Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-xm8r8 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-15T15:23:51.008Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Morphology and pathology of the ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (‘lobster louse’) in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 July 2011

EMMA C. WOOTTON
Affiliation:
Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
EDWARD C. POPE
Affiliation:
Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
CLAIRE L. VOGAN
Affiliation:
College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
EMILY C. ROBERTS
Affiliation:
Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
CHARLOTTE E. DAVIES
Affiliation:
Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
ANDREW F. ROWLEY*
Affiliation:
Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
*
*Corresponding author: Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK. Tel: +1792 295455. E-mail: a.f.rowley@swansea.ac.uk

Summary

Ectoparasitic copepods have been reported in a wide range of aquatic animals, including crustacean shellfish. However, with the exception of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, our knowledge of such parasites in commercial species is rudimentary. The current study examines the morphology and pathology of the parasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the ‘lobster louse’) in its host, the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Lobsters were sampled from waters surrounding Lundy Island (Bristol Channel, UK) and all individuals collected were found to harbour female adult N. astaci in their gills, with a mean of 47·3 parasites/lobster. The majority of N. astaci were found in the basal region of pleurobranch gills. The parasite was found to attach to gill filaments via its oral sucker, maxillae and maxillipeds, and to feed on host haemolymph (blood) through a funnel-like feeding channel. It caused varying degrees of damage to the host gill, including occlusion of gill filaments and disruption to the vascular system in the central axis. Although there was evidence of extensive host response (haemocytic infiltration) to the parasite, it was displaced from the parasite attachment site and thus was observed in the central gill axis below. The region of gill filament immediately underlying the parasite feeding channel was devoid of such activity suggesting that the parasite interferes with the cellular defence and haemostatic mechanisms of the lobster in order to maintain invasion of the host.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Bennett, S. M. and Bennett, M. B. (2001). Gill pathology caused by infestations of adult and preadult Dissonus manteri Kabata (Copepoda: Dissonidae) on coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepede), (Serranidae). Journal of Fish Diseases 24, 523533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boxshall, G. A. (2005). Crustacean parasites: Copepoda (copepods). In Marine Parasitology (ed. Rohde, K.), pp. 123138. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
Boxshall, G. A. and Lincoln, R. J. (1983). Some new parasitic copepods (Siphononstomatoida: Nicothoidae) from deep-sea asellote isopods. Journal of Natural History 17, 891900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brusca, R. C. and Brusca, G. J. (2003). Invertebrates 2nd Edn.Sinauer Associates Inc, Sunderland MA, USA.Google Scholar
Costello, M. J. (2009 a). The global economic cost of sea lice to salmonid farming industry. Journal of Fish Diseases 32, 115118. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.2008.01011x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Costello, M. J. (2009 b). How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 276, 33853394. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2009.0771.Google ScholarPubMed
Cusack, R. and Cone, D. K. (1986). A review of parasites as vectors of viral and bacterial diseases of fish. Journal of Fish Diseases 9, 169171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davey, J. T. (1980). Spatial distribution of the copepod parasite Lernanthropus kroyeri on the gills of bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 60, 10611067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faure, L. (1958). Rapport préliminaire sur la présence de Nicothoë astaci chez des homards de diverses origines. Science et Pêche 62, 45.Google Scholar
GBIF Data Portal. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), data.gbif.org, accessed 20-12-10.Google Scholar
Gibson, F. A. (1961). Gaffkaemia in stored lobsters. ICES Shellfish Committee C, 58, 1.Google Scholar
Gotto, R. V. (1954). A copepod new to the British Isles and others hitherto unrecorded from Irish coastal waters. The Irish Naturalists’ Journal 11, 133135.Google Scholar
Gurney, R. (1930). The larva of Nicothoë astaci and its systematic position. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 16, 453460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holmes, J. M. C., Costello, M. J. and Connor, D. W. (1997). Crustacea. In The Species Directory of the Marine Fauna and Flora of the British Isles and Surrounding Seas (ed. Howson, C. M. and Picton, B. E.), pp. 153223. Ulster Museum and the Marine Conservation Society, Belfast and Ross-on-Wye, UK.Google Scholar
ICES (2007). Report on the working group of pathology and diseases of marine organisms (WGPDMO), 20–24 March 2007, Tenerife, Spain ICES CM2007/MCC:04. 86 pp.Google Scholar
Inoue, Y. and Ueno, M. (1995). Vascular system in the gill of Homarus americanus: A scanning electron microscopic study. Journal of Electron Microscopy 44, 311318.Google Scholar
Inoue, Y., Ueno, M. and Baba, S. (1997). Arterial system of the gill of the lobster, Homarus americanus. Journal of Morphology 233, 165181.3.0.CO;2-5>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kabata, Z. (1981). Copepoda (Crustacea) parasitic on fishes: problems and perspectives. Advances in Parasitology 19, 171.Google Scholar
Krkošek, M., Ford, J. S., Morton, A., Lele, S., Myers, R. A. and Lewis, M. A. (2007). Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon. Science 318, 17721775. doi: 10.1126/science.1148744.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leigh-Sharpe, W. H. (1926). Nicothoë astaci (Copepoda) with a revision of the appendages. Parasitology 18, 148153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marine Management Organisation (2009). UK Sea Fisheries Statistics 2009 – Tables http://www.marinemanagement.org.uk/fisheries/statistics/annual2009.htm#ch3.Google Scholar
Mason, J. (1959). The biology of Nicothoë astaci Audouin and Milne Edwards. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 38, 316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLaughlin, P. A. (1983). Internal anatomy. In The Biology of Crustacea Vol. 5 (ed. Mantel, L. H.), pp. 152. Academic Press Inc., London, UK.Google Scholar
Michels, J. (2007). Confocal laser scanning microscopy: using cuticular autofluorescence for high resolution morphological imaging in small crustaceans. Journal of Microscopy 227, 17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nowak, B. F., Bryan, J. and Jones, S. R. M. (2010). Do salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, have a role in the epidemiology of amoebic gill disease caused by Neoparamoeba perurans? Journal of Fish Diseases 33, 683687. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.2010.01158.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nylund, A., Hovland, T., Hodneland, K., Nilsen, F. and Lovik, P. (1994). Mechanisms for the transmission of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 19, 95100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riddell, B. E., Beamish, R. J., Richards, L. J. and Candy, J. R. (2008). Comment on “Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon”. Science 322, 1790b. doi: 10.1126/science.1156341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roubal, F. R. (1999). Extent of gill pathology in the toadfish, Tetractenos hamiltoni caused by Naobranchia variabilis (Copepoda : Naobranchiidae). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 35, 203211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott-Holland, T. B., Bennett, S. M. and Bennett, M. B. (2006). Distribution of an asymmetrical copepod, Hatschekia plectropomi, on the gills of Plectropomus leopardus. Journal of Fish Biology 68, 222235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shields, J. D., Stephens, F. J. and Jones, J. B. (2006). Pathogens, parasites and other symbionts. In Lobsters: Biology, Management, Aquaculture and Fisheries (ed. Phillips, B. F.), pp. 146204. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sindermann, C. J. and Rosenfield, A. (1967). Principle diseases of commercially important marine bivalve Mollusca and Crustacea. US. Fish and Wildlife Service. Fishery Bulletin 66, 335385.Google Scholar
Vogan, C. L., Powell, A. and Rowley, A. F. (2008). Shell disease in crustaceans - just chitin recycling gone wrong? Environmental Microbiology 10, 826835. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01514.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wynnchuk, M. (1992). Minimizing artifacts in tissue processing. 1. Importance of softening agents. Journal of Histotechnology 15, 321323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar