This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
G Alfthan & J Neve (1996) Selenium intakes and plasma selenium levels in various populations. In Natural Antioxidants and Food Quality in Atherosclerosis and Cancer Prevention, pp. [ J Kumpulainen and J Salonen editors]. Cambridge: UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 161–167.
CB Allan , GM Lacourciere & TC Stadtman (1999) Responsiveness of selenoproteins to dietary selenium. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 19, 1–16.
MWA Angstwurm , J Schottdorf , J Schopohl & R Gartner (1999) Selenium replacement in patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome improves clinical outcome. Critical Care Medicine 27, 1807–1813.
A Aro , G Alfthan & P Varo (1995) Effects of supplementation of fertilizers on human selenium status in Finland. Analyst 120, 841–843.
JM Baeten , SB Mostad , MP Hughes , J Overbaugh , DD Bankson , K Mandaliya , JO Ndinya-Achola , JJ Bwayo & JK Kreiss (2001) Selenium deficiency is associated with shedding of HIV-1-infected cells in the female genital tract. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 26, 360–364.
MNI Barclay & A MacPherson (1992) Selenium content of wheat for bread making in Scotland and the relationship between glutathione peroxidase levels in whole blood and bread consumption. British Journal of Nutrition 68, 261–270.
MNI Barclay , A MacPherson & J Dixon (1995) Selenium content of a range of UK foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 8, 307–318.
JW Barrington , P Lindsay , D James , S Smith & A Roberts (1996) Selenium deficiency and miscarriage: a possible link?. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 103, 130–132.
MK Baum & G Shor-Posner (1998) Micronutrient status in relationship to mortality in HIV-1 disease. Nutrition Reviews 56, S135–S139.
MK Baum , G Shor-Posner & S Lai (1997) High risk of HIV-related mortality is associated with selenium deficiency. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 15, 370–374.
MA Beck (2001) Antioxidants and viral infections: host immune response and viral pathogenicity. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 20(Suppl. 5): S384–S388.
MA Beck , Q Shi , VC Morris & OA Levander (1995) Rapid genomic evolution of a non-virulent Coxsackievirus B3 in selenium-deficient mice results in selection of identical virulent isolates. Nature Medicine 1, 433–436.
GJ Beckett , SE Beddows & PC Morrice (1987) Inhibition of hepatic deiodination of thyroxine is caused by selenium deficiency in rats. Biochemical Journal 248, 443–447.
SM Bird , PC Uden , JF Tyson , E Block & E Denoyer (1997) Speciation of selenoamino acids and organoselenium compounds in selenium-enriched yeast using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 12, 785–788.
RJ Boila , SC Stothers & LD Campbell (1993) The concentration of selenium in the grain from wheat, barley and oats grown at selected locations throughout Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 73, 217–221.
K Brock , G Gridley , J Morris & W Willett (1991) Serum selenium level in relation to in situ cervical cancer in Australia. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 83, 292–293.
JD Brooks , EJ Metter , DW Chan , LJ Sokoll , P Landis , WG Nelson , D Muller , R Andres & HB Carter (2001) Plasma selenium level before diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer development. Journal of Urology 166, 2034–2038.
TC Broyer , DC Lee & CJ Asher (1966) Selenium nutrition of green plants. Effect of selenite supply on growth and selenium content of alfalfa and subterranean clover. Plant Physiology 41, 1425–1428.
RF Burk (2002) Selenium, an antioxidant nutrient. Nutritional Clinical Care 5, 75–79.
A Campa , G Shor-Posner & F Indacochea (1999) Mortality risk in selenium-deficient HIV-positive children. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 20, 508–513.
EE Cary & WH Allaway (1969) The stability of different forms of selenium applied to low-selenium soils. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 33, 571.
EE Cary & G Gissel-Nielsen (1973) Effect of fertiliser anions on the solubility of native and applied selenium in soil. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 37, 590.
X Chen , SS Mikhael , YW Ding , GY Yang , F Bondoc & CS Yang (2000) Effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on esophageal adenocarcinogenesis in a surgical model with rats. Carcinogenesis 21, 1531–1536.
LC Clark , GF Combs , BW Turnbull , EH Slate , DK Chalker , J Chow , LS Davis , RA Glover , GF Graham , EG Gross , A Krongrad , JL Lesher , HK Park , BB Sanders , CL Smith & JR Taylor (1996) Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. Journal of the American Medical Association 276, 1957–1963.
GF Combs (1988) Selenium in foods. In Advances in Food Research, pp. 85–113 [ CO Chichester and BS Schweiger editors]. San Diego: CA: Academic Press.
GF Combs & WP Gray (1998) Chemopreventive agents: selenium. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 79, 179–192.
