1Sharifian, A, Farahani, S, Pasalar, P, et al. . (2005) Shift work as an oxidative stressor. J Circadian Rhythms 3, 15.
2Di Lorenzo, L, De Pergola, G, Zocchetti, C, et al. . (2003) Effect of shift work on body mass index: results of a study performed in 319 glucose-tolerant men working in a Southern Italian industry. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 1353–1358.
3Ostry, AS, Radi, S, Louie, AM, et al. . (2006) Psychosocial and other working conditions in relation to body mass index in a representative sample of Australian workers. BMC Public Health 6, 53.
4Parkes, KR (2002) Shift work and age as interactive predictors of body mass index among offshore workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 28, 64–71.
5Haus, E & Smolensky, M (2006) Biological clocks and shift work: circadian dysregulation and potential long-term effects. Cancer Causes Control 17, 489–500.
6Beersma, DG & Gordijn, MC (2007) Circadian control of the sleep–wake cycle. Physiol Behav 90, 190–195.
7World Health Organization (1997) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation Group on Obesity. Geneva: WHO.
8Morikawa, Y, Nakagawa, H, Miura, K, et al. . (2007) Effect of shift work on body mass index and metabolic parameters. Scand J Work Environ Health 33, 45–50.
9Wilsgaard, T, Jacobsen, BK & Arnesen, E (2005) Determining lifestyle correlates of body mass index using multilevel analyses: the Tromso Study, 1979–2001. Am J Epidemiol 162, 1179–1188.
10Karlsson, B, Knutsson, A & Lindahl, B (2001) Is there an association between shift work and having a metabolic syndrome? Results from a population based study of 27 485 people. Occup Environ Med 58, 747–752.
11van Amelsvoort, LG, Schouten, EG & Kok, FJ (1999) Duration of shiftwork related to body mass index and waist to hip ratio. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23, 973–978.
12Ishizaki, M, Morikawa, Y, Nakagawa, H, et al. . (2004) The influence of work characteristics on body mass index and waist to hip ratio in Japanese employees. Ind Health 42, 41–49.
13Nakamura, K, Shimai, S, Kikuchi, S, et al. . (1997) Shift work and risk factors for coronary heart disease in Japanese blue-collar workers: serum lipids and anthropometric characteristics. Occup Med (Lond) 47, 142–146.
14Ha, M & Park, J (2005) Shiftwork and metabolic risk factors of cardiovascular disease. J Occup Health 47, 89–95.
15Gomez-Abellan, P, Hernandez-Morante, JJ, Lujan, JA, et al. . (2008) Clock genes are implicated in the human metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 121–128.
16Bray, MS & Young, ME (2007) Circadian rhythms in the development of obesity: potential role for the circadian clock within the adipocyte. Obes Rev 8, 169–181.
17Sookoian, S, Gemma, C, Fernandez Gianotti, T, et al. . (2007) Effects of rotating shift work on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome and inflammation. J Intern Med 261, 285–292.
18Halberg, F (1976) Chronobiology in 1975. Chronobiologia 3, 1–11.
19Follenius, M, Brandenberger, G & Hietter, B (1982) Diurnal cortisol peaks and their relationships to meals. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55, 757–761.
20Froy, O (2007) The relationship between nutrition and circadian rhythms in mammals. Front Neuroendocrinol 28, 61–71.
21Fukushima, M, Lupien, J & Bray, GA (1985) Interaction of light and corticosterone on food intake and brown adipose tissue of the rat. Am J Physiol 249, R753–R757.
22Hau, M & Gwinner, E (1996) Food as a circadian Zeitgeber for house sparrows: the effect of different food access durations. J Biol Rhythms 11, 196–207.
23Johnson, BC (1992) Nutrient intake as a time signal for circadian rhythm. J Nutr 122, 1753–1759.
24Strubbe, JH & Woods, SC (2004) The timing of meals. Psychol Rev 111, 128–141.
25Stutz, AM, Staszkiewicz, J, Ptitsyn, A, et al. . (2007) Circadian expression of genes regulating food intake. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 607–615.
