Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Securing tropical forest carbon: the contribution of protected areas to REDD

  • Jörn P. W. Scharlemann (a1), Valerie Kapos (a1), Alison Campbell (a1), Igor Lysenko (a1), Neil D. Burgess (a1), Matthew C. Hansen (a2), Holly K. Gibbs (a3), Barney Dickson (a1) and Lera Miles (a1)...
Abstract
Abstract

Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6–17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world’s humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25–0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200–7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is > 1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important, although certainly not sufficient, component of an overall strategy for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD).

Copyright
Corresponding author
United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CB3 0DL, UK. E-mail jorn.scharlemann@unep-wcmc.org
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

F. Achard , H.D. Eva , P. Mayaux , H.J. Stibig & A. Belward (2004) Improved estimates of net carbon emissions from land cover change in the tropics for the 1990s. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 18, GB2008.

F. Achard , H.D. Eva , H.J. Stibig , P. Mayaux , J. Gallego , T. Richards . (2002) Determination of deforestation rates of the world’s humid tropical forests. Science, 297, 9991002.

K.S. Andam , P.J. Ferraro , A. Pfaff , G.A. Sanchez-Azofeifa & J.A. Robalino (2008) Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 1608916094.

R. DeFries , A. Hansen , A.C. Newton & M.C. Hansen (2005) Increasing isolation of protected areas in tropical forests over the past twenty years. Ecological Applications, 15, 1926.

R.S. DeFries , R.A. Houghton , M.C. Hansen , C.B. Field , D. Skole & J. Townshend (2002) Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and regrowth based on satellite observations for the 1980s and 1990s. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99, 1425614261.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2006) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005: Progress Towards Sustainable Forest Management. FAO, Rome, Italy.

H.K. Gibbs , S. Brown , J.O. Niles & J.A. Foley (2007) Monitoring and estimating tropical forest carbon stocks: making REDD a reality. Environmental Research Letters, 2, 045023.

H.K. Gibbs , M. Johnston , J.A. Foley , T. Holloway , C. Monfreda , N. Ramankutty . (2008) Carbon payback times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: the effects of changing yield and technology. Environmental Research Letters, 3, 034001.

L.B. Guo & R.M. Gifford (2002) Soil carbon stocks and land use change: a meta analysis. Global Change Biology, 8, 345360.

M.C. Hansen , R.S. DeFries , J.R. Townshend , M. Carroll , C. DiMiceli & R. Sohlberg (2003) Global percent tree cover at a spatial resolution of 500 meters: first results of the MODIS vegetation continuous fields algorithm. Earth Interact, 7, 115.

M.C. Hansen , S.V. Stehman , P.V. Potapov , T.R. Loveland , J.R.G. Townshend , R.S. DeFries . (2008) Humid tropical forest clearing from 2000 to 2005 quantified by using multitemporal and multiresolution remotely sensed data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 94399444.

A. James , K.J. Gaston & A. Balmford (2001) Can we afford to conserve biodiversity? BioScience, 51, 4352.

L.N. Joppa , S.R. Loarie & S.L. Pimm (2008) On the protection of “protected areas”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 66736678.

H. Keith , B.G. Mackey & D.B. Lindenmayer (2009) Re-evaluation of forest biomass carbon stocks and lessons from the world’s most carbon-dense forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 106, 1163511640.

C. Le Quéré , M.R. Raupach , J.G. Canadell , G. Marland , L. Bopp , P. Ciais . (2009) Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Nature Geoscience, 2, 831836.

L. Miles & V. Kapos (2008) Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation: global land-use implications. Science, 320, 14541455.

D. Nepstad , S. Schwartzman , B. Bamberger , M. Santilli , D. Ray , P. Schlesinger . (2006) Inhibition of Amazon deforestation and fire by parks and indigenous lands. Conservation Biology, 20, 6573.

D.M. Olson , E. Dinerstein , E.D. Wikramanayake , N.D. Burgess , G.V.N. Powell , E.C. Underwood . (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. BioScience, 51, 933938.

A. Pfaff , J. Robalino , G.A. Sanchez-Azofeifa , K.S. Andam & P.J. Ferraro (2009) Park location affects forest protection: land characteristics cause differences in park impacts across Costa Rica. B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 9, article 5.

N. Ramankutty , H.K. Gibbs , F. Achard , R. Defriess , J.A. Foley & R.A. Houghton (2007) Challenges to estimating carbon emissions from tropical deforestation. Global Change Biology, 13, 5166.

T.H. Ricketts , B. Soares-Filho , G.A.B. da Fonseca , D. Nepstad , A. Pfaff , A. Petsonk . (2010) Indigenous lands, protected areas, and slowing climate change. PLoS Biology, 8(3), e1000331.

G.R. van der Werf , D.C. Morton , R.S. DeFries , J.G.J. Olivier , P.S. Kasibhatla , R.B. Jackson . (2009) CO2 emissions from forest loss. Nature Geoscience, 2, 737738.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Oryx
  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: