Skip to main content
×
Home

Cystic echinococcosis in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic

  • R. L. RAUSCH (a1)
Abstract

The northern biotype of Echinococcus granulosus occurs throughout the holarctic zones of tundra and taiga, from eastern Fennoscandia to the Bering Strait in Eurasia and in North America from arctic Alaska approximately to the northern border of the United States. The cycle of the cestode is complex in taiga at lower latitudes, because of the greater diversity of potential hosts. In the Arctic and Subarctic, however, four patterns of predator/prey relationships may be discerned. Two natural cycles involve the wolf and wild reindeer and the wolf and elk (moose), respectively. Where deer of the two species coexist, both are prey of the wolf; the interactions of the wolf and elk are here described on the basis of long-term observations made on Isle Royale (in Lake Superior near the southern limit of taiga), where only the wolf and elk serve as hosts for E. granulosus. A synanthropic cycle involving herding-dogs and domesticated reindeer caused hyperendemicity of cystic echinococcosis in arctic Eurasia, mainly in northeastern Siberia. The 4th pattern, a semi-synanthropic cycle, formerly existed in Alaska, wherein sled-dogs of the indigenous hunters became infected by consuming the lungs of wild reindeer. The sequence of changes in life-style inherent in the process of acculturation affected the occurrence of cystic echinococcosis among nomadic Iñupiat in arctic Alaska. When those people became sedentary, the environs of their early villages soon became severely contaminated by faeces of dogs, and cases of cystic echinococcosis occurred. Compared to cystic echinococcosis caused by E. granulosus adapted to synanthropic hosts (dog and domestic ungulates), the infection produced by the northern biotype is relatively benign. Nearly all diagnosed cases of cystic echinococcosis (>300) in Alaska have occurred in indigenous people; only one fatality has been recorded (in a non-indigenous person). After sled-dogs were replaced by machines, cases have become rare in Alaska. A similar effect has been observed in Fennoscandia, in the Saami and domesticated reindeer. Recent records indicate that the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis is increasing in Russia, suggesting that dogs are used there in herding.

Copyright
References
Hide All

REFERENCES

ADDISON, E. M., FYVIE, A. & JOHNSON, F. J. (1979). Metacestodes of moose, Alces alces, of the Chapleau Crown Game Preserve, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57, 16191623.
ALLEN, D. L. (1979). Wolves of Minong. Their Vital Role in a Wild Community. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company.
ASADOV, S. M. (1960). Gel'mintofauna zhvachnykh zhivotnykh SSSR i ee ekologo-geograficheskii analiz. Akademiia Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR.
AZEEVA, N. G. (1989). Ekhinokokkoz v Nenetskom Avtonomnom Okruge. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i parazitarnye bolezni 5, 6568.
BANFIELD, A. W. F. (1961). A Revision of the Reindeer and Caribou, Genus Rangifer. National Museum of Canada, Bulletin No. 177. Ottawa, Roger Duhamel.
BOWLES, J., BLAIR, D. & McMANUS, D. P. (1995). A molecular phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus. Parasitology 110, 317328.
BUSKIRK, S. W. & GIPSON, P. S. (1978). Characteristics of wolf attacks on moose in Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska. Arctic 31, 499502.
CAMERON, T. W. M. (1960). The incidence and diagnosis of hydatid cyst in Canada. Echinococcus granulosus var. canadensis. Parassitologia 2, 381390.
CASTRODALE, L. J., BELLER, M., WILSON, J. F., SCHANTZ, P. M., McMANUS, D. F., ZHANG, L.-H., FALLICO, F. G. & SACCO, F. D. (2002). Two atypical cases of cystic echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus) in Alaska, 1999. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 66, 325327.
CHOQUETTE, L. P. E., GIPSON, G. G., KUYT, E. & PEARSON, A. M. (1973). Helminths of wolves, Canis lupus L., in the Yukon and North West Territories. Canadian Journal of Zoology 51, 10871091.
CHOQUETTE, L. P. E., WHITTEN, L. K., RANKIN, G. & SEAL, C. M. (1957). Note on parasites found in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Canada. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 21, 199203.
GEPTNER, V. G., NASIMOVICH, A. A. & BANNIKOV, A. G. (1961). Mlekopitaiushchie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Artiodactyla i Perissodactyla. Vol. 1. Moskva, Vysshaia Shkola.
GEPTNER, V. G., NAUMOV, N. P., IURGENSON, P. B., SLUDSKII, A. A., CHIRKOVA, A. F. & BANNIKOV, A. G. (1967). Mlekopitaiuschie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Morskie Korovy i Khishchye. Vol. 2. Moskva, Vysshaia Shkola.
HADWEN, S. (1938). Autobiography. Ottawa, The Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations.
HADWEN, S. & PALMER, L. J. (1922). Reindeer in Alaska. Washington, DC., US. Government Printing Office.
HARPER, T. A., RUTTAN, R. & BENSON, W. A. (1955). Hydatid disease (Echinococcus granulosus) in Saskatchewan big game. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 20, 198208.
HERRE, W. (1955). Das Ren als Haustier. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft. Leipzig, Geest & Portig.
HERSHKOVITZ, P. (1969). The evolution of mammals on southern continents. The recent mammals of the neotropical region: a geographic and ecological review. Part 7. The Quarterly Review of Biology 44, 311431.
HIRVELÄ-KOSKI, V., HAUKISALMI, V., KILPELÄ, S.-S., NYLUND, M. & KOSKI, P. (2003). Echinococcus granulosus in Finland. Veterinary Parasitology 111, 175192.
HOBERG, E. P., ALKIRE, N. L., DE QUEIROZ, A. & JONES, A. (2000). Out of Africa: origins of the Taenia tapeworms in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 268, 781787.
HOBERG, E. P., JONES, A., RAUSCH, R. L., EOM, K. S. & GARDNER, S. L. (2000). A phylogenetic hypothesis for species of the genus Taenia (Eucestoda: Taeniidae). Journal of Parasitology 86, 8998.
HULDT, G., JOHANSSON, S. G. O. & LANTO, S. (1973). Echinococcosis in northern Scandinavia. Archives of Environmental Health 26, 3640.
ISAKOV, S. I. & SAFRONOV, M. G. (1990). Los' – promezhutochnyi khoziain Echinococcus granulosus v Iakutii. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i parazitarnye bolezni 2, 58.
KADENATSII, A. N. & ZINOV'EV, L. I. (1973). Gel'mintofauna losia v svete izucheniia prirodnoi ochagovosti gel'mintozov. Voprosy Prirodnoi Ochagovosti bolezni 6, 139143.
KELSALL, J. P. (1968). The migratory Barren-ground Caribou of Canada. Ottawa, The Queen's Printer.
KHERIUVIMOV, V. D. (1967). O nekotorykh parazitakh i bolezniakh losei Tambovskoi Oblasti. In Biologiia i promysel losia ( ed. Bannikov, A. G. ). Moskva, Rossel'khozizdat.
KIKOT', V. I. (1980). Prirodnaia ochagovost' ekhinokokkoza v gornotaezhnoi zone dal'nego vostoka. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i parazitarnye bolezni 49, 6063.
KOZLOV, V. (1966). Volki lesostepei Sibiri i ikh istreblenie. Krasnoiarsk, Krasnoiarskoe Knizhnoe.
KURTÉN, B. & ANDERSON, E. (1980). Pleistocene Mammals of North America. New York, Colombia University Press.
LANTIS, M. (1950). The reindeer industry in Alaska. Arctic 3, 2744.
LÜHE, M. (1910). Cystotänien südamerikanischer Feliden. Zoologische Jahrbücher 12 Suppl., 687710.
LUKASHENKO, N. P. (1975). Al'veokokkoz (al'veoliarnyi ekhinokokkoz). Moskva, Meditsina.
McMANUS, D. P., ZHANG, L., CASTRODALE, L. J., LE, T. H., PEARSON, M. & BLAIR, D. (2002). Molecular genetic characterization of an unusually severe case of hydatid disease in Alaska caused by the cervid strain of Echinococcus granulosus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 67, 296298.