26Yang, S, Liu, A, Weidenhammer, A, et al. . (2009) The role of mPer2 clock gene in glucocorticoid and feeding rhythms. Endocrinology 150, 2153–2160.
27Yoshimatsu, H, Machidori, H, Doi, T, et al. . (1993) Abnormalities in obese Zuckers: defective control of histaminergic functions. Physiol Behav 54, 487–491.
28Hanada, R, Teranishi, H, Pearson, JT, et al. . (2004) Neuromedin U has a novel anorexigenic effect independent of the leptin signaling pathway. Nat Med 10, 1067–1073.
29Allebrandt, KV & Roenneberg, T (2008) The search for circadian clock components in humans: new perspectives for association studies. Braz J Med Biol Res 41, 716–721.
30Lamont, EW, Legault-Coutu, D, Cermakian, N, et al. . (2007) The role of circadian clock genes in mental disorders. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 9, 333–342.
31Kohsaka, A & Bass, J (2007) A sense of time: how molecular clocks organize metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab 18, 4–11.
32Zvonic, S, Ptitsyn, AA, Conrad, SA, et al. . (2006) Characterization of peripheral circadian clocks in adipose tissues. Diabetes 55, 962–970.
33Yang, X, Downes, M, Yu, RT, et al. . (2006) Nuclear receptor expression links the circadian clock to metabolism. Cell 126, 801–810.
34Rudic, RD, McNamara, P, Curtis, AM, et al. . (2004) BMAL1 and CLOCK, two essential components of the circadian clock, are involved in glucose homeostasis. PLoS Biol 2, e377.
35Turek, FW, Joshu, C, Kohsaka, A, et al. . (2005) Obesity and metabolic syndrome in circadian Clock mutant mice. Science 308, 1043–1045.
36Shimba, S, Ishii, N, Ohta, Y, et al. . (2005) Brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1), a component of the molecular clock, regulates adipogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102, 12071–12076.
37Salgado-Delgado, R, Angeles-Castellanos, M, Buijs, MR, et al. . (2008) Internal desynchronization in a model of night-work by forced activity in rats. Neuroscience 154, 922–931.
38Simon, C, Weibel, L & Brandenberger, G (2000) Twenty-four-hour rhythms of plasma glucose and insulin secretion rate in regular night workers. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 278, E413–E420.
39Knutsson, A (2003) Health disorders of shift workers. Occup Med (Lond) 53, 103–108.
40Weststrate, JA, Weys, PJ, Poortvliet, EJ, et al. . (1989) Diurnal variation in postabsorptive resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr 50, 908–914.
41Weibel, L & Brandenberger, G (1998) Disturbances in hormonal profiles of night workers during their usual sleep and work times. J Biol Rhythms 13, 202–208.
42Terman, M, Gibbon, J, Fairhurst, S, et al. . (1984) Daily meal anticipation: interaction of circadian and interval timing. Ann N Y Acad Sci 423, 470–487.
43Smith, GP (2000) The controls of eating: a shift from nutritional homeostasis to behavioral neuroscience. Nutrition 16, 814–820.
44Scheer, FA, Hilton, MF, Mantzoros, CS, et al. . (2009) Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106, 4453–4458.
45Romon, M, Le Fur, C, Lebel, P, et al. . (1997) Circadian variation of postprandial lipemia. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 934–940.
46Romon, M, Beuscart, R, Frimat, P, et al. . (1986) Caloric intake and weight gain according to the shift schedule of shift workers (article in French). Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 34, 324–331.
47Romon, M, Edme, JL, Boulenguez, C, et al. . (1993) Circadian variation of diet-induced thermogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr 57, 476–480.
48Ribeiro, DC, Hampton, SM, Morgan, L, et al. . (1998) Altered postprandial hormone and metabolic responses in a simulated shift work environment. J Endocrinol 158, 305–310.
49Qin, LQ, Li, J, Wang, Y, et al. . (2003) The effects of nocturnal life on endocrine circadian patterns in healthy adults. Life Sci 73, 2467–2475.
50Plata-Salaman, CR & Oomura, Y (1987) Food intake dependence on acute changes in light schedule. Physiol Behav 41, 135–140.
