae Y, Nishino I & Nonaka I (2000) Two sibling patients with non-Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy with low serum selenium levels – therapeutic effects of oral selenium supplementation. No To Hattatsu 32, 346351.
Kurz B, Jost B & Schunke M (2002) Dietary vitamins and selenium diminish the development of mechanically induced osteoarthritis and increase the expression of antioxidative enzymes in the knee joint of STR/1N mice. Osteoarthritis-Cartilage 10, 119126.
Lag J & Steinnes E (1978) Regional distribution of selenium and arsenic in humus layers of Norwegian forest soils. Geoderma 20, 314.
Laws JE, Latshan JD & Biggert M (1986) Relative biological values of selenium. Feed experiment with chickens. Nutrition Reports International 33, 1324.
Levander OA & Beck MA (1999) Selenium and viral virulence. British Medical Bulletin 55, 528533.
Levander OA & Burk RF (1990) Selenium. In Present Knowledge of Nutrition, 6th ed., pp. 268273 [Brown ML editor]. Washington, DC: Nutrition Foundation.
Lindstrom K (1983) Selenium as a growth factor for plankton algae in laboratory experiments and in some Swedish lakes. Hydrobiologia 101, 3548.
Liu BS & Li SS (1987) Primary study of relationship between endemic selenosis and fluorosis. In Selenium in Biology and Medicine, vol. B, pp. 708711 [Combs GF, Spallholz JE, Levander OA and Oldfield JE editors]. Westport, CT: AVI Publishing.
Liu Y, Chiba M, Inaba Y & Kondo M (2002) Keshan disease: a review from the aspect of history and etiology. Japanese Journal of Hygiene 56, 641648.
Look MP, Rockstroh JK, Rao GS, Kreuzer KA, Spengler U & Sauerbruch T (1997) Serum selenium versus lymphocyte subsets and markers of disease progression and inflammatory response in human immunodeficiency virus-infection. Biological Trace Element Research 56, 3141.
Lu J (2000) Apoptosis and angiogenesis in cancer prevention by selenium. In Nutrition and Cancer Prevention. pp. 131145 [Kluwer Academic AICR editor]. New York, NY: Plenum Publishers.
Lux O & Naidoo D (1995) The assessment of biological variation components of copper, zinc and selenium. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 6, 4347.
McGlashan ND, Cook SJ, Melrose W, Martin PL, Chelkowska E & von Witt RJ (1996) Maternal selenium levels and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 26, 677682.
McOrist & Fardy JJ (1989) Selenium status in the blood using neutron activation analysis. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 134, 6572.
Maier KJ, Nelson CR, Bailey FC, Klaine SJ & Knight AW (1998) Accumulation of selenium by the aquatic biota of a watershed treated with seleniferous fertilizer. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 60, 409416.
Meltzer HM, Norheim G, Loken EB & Holm H (1992) Supplementation with wheat selenium induces a dose-dependent response in serum and urine of a selenium-replete population. British Journal of Nutrition 67, 287294.
Mihailovic M, Lindberg P & Jovanovic I (1996) Selenium content in feedstuffs in Serbia. Acta Veterinaria Beograd 46, 343348.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1997) Dietary Intake of Selenium. Food Surveillance Information Sheet no. 126. London, UK: Joint Food Safety and Standards Group.
Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food (1999) Total Diet Study – Aluminium, Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium, Tin and Zinc. Food Surveillance Information Sheet no. 191. London, UK: Joint Food Safety and Standards Group.
Moser-Veillon PB, Mangeb AR, Patterson KY & Veillon C (1992) Utilization of two different chemical forms of Se during lactation using stable isotope tracers: an example of speciation in nutrition. Analyst 117, 559562.
Moyad MA (2002) Selenium and vitamin E supplements for prostate cancer: evidence or embellishment? Urology 59, Suppl. 4A, 919.
Mutanen M, Koivistoinen P, Morris VC & Levander OA (1987) Relative nutritional availability to rats of selenium in Finnish spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fertilized or sprayed with sodium selenate and in an American winter bread wheat naturally high in Se. British Journal of Nutrition 57, 319329.
