Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 97
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bachmaier, Sabine Witztum, Ronit Tsigankov, Polina Koren, Roni Boshart, Michael and Zilberstein, Dan 2016. Protein kinase A signaling during bidirectional axenic differentiation in Leishmania. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 46, Issue. 2, p. 75.

    De Paula Lima, Carla V Batista, Michel Kugeratski, Fernanda G Vincent, Isabel M Soares, Maurilio J Probst, Christian M Krieger, Marco A and Marchini, Fabricio K 2014. LM14 defined medium enables continuous growth of Trypanosoma cruzi. BMC Microbiology, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    Hartmann, Marcus W.W. and Breitling, Reinhard 2014. Industrial Scale Suspension Culture of Living Cells.

    Kassem, A. Pays, E. and Vanhamme, L. 2014. Transcription is initiated on silent variant surface glycoprotein expression sites despite monoallelic expression in Trypanosoma brucei. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue. 24, p. 8943.

    Orrling, Kristina M. Jansen, Chimed Vu, Xuan Lan Balmer, Vreni Bregy, Patrick Shanmugham, Anitha England, Paul Bailey, David Cos, Paul Maes, Louis Adams, Emily van den Bogaart, Erika Chatelain, Eric Ioset, Jean-Robert van de Stolpe, Andrea Zorg, Stèphanie Veerman, Johan Seebeck, Thomas Sterk, Geert Jan de Esch, Iwan J. P. and Leurs, Rob 2012. Catechol Pyrazolinones as Trypanocidals: Fragment-Based Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacological Evaluation of Nanomolar Inhibitors of Trypanosomal Phosphodiesterase B1. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 55, Issue. 20, p. 8745.

    Brenndörfer, Martin and Boshart, Michael 2010. Selection of reference genes for mRNA quantification in Trypanosoma brucei. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. 172, Issue. 1, p. 52.

    Peacock, Lori Ferris, Vanessa Bailey, Mick and Gibson, Wendy 2008. Fly transmission and mating of Trypanosoma brucei brucei strain 427. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. 160, Issue. 2, p. 100.

    Burugu, M.W. Mbatia, B.N. Osir, E.O. Kenya, E.U. and Abubakar, L.U. 2007. The Glossina proteolytic lectin (Gpl) gene is expressed only in members of Glossina species. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, Vol. 27, Issue. 3-4, p. 145.

    Engstler, Markus Pfohl, Thomas Herminghaus, Stephan Boshart, Michael Wiegertjes, Geert Heddergott, Niko and Overath, Peter 2007. Hydrodynamic Flow-Mediated Protein Sorting on the Cell Surface of Trypanosomes. Cell, Vol. 131, Issue. 3, p. 505.

    Kramer, Susanne Klöckner, Thomas Selmayr, Michael and Boshart, Michael 2007. Interstrain sequence comparison, transcript map and clonal genomic rearrangement of a 28kb locus on chromosome 9 of Trypanosoma brucei. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. 151, Issue. 1, p. 129.

    Bisaggio, Danielle F.R. Campanati, Loraine Pinto, Rodrigo C.V. and Souto-Padrón, Thaïs 2006. Effect of suramin on trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi: Changes on cell motility and on the ultrastructure of the flagellum-cell body attachment region. Acta Tropica, Vol. 98, Issue. 2, p. 162.

    Janzen, Christian J. Hake, Sandra B. Lowell, Joanna E. and Cross, George A.M. 2006. Selective Di- or Trimethylation of Histone H3 Lysine 76 by Two DOT1 Homologs Is Important for Cell Cycle Regulation in Trypanosoma brucei. Molecular Cell, Vol. 23, Issue. 4, p. 497.

    Bütikofer, Peter Jelk, Jennifer Malherbe, Tatiana Vassella, Erik Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro Kunz Renggli, Christina Brun, Reto and Roditi, Isabel 2003. Phosphorylation of GPEET procyclin is not necessary for survival of Trypanosoma brucei procyclic forms in culture and in the tsetse fly midgut. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. 126, Issue. 2, p. 287.

    Haines, Lee R. Hancock, Robert E. W. and Pearson, Terry W. 2003. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide Killing of African Trypanosomes andSodalis glossinidius, a Bacterial Symbiont of the Insect Vector of Sleeping Sickness. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Issue. 4, p. 175.