MECH, L. D. (1970). The Wolf: The Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species. New York, The American Museum of Natural History, The Natural History Press, Garden City.
MELTZER, H., KOVACS, L., ORFORD, T. & MATAS, M. (1956). Echinococcosis in North American Indians and Eskimos. Canadian Medical Association Journal 75, 121128.
MITSKEVICH, V. IU. & SAVEL'EV, V. D. (1975). O roli dikogo severnogo olenia v epizootologii invazionnykh zabolevanii na Taimyre. In Dikii severnyi olen' v SSSR ( ed. Syroechkovskii, E. E. ), pp. 117120. Sovete Ministrov RSFSR, Moskva, Sovetskaia Rossiia.
MURIE, A. (1944). The Wolves of Mount McKinley. Fauna of the National Parks of the United States, Fauna Series No. 5. Washington, DC., US. Government Printing Office.
NAZAROVA, S. (1967). Gel'mintofauna losia v Sovetskom Soiuze. In Biologiia i promysel losia (ed. Bannikov, A. G. ), pp. 288312. Moskva, Rossel'khoziadat.
NEMUROVSKAIA, A. I., NEKIPELOV, V. IA., IAKOVLEVA, T. A. & IASINSKII, A. A. (1980). Problema ekhinokokkoza v RSFSR. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i parazitarnye bolezni 49, 1721.
NYGRÉN, K. (1986). Alces alces (Linneus, 1758) – Elch. In Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas. Band 2/II. Paarhufer – Artiodactyla (Suidae, Cervidae, Bovidae.) (ed. Niethammer, J. & Krapp, F. ), pp. 173197. Wiesbaden, AULA Verlag.
OVSIUKOVA, N. I. (1966). Gel'minty i osnovnye gel'mintozy mlekopitaiushchikh Chukotki. Dissertation. Vsesoiuznyi institut gel'mintologii imeni Akademika K. I. Skriabina, Moskva.
OVSIUKOVA, N. I. (1975). O roli volka v severnom olenevodstve. In Dikii severnyi olen' v SSSR ( ed. Syroechkovskii, E. E. ), pp. 134138. Moskva, Sovetskaia Rossiia.
PAVLOV, M. P. (1990). Volk. Moskva, Agropromizdat.
PETERSON, R. O. (1977). Wolf Ecology and Prey Relationships on Isle Royale. National Park Service Scientific Monograph Series, No. 11. Washington, DC., US. Government Printing Office.
PETROV, A. M. & DELIANOVA, R. SH. (1962). Rasprostranenie vozbuditelei ekhinokokkoza i al'veokokkoza u domashnikh i dikikh plotoiadnykh v SSSR. Trudy Vsesoiuznogo Instituta Gel'mintologii imeni Akademika K. I. Skriabina 9, 6787.
RAUSCH, R. A. (1959). Notes on the prevalence of hydatid disease in Alaskan moose. Journal of Wildlife Management 23, 122123.
RAUSCH, R. L. (1951). Notes on the Nunamiut Eskimo and mammals of the Anaktuvuk Pass Region, Brooks Range, Alaska. Arctic 4, 146196.
RAUSCH, R. L. (1953). On the status of some arctic mammals. Arctic 6, 91148.
RAUSCH, R. L. (1960). Recent studies on hydatid disease in Alaska. Parassitologia 2, 391398.
RAUSCH, R. L. (1967). On the ecology and distribution of Echinococcus spp. (Cestoda: Taeniidae), and characteristics of their development in the intermediate host. Annales de Parasitologie humaine et comparée 42, 1963.
RAUSCH, R. L. (1980). Redescription of Diandrya composita Darrah, 1930 (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from nearctic marmots (Rodentia: Sciuridae) and the relationships of the genus Diandrya emend. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 47, 157164.
RAUSCH, R. L. (1993). The biology of Echinococcus granulosus. In Compendium on cystic echinococcosis with special reference to the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the Peoples' Republic of China ( ed. Anderson, F. L., Chai, J.-J. & Liu, F.-J. ), pp. 2756. Provo, Utah, Brigham Young University.
RAUSCH, R. L. & HUNTLEY, B. E. (1978). Brucellosis in reindeer, Rangifer tarandus L., inoculated experimentally with Brucella suis, type 4. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 24, 129135.