Neve J (1991) Physiological and nutritional importance of selenium. Experientia 47, 187193.
Neve J (1995) Human selenium supplementation as assessed by changes in blood selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 9, 6573.
Neve J (1996) Selenium as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk 3, 4247.
Neve J (1999) Combined selenium and iodine deficiency in Kashin-Beck osteoarthropathy. In STDA Bulletin, pp. 13. Grimbergen, Belgium: Selenium-Tellurium Development Association.
Neve J (2000) New indices for assessment of trace element status and requirement with a special focus on selenium. In Trace Elements in Man and Animals 10: Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals, pp. 317322 [Roussel AM, Favier A and Anderson RA editors]. New York: Plenum Press.
Noble RM & Barry GA (1982) Survey of selenium concentrations in wheat, sorghum and soybean grains, prepared poultry feeds and feed ingredients from Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agriculture and Animal Science 39, 18.
Norman BB, Nader G & Oliver M (1992) Effects of selenium supplementation in cattle on aquatic ecosystems in California. Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association 201, 869872.
Oldfield JE (1993) Selenium in fertilizers. In STDA Bulletin (Special issue), pp·14. Grimbergen, Belgium: Selenium-Tellurium Development Association.
Oldfield JE (1999) The case for selenium fertilization: an update. In STDA Bulletin, August. Grimbergen, Belgium: Selenium-Tellurium Development Association.
Olson OE, Novacek EJ, Whitehead EI & Palmer IC (1970) Investigations on selenium in wheat. Phytochemistry 9, 11811188.
Ortiz-Monasterio I (1998) In CGIAR Micronutrients Project, Update no.3,5. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Pearn J & McCay CRW (1979) Blood selenium in chronic spinal muscular atrophy. Journal of Neurological Science 42, 199202.
Peng A, Wang WH, Wang CX, Wang ZJ, Rui HF, Wang WZ & Yang ZW (1999) The role of humic substances in drinking water in Kaschin-Beck disease in China. Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 293296.
Peretz A, Siderova V & Neve J (2001) Selenium supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis investigated in a double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 30, 208212.
Piergiovanni AR, Rizzi R, Pannacciulli E & Della Gatta C (1997) Mineral composition in hulled wheat grains: a comparison between emmer (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) and spelt (T. Spelta L) accessions. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 48, 381386.
Poirier KA (1994) Summary of the derivation of the reference dose for selenium. In Risk Assessment of Essential Elements, pp. 157166 [Mertz W, Abernathy CO and Olin SS editors]. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.
Raghib MH, Chan WY & Rennert OM (1986) Comparative studies of selenium-75 (selenite and selenomethionine) absorption from various milk diets in suckling rats. Journal of Nutrition 116, 14561463.
Rayman MP (1997) Dietary selenium: time to act. British Medical Journal 314, 387388.
Rayman MP (2000) The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 356, 233241.
Rayman MP (2002) The argument for increasing selenium intake. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61, 203215.
Rayman MP & Clark LC (2000) Selenium in cancer prevention. In Trace Elements in Man and Animals – 10: Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals. pp. 575580 [Roussel AM, Favier A and Anderson RA editors]. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Reilly C (1996) Selenium in Food and Health, London, UK: Blackie.
Reuter DJ (1975) Selenium in soils and plants: a review in relation to selenium deficiency in South Australia. Agricultural Record 2, 07 issue.
Ripperger H & Schreiber K (1982) Nicotianamine and analogous amino acids, endogenous iron carriers in higher plants. Heterocycles 17, 447461.
Robberecht HJ & Deelstra HA (1994) Factors influencing blood selenium concentrations: a literature review. Journal of Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Health and Disease 8, 129143.
Schrauzer GN (1998) Selenium: present and future applications in medicine. In STDA Sixth International Symposium, 1012 May 1998, Scottsdale, USA. Grimbergen, Belgium: Selenium-Tellurium Development Association.