F Cumming , JJ Fardy & DR Woodward (1992) Selenium and human lactation in Australia: milk and blood selenium levels in lactating women and selenium intakes of their breast-fed infants. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 81, 292–295.
LA Daniels , RA Gibson & KN Simmer (2000) Indicators of selenium status in Australian infants. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 36, 370–374.
HS Dhindsa , MA Bergmingham , J Mierzwa & D Sullivan (1998) Plasma selenium concentrations in a Sikh population in Sydney, Australia. Analyst 123, 885–887.
A Diplock (1994) Antioxidants and disease prevention. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 15, 293–376.
IS Djujic , ON Jozanov-Stankov , M Milovac , V Jankovic & V Djermanovic (2000) Bioavailability and possible benefits of wheat intake naturally enriched with selenium and its products. Biological Trace Element Research 77, 273–285.
ML Dylewski , AM Mastro & MF Picciano (2002) Maternal selenium nutrition and neonatal immune system development. Biology of the Neonate 82, 122–127.
JJ Fardy , GD McOrist & YJ Farrar (1989) The determination of selenium status in the Australian diet using neutron activation analysis. Journal of Radioanalysis and Nuclear Chemistry 133, 397–408.
JW Finley & CD Davis (2001) Selenium from high-selenium broccoli is utilized differently than selenite, selenate and selenomethionine, but is more effective in inhibiting colon carcinogenesis. Biofactors 14, 191–196.
DV Frost (1981) Selenium and vitamin E as antidotes to heavy metal toxicities. In Selenium in Biology and Medicine [ JE Spallholz , JL Martin and HE Ganther editors]. Westport, CT: AVI Publishing.
RS Gibson (1994) Zinc nutrition and public health in developing countries. Nutrition Research Reviews 7, 151–173.
E Giovannucci (1998) Selenium and the risk of prostate cancer. Lancet 352, 755–756.
KO Godwin (1975) The role and the metabolism of selenium in the animal. In Trace Elements in Soil-Plant-Animal Systems, pp. 259–270 [ DJD Nicholas and AR Egan editors]. New York, NY: Academic Press.
NA Golubkina & GV Alfthan (1999) The human selenium status in 27 regions of Russia. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 13, 15–20.
RD Graham , D Senadhira , SE Beebe , C Iglesias & I Ortiz-Monasterio (1999) Breeding for micronutrient density in edible portions of staple food crops: conventional approaches. Field Crops Research 60, 57–80.
RD Graham , RM Welch & HE Bouis (2001) Addressing micronutrient malnutrition through enhancing the nutritional quality of staple foods: principles, perspectives and knowledge gaps. Advances in Agronomy 70, 77–142.
ER Grela (1996) Nutrient composition and content of antinutritional factors in spelt (T. Spelta L) cultivars. Journal of Science in Food and Agriculture 71, 399–404.
UC Gupta & SC Gupta (2000) Selenium in soils and crops, its deficiencies in livestock and humans: implications for management. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 31, 1791–1807.
UC Gupta & KA Winter (1975) Selenium content of soils and crops and the effects of lime and sulfur on plant selenium. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 55, 161–166.
UC Gupta , KA Winter & JB Sanderson (1993) Selenium content of barley as influenced by selenite- and selenate-enriched fertilizers. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 24, 1165–1170.
JM Holden , S Gebhardt , CS Davis & DG Lurie (1991) A nationwide study of the selenium contents and variability in white bread. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 4, 183–195.
WA House (1999) Trace element bioavailability as exemplified by iron and zinc. Field Crops Research 60, 115–141.
C Ip & D Lisk (1994) Characterisation of tissue selenium profiles and anticarcinogenic responses in rats fed natural sources of selenium-rich products. Carcinogenesis 15, 573–576.
K Jaakkola , J Tummavuori , A Pirinen , P Kurkela , M Tolonen & AU Arstila (1983) Selenium levels in whole blood of Finnish volunteers before and during organic and inorganic selenium supplementation. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigations 43, 473–476.
D Jeong , TS Kim , YW Chung , BJ Lee & IY Kim (2002) Selenoprotein W is a glutathione-dependent antioxidant in vivo. Federation of European Biochemical Societies Letters 517, 225–228.
C Jiang , W Jiang , C Ip , H Ganther & J Lu (1999) Selenium-induced inhibition of angiogenesis in mammary cancer at chemopreventive levels of intake. Molecular Carcinogenesis 26, 213–225.
E Kauf , H Dawczynski , G Jahreis , E Janitsky & K Winnefeld (1994) Sodium selenite therapy and thyroid-hormone status in cystic fibrosis and congenital hypothyroidism. Biological Trace Element Research 40, 247–253.
