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Vector species richness increases haemorrhagic disease prevalence through functional diversity modulating the duration of seasonal transmission

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 July 2015

ANDREW W. PARK*
Affiliation:
Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, 140 E. Green Street, Athens, GA 30602, USA Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 501 D.W. Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602, USA
CHRISTOPHER A. CLEVELAND
Affiliation:
Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS), Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 589 D.W. Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602, USA
TAD A. DALLAS
Affiliation:
Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, 140 E. Green Street, Athens, GA 30602, USA
JOSEPH L. CORN
Affiliation:
Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS), Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 589 D.W. Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
*Corresponding author: Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, 140 E. Green Street, Athens, GA 30602, USA. E-mail: awpark@uga.edu

Summary

Although many parasites are transmitted between hosts by a suite of arthropod vectors, the impact of vector biodiversity on parasite transmission is poorly understood. Positive relationships between host infection prevalence and vector species richness (SR) may operate through multiple mechanisms, including (i) increased vector abundance, (ii) a sampling effect in which species of high vectorial capacity are more likely to occur in species-rich communities, and (iii) functional diversity whereby communities comprised species with distinct phenologies may extend the duration of seasonal transmission. Teasing such mechanisms apart is impeded by a lack of appropriate data, yet could highlight a neglected role for functional diversity in parasite transmission. We used statistical modelling of extensive host, vector and microparasite data to test the hypothesis that functional diversity leading to longer seasonal transmission explained variable levels of disease in a wildlife population. We additionally developed a simple transmission model to guide our expectation of how an increased transmission season translates to infection prevalence. Our study demonstrates that vector SR is associated with increased levels of disease reporting, but not via increases in vector abundance or via a sampling effect. Rather, the relationship operates by extending the length of seasonal transmission, in line with theoretical predictions.

Type
Special Issue Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

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