51Pasqua, IC & Moreno, CR (2004) The nutritional status and eating habits of shift workers: a chronobiological approach. Chronobiol Int 21, 949–960.
52Morikawa, Y, Miura, K, Sasaki, S, et al. . (2008) Evaluation of the effects of shift work on nutrient intake: a cross-sectional study. J Occup Health 50, 270–278.
53Morgan, L, Hampton, S, Gibbs, M, et al. . (2003) Circadian aspects of postprandial metabolism. Chronobiol Int 20, 795–808.
54Lennernas, M, Akerstedt, T & Hambraeus, L (1994) Nocturnal eating and serum cholesterol of three-shift workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 20, 401–406.
55Lennernas, M, Hambraeus, L & Akerstedt, T (1995) Shift related dietary intake in day and shift workers. Appetite 25, 253–265.
56de Assis, MA, Nahas, MV, Bellisle, F, et al. . (2003) Meals, snacks and food choices in Brazilian shift workers with high energy expenditure. J Hum Nutr Diet 16, 283–289.
57de Assis, MA, Kupek, E, Nahas, MV, et al. . (2003) Food intake and circadian rhythms in shift workers with a high workload. Appetite 40, 175–183.
58Crispim, CA, Zalcman, I, Dáttilo, M, et al. . (2007) The influence of sleep and sleep loss upon food intake and metabolism. Nutr Res Rev 20, 195–212.
59de Castro, JM (2004) Genes, the environment and the control of food intake. Br J Nutr 92, Suppl. 1, S59–S62.
60De Bacquer, D, Van Risseghem, M, Clays, E, et al. . (2009) Rotating shift work and the metabolic syndrome: a prospective study. Int J Epidemiol 38, 848–854.
61Keith, SW, Redden, DT, Katzmarzyk, PT, et al. . (2006) Putative contributors to the secular increase in obesity: exploring the roads less traveled. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 1585–1594.
62Tüchsen, F, Hannerz, H & Burr, H (2006) A 12 year prospective study of circulatory disease among Danish shift workers. Occup Environ Med 63, 451–455.
63van Mark, A, Spallek, M, Kessel, R, et al. . (2006) Shift work and pathological conditions. J Occup Med Toxicol 1, 25.
64Marquie, JC & Foret, J (1999) Sleep, age, and shiftwork experience. J Sleep Res 8, 297–304.
65Conway, PM, Campanini, P, Sartori, S, et al. . (2008) Main and interactive effects of shiftwork, age and work stress on health in an Italian sample of healthcare workers. Appl Ergon 39, 630–639.
66Morikawa, Y, Nakagawa, H, Miura, K, et al. . (2005) Shift work and the risk of diabetes mellitus among Japanese male factory workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 31, 179–183.
67Morikawa, Y, Nakagawa, H, Miura, K, et al. . (1999) Relationship between shift work and onset of hypertension in a cohort of manual workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 25, 100–104.
68Whitehead, DC, Thomas, H Jr & Slapper, DR (1992) A rational approach to shift work in emergency medicine. Ann Emerg Med 21, 1250–1258.
69Karlsson, BH, Knutsson, AK, Lindahl, BO, et al. . (2003) Metabolic disturbances in male workers with rotating three-shift work. Results of the WOLF study. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 76, 424–430.
70Biggi, N, Consonni, D, Galluzzo, V, et al. . (2008) Metabolic syndrome in permanent night workers. Chronobiol Int 25, 443–454.
71Nagaya, T, Yoshida, H, Takahashi, H, et al. . (2002) Markers of insulin resistance in day and shift workers aged 30–59 years. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 75, 562–568.
72Shea, SA, Hilton, MF, Orlova, C, et al. . (2005) Independent circadian and sleep/wake regulation of adipokines and glucose in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 2537–2544.
73Wolk, R & Somers, VK (2007) Sleep and the metabolic syndrome. Exp Physiol 92, 67–78.
74Lund, J, Arendt, J, Hampton, SM, et al. . (2001) Postprandial hormone and metabolic responses amongst shift workers in Antarctica. J Endocrinol 171, 557–564.
75Morgan, L, Arendt, J, Owens, D, et al. . (1998) Effects of the endogenous clock and sleep time on melatonin, insulin, glucose and lipid metabolism. J Endocrinol 157, 443–451.