L Kiremidjian-Schumacher , M Roy , HI Wishe , MW Cohen & G Stotzky (1994) Supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. Biological Trace Element Research 41, 115–127.
J Kohrle (1999) The trace element selenium and the thyroid gland. Biochimie 81, 527–533.
KV Korotkov , SV Novoselov , DL Hatfield & VN Gladyshev (2002) Mammalian selenoprotein in which selenocysteine (Sec) incorporation is supported by a new form of Sec insertion sequence element. Molecular Cell Biology 22, 1402–1411.
RA Kowluru , J Tang & TS Kern (2001) Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes and experimental galactosemia. 7. Effect of long-term administration of antioxidants on the development of retinopathy. Diabetes 50, 1938–1942.
B Kurz , B Jost & M Schunke (2002) Dietary vitamins and selenium diminish the development of mechanically induced osteoarthritis and increase the expression of antioxidative enzymes in the knee joint of STR/1N mice. Osteoarthritis-Cartilage 10, 119–126.
J Lag & E Steinnes (1978) Regional distribution of selenium and arsenic in humus layers of Norwegian forest soils. Geoderma 20, 3–14.
OA Levander & MA Beck (1999) Selenium and viral virulence. British Medical Bulletin 55, 528–533.
K Lindstrom (1983) Selenium as a growth factor for plankton algae in laboratory experiments and in some Swedish lakes. Hydrobiologia 101, 35–48.
Y Liu , M Chiba , Y Inaba & M Kondo (2002) Keshan disease: a review from the aspect of history and etiology. Japanese Journal of Hygiene 56, 641–648.
MP Look , JK Rockstroh , GS Rao , KA Kreuzer , U Spengler & T Sauerbruch (1997) Serum selenium versus lymphocyte subsets and markers of disease progression and inflammatory response in human immunodeficiency virus-infection. Biological Trace Element Research 56, 31–41.
O Lux & D Naidoo (1995) The assessment of biological variation components of copper, zinc and selenium. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 6, 43–47.
ND McGlashan , SJ Cook , W Melrose , PL Martin , E Chelkowska & Witt von RJ (1996) Maternal selenium levels and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 26, 677–682.
McOrist & JJ Fardy (1989) Selenium status in the blood using neutron activation analysis. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 134, 65–72.
KJ Maier , CR Nelson , FC Bailey , SJ Klaine & AW Knight (1998) Accumulation of selenium by the aquatic biota of a watershed treated with seleniferous fertilizer. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 60, 409–416.
HM Meltzer , G Norheim , EB Loken & H Holm (1992) Supplementation with wheat selenium induces a dose-dependent response in serum and urine of a selenium-replete population. British Journal of Nutrition 67, 287–294.
PB Moser-Veillon , AR Mangeb , KY Patterson & C Veillon (1992) Utilization of two different chemical forms of Se during lactation using stable isotope tracers: an example of speciation in nutrition. Analyst 117, 559–562.
MA Moyad (2002) Selenium and vitamin E supplements for prostate cancer: evidence or embellishment? Urology 59, Suppl. 4A, 9–19.
M Mutanen , P Koivistoinen , VC Morris & OA Levander (1987) Relative nutritional availability to rats of selenium in Finnish spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fertilized or sprayed with sodium selenate and in an American winter bread wheat naturally high in Se. British Journal of Nutrition 57, 319–329.
J Neve (1991) Physiological and nutritional importance of selenium. Experientia 47, 187–193.
J Neve (1995) Human selenium supplementation as assessed by changes in blood selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 9, 65–73.
J Neve (1996) Selenium as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk 3, 42–47.
OE Olson , EJ Novacek , EI Whitehead & IC Palmer (1970) Investigations on selenium in wheat. Phytochemistry 9, 1181–1188.
J Pearn & CRW McCay (1979) Blood selenium in chronic spinal muscular atrophy. Journal of Neurological Science 42, 199–202.
A Peng , WH Wang , CX Wang , ZJ Wang , HF Rui , WZ Wang & ZW Yang (1999) The role of humic substances in drinking water in Kaschin-Beck disease in China. Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 293–296.
AR Piergiovanni , R Rizzi , E Pannacciulli & C Della Gatta (1997) Mineral composition in hulled wheat grains: a comparison between emmer (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) and spelt (T. Spelta L) accessions. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 48, 381–386.
MP Rayman (1997) Dietary selenium: time to act. British Medical Journal 314, 387–388.
MP Rayman (2000) The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 356, 233–241.
MP Rayman (2002) The argument for increasing selenium intake. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61, 203–215.
C Reilly (1996) Selenium in Food and Health, London, UK: Blackie.