RAUSCH, R. L. & WILLIAMSON, F. S. L. (1959). Studies on the helminth fauna of Alaska. XXXIV. The parasites of wolves, Canis lupus L. Journal of Parasitology 45, 395403.
RAUSCH, V. R. & BALDWIN, D. L. (2002). The Yukon Relief Expedition, with the Journal of Carl Johan Sakariassen. Fairbanks, University of Alaska Press.
REVIN, IU. V., SONIN, L. B. & ZHELEZNOV, N. K. (1988). Snezhnyi baran. Morfologiia, systematika, ekologiia, okhrana ( ed. Solomonov, N. G. ). Novosibirsk, Nauka.
ROMANENKO, N. A., CHERNYSHENKO, A. I. & SABGAIDA, T. P. (2001). Echinococcosis in Russia. In Abstracts. XXth International Congress of Hidatidology ( ed. Altinas, N., Yolasigmaz, A., Coskun, E. & Gunes, K. ), p. 302. Turkey, Kusadasi.
RONÉUS, O. (1974). Prevalence of echinococcosis in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Sweden. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 15, 170178.
RUTHERFORD, J. G., McLEAN, J. S. & HARKIN, J. B. (1922). Report of the Royal Commission to Investigate the Possibilities of Reindeer and Musk-ox Industries in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic Regions of Canada. Ottawa, F. A. Agland.
SIMPSON, G. G. (1980). Splendid Isolation. The Curious History of South American Mammals. New Haven and London, Yale University Press.
SKENNEBERG, S. (1959). Ekinokokkose hos rein i Kautokeino. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 11, 110123.
SMITH, P. V. (1957). Sundhedstilstanden i Grønland. Landslaegens arsberetning 1956. Beretninger vedrørende Grønland, Nr. 8. Godthåb, Sydgrønlands Bogtrykkeri.
SÖDERHJELM, L. (1969). Hydatid disease, epidemic nephritis, and tularemia in northern Sweden. Archives of Environmental Health 18, 127132.
SPEARMAN, G. (1979). Land use values through time in the Anaktuvuk Pass area. Occasional Paper No. 22. Fairbanks, University of Alaska.
SWEATMAN, G. K. & WILLIAMS, R. J. (1963). Comparative studies on the biology and morphology of Echinococcus granulosus from domestic livestock, moose, and reindeer. Parasitology 53, 339390.
SYROECHKOVSKII, E. E. (1975). Problema dikogo severnogo olenia v SSSR na sovremennom etape. In Dikii severnyi olen' v SSSR ( ed. Syroechkovskii, E. E. ), pp. 1450. Moskva, Sovetskaia Rossiia.
TAVROVSKII, V. A., EGOROV, O. V., KRIVOSHEEV, V. G., POPOV, M. V. & LABUTIN, IU. V. (1971). Mlekopitaiushchie Iakutii. Moskva, Nauka.
THOMPSON, R. C. A. & McMANUS, D. P. (2002). Towards a taxonomic revision of the genus Echinococcus. Trends in Parasitology 18, 452457.
WEBSTER, G. & CAMERON, T. W. M. (1961). Observations on experimental infections with Echinococcus in rodents. Canadian Journal of Zoology 39, 877892.
WILLIAMS, R. B. (1948). Echinococcosis or hydatid disease. Alaska's Health 6, 6.
WILSON, J. F., DIDDAMS, A. C. & RAUSCH, R. L. (1968). Cystic hydatid disease in Alaska. A review of 101 autochthonous cases of Echinococcus granulosus infection. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 98, 115.
ZABRODIN, V. A. & LAISHEV, A. KH. (1980). Infektsionnye bolezni. In Bolezni severnykh olenei (ed. Zabrodin, V. A. & Laishev, A. KH. ), pp. 577. Moskva, Kolos.
ZHIGUNOV, P. S. (1968). Introduction. In Reindeer Husbandry (ed. Zhigunov, P. S. ), pp. 14. Jerusalem, Translation: Israel Program for Scientific Translations.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Parasitology
  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 17 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 126 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.