Schrauzer GN (2000) Selenomethionine: a review of its nutritional significance, metabolism and toxicity. Journal of Nutrition 130, 16531656.
Schubert A, Holden JM & Wolfe WR (1987) Selenium content of a core group of foods based on a critical evaluation of published analytical data. Journal of the American Dietetics Association 87, 285299.
Schwarz K & Foltz CM (1957) Selenium as an integral part of factor 3 against dietary necrotic liver degeneration. Journal of the American Chemical Society 79, 32923293.
Scott R & MacPherson A (1998) Selenium supplementation in sub-fertile human males. British Journal of Urology 82, 7680.
Seo YR, Kelley MR & Smith ML (2002) Selenomethionine regulation of p53 by a ref1-dependent redox mechanism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99, 1454814553.
Shaheen SO, Sterne JAC & Thompson RL (1999) Dietary antioxidants and asthma in adults. European Respiratory Journal 14, Suppl. 30, 141S.
Shand C, Coutts G, Duff E & Atkinson D (1992) Soil selenium treatments to ameliorate selenium deficiency in herbage. Journal of Science and Food in Agriculture 59, 2735.
Shor-Posner G, Miguez MJ, Pineda LM, Rodriguez A, Ruiz P, Castillo G, Burbano X, Lecusay R & Baum M (2002) Impact of selenium status on the pathogenesis of mycobacterial disease in HIV-1-infected drug users during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 29, 169173.
Singh BR (1991) Selenium content of wheat as affected by selenate and selenite contained in a Cl- or SO4 based NPK fertilizer. Fertilizer Research 30, 17.
Spallholz JE, Boylan LM & Larsen HS (1990) Advances in understanding selenium's role in the immune system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 587, 123139.
Stewart RDH, Griffiths NM, Thomson CD & Robinson MF (1987) Quantitative selenium metabolism in normal New Zealand women. British Journal of Nutrition 40, 4554.
Taylor EW (1997) Selenium and viral diseases: facts and hypotheses. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 12, 227239.
Taylor EW & Nadimpalli RG (1999) Chemoprotective mechanisms of selenium in cancer and AIDS: evidence for the involvement of novel selenoprotein genes. Info Onkologi 2, 711.
Terry N, Zayed AM, de Souza MP & Tarun AS (2000) Selenium in higher plants. Annual Reviews of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 51, 401432.
Thomson CD & Robinson MF (1980) Selenium in human health and disease with emphasis on those aspects peculiar to New Zealand. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, 303323.
Thorn J, Robertson J & Buss DH (1976) Trace nutrients: selenium in British foods. British Journal of Nutrition 39, 391396.
Tinggi U & Reilly C (2000) Concentrations of selenium and other major elements (barium, calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus) in Brazil nuts in Brisbane, Queensland. In Selenium 2000, Venice: 1–5 October 2000 (poster). Accessed online 29 November 2001.
Underwood EJ (1977) Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, 4th ed., pp. 303345. New York, NY: Academic Press.
University of California (1988) Selenium, human health and irrigated agriculture. In Resources at Risk in the San Joaquin Valley. Davis, CA: University of California Agricultural Issues Center.
Van Campen DR & Glahn RP (1999) Micronutrient bioavailability techniques: accuracy, problems and limitations. Field Crops Research 60, 93113.
Van Dael P, Davidsson L, Ziegler EE, Fay LB & Barclay D (2002) Comparison of selenite and selenate apparent absorption and retention in infants using stable isotope methodology. Pediatric Research 51, 7175.
Vanderpas JB, Contempre B, Duale N, Goosens W, Bebe N, Thorpe R, Ntambue K, Dumont J, Thilly CH & Diplock AT (1993) Iodine and selenium deficiency associated with cretinism in northern Zaire. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57, 271S–275S.
