Sherrard-Smith, E. Perkins, S.E. Chadwick, E.A. and Cable, J. 2015. Spatial and seasonal factors are key determinants in the aggregation of helminths in their definitive hosts: Pseudamphistomum truncatum in otters (Lutra lutra). International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 45, Issue. 1, p. 75.
Rameshkumar, Ganapathy Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian and Venmathi Maran, B. A. 2014. Occurrence of parasitic copepods in Carangid fishes from Parangipettai, Southeast coast of India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, Vol. 38, Issue. 3, p. 317.
Yakob, Laith Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J. Gray, Darren J. Milinovich, Gabriel Wardrop, Nicola Dunning, Rebecca Barendregt, Jan Bieri, Franziska Williams, Gail M. and Clements, Archie C.A. 2014. Modelling parasite aggregation: disentangling statistical and ecological approaches. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 44, Issue. 6, p. 339.
Walker, Martin Hall, Andrew and Basáñez, María-Gloria 2013. Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite.
Mitchell, K. M. Mutapi, F. Savill, N. J. and Woolhouse, M. E. J. 2012. Protective immunity to Schistosoma haematobium infection is primarily an anti-fecundity response stimulated by the death of adult worms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 109, Issue. 33, p. 13347.
Raffel, Thomas R. Lloyd-Smith, James O. Sessions, Stanley K. Hudson, Peter J. and Rohr, Jason R. 2011. Does the early frog catch the worm? Disentangling potential drivers of a parasite age–intensity relationship in tadpoles. Oecologia, Vol. 165, Issue. 4, p. 1031.
Luo, Yufa Brown, Christopher L. and Yang, Tingbao 2010. Seasonal Dynamics of Diplectanum grouperi Parasitism on Wild Versus Cultured Groupers, Epinephelus spp., and the Linkage Between Infestation and Host Species Phylogeny. Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 96, Issue. 3, p. 541.
Walker, Martin Hall, Andrew and Basáñez, María-Gloria 2010. Trickle or clumped infection process? An analysis of aggregation in the weights of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 40, Issue. 12, p. 1373.
Benskin, Clare McW. H. Wilson, Kenneth Jones, Keith and Hartley, Ian R. 2009. Bacterial pathogens in wild birds: a review of the frequency and effects of infection. Biological Reviews, Vol. 84, Issue. 3, p. 349.
Bottomley, Christian Isham, Valerie and Basáñez, Maria-Gloria 2007. Population biology of multispecies helminth infection: Competition and coexistence. Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 244, Issue. 1, p. 81.
Dejen, Eshete Vijverberg, Jacobus and Sibbing, Ferdinand A. 2006. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Cestode Infection and its Effects on Two Small Barbs (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius) in Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Hydrobiologia, Vol. 556, Issue. 1, p. 109.
PION, S. D. S. FILIPE, J. A. N. KAMGNO, J. GARDON, J. BASÁÑEZ, M.-G. and BOUSSINESQ, M. 2006. Microfilarial distribution of Loa loa in the human host: population dynamics and epidemiological implications. Parasitology, Vol. 133, Issue. 01, p. 101.
CHURCHER, T. S. FERGUSON, N. M. and BASÁÑEZ, M.-G. 2005. Density dependence and overdispersion in the transmission of helminth parasites. Parasitology, Vol. 131, Issue. 1, p. 121.
Duerr, H.P. Dietz, K. Schulz-Key, H. Büttner, D.W. and Eichner, M. 2004. The relationships between the burden of adult parasites, host age and the microfilarial density in human onchocerciasis. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 34, Issue. 4, p. 463.
Quinnell, Rupert J 2003. Genetics of susceptibility to human helminth infection. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 33, Issue. 11, p. 1219.
Rosà, Roberto and Pugliese, Andrea 2002. Aggregation, Stability, and Oscillations in Different Models for Host-Macroparasite Interactions. Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 61, Issue. 3, p. 319.
Barbour, Andrew D. and Pugliese, Andrea 2000. On the variance mean ratio in models of parasite distributions. Advances in Applied Probability, Vol. 32, Issue. 03, p. 701.
Nie, P. and Yao, W.J. 2000. Seasonal population dynamics of parasitic copepods, Sinergasilus spp. on farmed fish in China. Aquaculture, Vol. 187, Issue. 3-4, p. 239.
We present a discrete time model for age-related changes in the mean and variance of the number of helminth parasites per host. We assess the degree of aggregation as the negative binomial parameter, k, and use the model to examine the influence of various factors on changes in aggregation with host age: discrete versus continuous infection; the degree of predisposition to infection; infection rate; parasite survival rate; and the variance in exposure to infective stages. The model can produce both increases and decreases in k with host age. However, with parameter values typical of many human helminth infections, a monotonic increase in k (decrease in aggregation) with age is predicted. With an age-dependent infection rate, convex relationships between k and age are possible. These predictions are consistent with data from field studies, but differ from those of previous models which have suggested that k is independent of host age in the absence of density dependence in parasite population dynamics. Differences between the models, and some difficulties in the interpretation of field data, are discussed.
This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.