K Schwarz & CM Foltz (1957) Selenium as an integral part of factor 3 against dietary necrotic liver degeneration. Journal of the American Chemical Society 79, 3292–3293.
R Scott & A MacPherson (1998) Selenium supplementation in sub-fertile human males. British Journal of Urology 82, 76–80.
YR Seo , MR Kelley & ML Smith (2002) Selenomethionine regulation of p53 by a ref1-dependent redox mechanism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99, 14548–14553.
C Shand , G Coutts , E Duff & D Atkinson (1992) Soil selenium treatments to ameliorate selenium deficiency in herbage. Journal of Science and Food in Agriculture 59, 27–35.
G Shor-Posner , MJ Miguez , LM Pineda , A Rodriguez , P Ruiz , G Castillo , X Burbano , R Lecusay & M Baum (2002) Impact of selenium status on the pathogenesis of mycobacterial disease in HIV-1-infected drug users during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 29, 169–173.
BR Singh (1991) Selenium content of wheat as affected by selenate and selenite contained in a Cl- or SO4 based NPK fertilizer. Fertilizer Research 30, 1–7.
JE Spallholz , LM Boylan & HS Larsen (1990) Advances in understanding selenium's role in the immune system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 587, 123–139.
RDH Stewart , NM Griffiths , CD Thomson & MF Robinson (1987) Quantitative selenium metabolism in normal New Zealand women. British Journal of Nutrition 40, 45–54.
N Terry , AM Zayed , MP de Souza & AS Tarun (2000) Selenium in higher plants. Annual Reviews of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 51, 401–432.
J Thorn , J Robertson & DH Buss (1976) Trace nutrients: selenium in British foods. British Journal of Nutrition 39, 391–396.
DR Van Campen & RP Glahn (1999) Micronutrient bioavailability techniques: accuracy, problems and limitations. Field Crops Research 60, 93–113.
P Van Dael , L Davidsson , EE Ziegler , LB Fay & D Barclay (2002) Comparison of selenite and selenate apparent absorption and retention in infants using stable isotope methodology. Pediatric Research 51, 71–75.
P Varo , G Alfthan , J Huttunen & A Aro (1994) Nationwide selenium supplementation in Finland – effects on diet, blood and tissue levels, and health. In Selenium in Biology and Human Health, pp. 197–218 [ R Burk , editor]. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
M Vinceti , ET Wei , C Malagoli , M Bergomi & G Vivoli (2001) Adverse health effects of selenium in humans. Reviews on Environmental Health 16, 233–251.
E Vuori , J Vaariskoski & H Hartikainen (1994) A long-term study of selenate sorption in Finnish cultivated soils. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 48, 91–98.
RM Welch & RD Graham (1999) A new paradigm for world agriculture: meeting human needs. Productive, sustainable, nutritious. Field Crops Research 60, 1–10.
BR Whelan & NJ Barrow (1994) Slow-release selenium fertilizers to correct selenium deficiency in grazing sheep in Western Australia. Fertilizer Research 38, 183–188.
CL White , AD Robson & HM Fisher (1981) Variation in nitrogen, sulphur, selenium, cobalt, manganese, copper and zinc contents of grain from wheat and two lupin species grown in a range of Mediterranean environment. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 32, 47–59.
FY Yang , ZH Lin , JR Xing , SG Li , J Yang , S San & L Wu (1994) Selenium deficiency is a necessary but not sufficient factor required for the pathogenesis of Keshan disease. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 16, 101–110.
M Yoshida & K Yasumoto (1987) Selenium contents of rice grown at various sites in Japan. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 1, 71–75.
K Yoshizawa , WC Willett , SJ Morris , MJ Stampfer , D Spiegelman , EB Rimm & E Giovannucci (1998) Study of prediagnostic selenium level in toenails and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 1219–1224.
MW Yu , IS Horng , YC Chiang , YF Liaw & CJ Chen (1999) Plasma selenium levels and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among men with chronic hepatitis virus infection. American Journal of Epidemiology 150, 367–374.
SY Yu , YJ Zhu & WG Li (1997) Protective role of selenium against hepatitis b virus and primary liver cancer in Qidong. Biological Trace Element Research 56, 117–124.
F Zhang , W Yu , JL Hargrove , P Greenspan , RG Dean , EW Taylor & DK Hartle (2002) Inhibition of TNF-alpha induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression by selenium. Atherosclerosis 161, 381–386.
L Zhao , AG Cox , JA Ruzicka , AA Bhat , W Zang & EW Taylor (2000) Molecular modelling and in vitro activity of an HIV-1 encoded glutathione peroxidase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97, 6356–6361.