Varo P, Alfthan G, Huttunen J & Aro A (1994) Nationwide selenium supplementation in Finland – effects on diet, blood and tissue levels, and health. In Selenium in Biology and Human Health, pp. 197218 [Burk R, editor]. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Vinceti M, Wei ET, Malagoli C, Bergomi M & Vivoli G (2001) Adverse health effects of selenium in humans. Reviews on Environmental Health 16, 233251.
Vuori E, Vaariskoski J & Hartikainen H (1994) A long-term study of selenate sorption in Finnish cultivated soils. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 48, 9198.
Watkinson JH (1981) Changes of blood selenium in New Zealand adults with time and importation of Australian wheat. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34, 936942.
Wei A (1996) Soybean sprout. Zhengzhou Liangshi Xueyuan Xuebao 17, 6770.
Welch RM & Graham RD (1999) A new paradigm for world agriculture: meeting human needs. Productive, sustainable, nutritious. Field Crops Research 60, 110.
Whanger PD (1992) Selenium in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning and chemical carcinogenesis. Journal of Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Health and Disease 6, 209221.
Whanger PD (2001) Selenium and the brain: a review. Nutritional Neuroscience 4, 8197.
Whanger PD, Vendeland S, Park Y-C & Xia Y (1996) Metabolism of sub-toxic levels of selenium in animals and humans. Annals of Clinical Laboratory Science 26, 99113.
Whelan BR & Barrow NJ (1994) Slow-release selenium fertilizers to correct selenium deficiency in grazing sheep in Western Australia. Fertilizer Research 38, 183188.
White CL, Robson AD & Fisher HM (1981) Variation in nitrogen, sulphur, selenium, cobalt, manganese, copper and zinc contents of grain from wheat and two lupin species grown in a range of Mediterranean environment. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 32, 4759.
World Health Organization (1999) Malnutrition Worldwide. Accessed online 15 June 2000. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Xiong Y, Mo D, Bi H, Li S, Guo X, Yu Z, Luo Y, Feng J, Zhang L & Yang J (1998) Effect of selenium on lesion of articular cartilage fed on T-2 toxin in Chinese mini-pigs with experimental Kaschin-Beck disease. Xi'an Yike Daxue Xuebao 19, 523525.
Yang FY, Lin ZH, Xing JR, Li SG, Yang J, San S & Wu L (1994) Selenium deficiency is a necessary but not sufficient factor required for the pathogenesis of Keshan disease. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 16, 101110.
Yang GQ & Zhou RH (1994) Further studies on human maximum safe dietary selenium intake and a discussion on some related problems. Journal of Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Health and Disease 8, 159165.
Ylaranta T (1983) Effect of added selenite and selenate on the selenium content of Italian rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) in different soils. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae 22, 139151.
Ylaranta T (1983) Effect of applied selenite and selenate on the selenium content of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Annales Agriculturae Fenniae 22, 164174.
Ylaranta T (1984) Raising the selenium content of spring wheat and barley using selenite and selenate. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae 23, 7584.
Yoshida M & Yasumoto K (1987) Selenium contents of rice grown at various sites in Japan. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 1, 7175.
Yoshizawa K, Willett WC, Morris SJ, Stampfer MJ, Spiegelman D, Rimm EB & Giovannucci E (1998) Study of prediagnostic selenium level in toenails and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 12191224.
Yu MW, Horng IS, Chiang YC, Liaw YF & Chen CJ (1999) Plasma selenium levels and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among men with chronic hepatitis virus infection. American Journal of Epidemiology 150, 367374.
Yu SY, Zhu YJ & Li WG (1997) Protective role of selenium against hepatitis b virus and primary liver cancer in Qidong. Biological Trace Element Research 56, 117124.
Zhang F, Yu W, Hargrove JL, Greenspan P, Dean RG, Taylor EW & Hartle DK (2002) Inhibition of TNF-alpha induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression by selenium. Atherosclerosis 161, 381386.
Zhao L, Cox AG, Ruzicka JA, Bhat AA, Zang W & Taylor EW (2000) Molecular modelling and in vitro activity of an HIV-1 encoded glutathione peroxidase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97, 63566361.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 213 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 359 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.