76Ghiasvand, M, Heshmat, R, Golpira, R, et al. . (2006) Shift working and risk of lipid disorders: a cross-sectional study. Lipids Health Dis 5, 9.
77Koller, M, Kundi, M & Cervinka, R (1978) Field studies of shift work at an Austrian oil refinery. I: Health and psychosocial wellbeing of workers who drop out of shiftwork. Ergonomics 21, 835–847.
78Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (2001) Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 285, 2486–2497.
79Ford, ES, Giles, WH & Dietz, WH (2002) Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 287, 356–359.
80Eckel, RH, Grundy, SM & Zimmet, PZ (2005) The metabolic syndrome. Lancet 365, 1415–1428.
81Holmback, U, Forslund, A, Lowden, A, et al. . (2003) Endocrine responses to nocturnal eating – possible implications for night work. Eur J Nutr 42, 75–83.
82Tanofsky-Kraff, M & Yanovski, SZ (2004) Eating disorder or disordered eating? Non-normative eating patterns in obese individuals. Obes Res 12, 1361–1366.
83Copertaro, A, Bracci, M, Barbaresi, M, et al. . (2008) Role of waist circumference in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome and assessment of cardiovascular risk in shift workers (article in Italian). Med Lav 99, 444–453.
84Muller, MB, Keck, ME, Zimmermann, S, et al. . (2000) Disruption of feeding behavior in CRH receptor 1-deficient mice is dependent on glucocorticoids. Neuroreport 11, 1963–1966.
85Asakuma, S, Hiraku, O, Kurose, Y, et al. . (2004) Diurnal rhythm of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma leptin levels related to feeding in non-lactating and lactating rats. J Endocrinol 180, 283–286.
86Baskin, DG, Figlewicz Lattemann, D, Seeley, RJ, et al. . (1999) Insulin and leptin: dual adiposity signals to the brain for the regulation of food intake and body weight. Brain Res 848, 114–123.
87Choi, YH, Li, C, Hartzell, DL, et al. . (2008) ICV leptin effects on spontaneous physical activity and feeding behavior in rats. Behav Brain Res 188, 100–108.
88Dube, MG, Xu, B, Kalra, PS, et al. . (1999) Disruption in neuropeptide Y and leptin signaling in obese ventromedial hypothalamic-lesioned rats. Brain Res 816, 38–46.
89Motivala, SJ, Tomiyama, AJ, Ziegler, M, et al. . (2009) Nocturnal levels of ghrelin and leptin and sleep in chronic insomnia. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34, 540–545.
90Inyushkin, AN, Bhumbra, GS & Dyball, RE (2009) Leptin modulates spike coding in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus. J Neuroendocrinol 21, 705–714.
91Ptitsyn, AA & Gimble, JM (2007) Analysis of circadian pattern reveals tissue-specific alternative transcription in leptin signaling pathway. BMC Bioinformatics 8, Suppl. 7, S15.
92Goel, N, Stunkard, AJ, Rogers, NL, et al. . (2009) Circadian rhythm profiles in women with night eating syndrome. J Biol Rhythms 24, 85–94.
93Kalsbeek, A, Fliers, E, Romijn, JA, et al. . (2001) The suprachiasmatic nucleus generates the diurnal changes in plasma leptin levels. Endocrinology 142, 2677–2685.
94Natalucci, G, Riedl, S, Gleiss, A, et al. . (2005) Spontaneous 24-h ghrelin secretion pattern in fasting subjects: maintenance of a meal-related pattern. Eur J Endocrinol 152, 845–850.
95Boggild, H & Jeppesen, HJ (2001) Intervention in shift scheduling and changes in biomarkers of heart disease in hospital wards. Scand J Work Environ Health 27, 87–96.
96Copertaro, A, Bracci, M, Barbaresi, M, et al. . (2008) Assessment of cardiovascular risk in shift healthcare workers. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 15, 224–229.
97Sookoian, S, Gemma, C, Fernandéz Gianotti, T, et al. . (2007) Effects of rotating shift work on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome and inflammation. J Intern Med 261, 285–292.