    Liniger, Matthias Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro Van Den Abbeele, Jan Kunz Renggli, Christina Brun, Reto Englund, Paul T and Roditi, Isabel 2003. Cleavage of trypanosome surface glycoproteins by alkaline trypsin-like enzyme(s) in the midgut of Glossina morsitans. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 33, Issue. 12, p. 1319.

    Viswambharan, Hema Seebeck, Thomas and Yang, Zhihong 2003. Enhanced endothelial nitric oxide-synthase activity in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 33, Issue. 10, p. 1099.

    Bütikofer, Peter Vassella, Erik Boschung, Monika Renggli, Christina Kunz Brun, Reto Pearson, Terry W and Roditi, Isabel 2002. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface molecules of Trypanosoma congolense insect forms are developmentally regulated in the tsetse fly. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. 119, Issue. 1, p. 7.

    Bütikofer, Peter Vassella, Erik Mehlert, Angela Ferguson, Michael A.J and Roditi, Isabel 2002. Characterisation and cellular localisation of a GPEET procyclin precursor in Trypanosoma brucei insect forms. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. 119, Issue. 1, p. 87.

    Mookherjee, N and Pearson, T.W 2002. Trypanosoma simiae and Trypanosoma congolense: surface glycoconjugates of procyclic forms—the same coats on different hangers?. Experimental Parasitology, Vol. 100, Issue. 4, p. 257.

    Yan, J. Cheng, Q. Li, C.-B. and Aksoy, S. 2002. Molecular characterization of three gut genes from Glossina morsitans morsitans: cathepsin B, zinc-metalloprotease and zinc-carboxypeptidase. Insect Molecular Biology, Vol. 11, Issue. 1, p. 57.


Cultivation of Trypanosoma brucei sspp. in semi-defined and defined media

  • G. A. M. Cross (a1) and J. C. Manning (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 April 2009

Semi-defined and defined media for the growth of culture forms of Trypanosoma brucei sspp. have been developed by enrichment of tissue culture medium 199 with additional vitamins, amino acids, salts and other compounds. The semi-defined medium contains an acid hydrolysate of casein: in the empirically devised defined medium the casein requirement has been circumvented by inclusion of additional vitamins and amino acids. Both media are very hypertonic. Control of pH was found to be particularly critical for growth. The optimum temperature for growth in the semidefined medium was between 25°C and 28°C, but cells would undergo one or two division cycles at 37°C.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M. P. Cunningham & K. Vickerman (1962). Antigenic analysis in the Trypanosoma brucei group using the agglutination reaction. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 56, 4859.

H. Dixon & J. Williamson (1970). The lipid composition of blood and culture forms of Trypanosoma lewisi and Trypanosoma rhodesiense compared with that of their environment. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 33, 111–28.

H. Eagle (1955 a). The minimum vitamin requirements of the L and HeLa cells in tissue culture, the production of specific vitamin deficiencies and their cure. Journal of Experimental Medicine 102, 595600.

D. A. Evans & R. C. BROWN (1971). Cyanide insensitive culture form of Trypanosoma brucei. Nature, London 230, 251–2.

N. E. Good , G. D. Winget , W. Winter , T. K. Connolly , S. Izawa & R. M. M. Singh (1966). Hydrogen ion buffers for biological research. Biochemistry 5, 467–77.

G. W. Kidder & B. N. Dutta (1958). The growth and nutrition of Crithidia fasciculata. Journal of General Microbiology, 18, 621–38.

J. F. Morgan , H. J. Morton & R. C. Parker (1950). Nutrition of animal cells in tissue culture. I. Initial studies on a synthetic medium. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Medicine 73, 18.

M. Rodbell (1965). Modulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue by fatty acid concentration in fat cell. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 131, 302–14.

E. J. Tobie , T. von Brand & B. Mehlman (1950). Cultural and physiological observations on Trypanosoma rhodesiense and Trypanosoma gambiense. Journal of Parasitology 36, 4854.

W. Trager (1957). Nutrition of a hemoflagellate (Leishmania tarentolae) having an interchangeable requirement for choline or pyridoxal. Journal of Protozoology 4, 269–76.

C. Vakertzi-Lemonias , G. W. Kidder & V. C. Dewey (1963). Ubiquinone in four genera of protozoa. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 8, 331–4.

D. Weinman (1960). Cultivation of the African sleeping sickness trypanosomes from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients and suspects. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 54, 180–90.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *