de Menezes, Juliana Perrone Bezerra Guedes, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio Petersen, Antônio Luis de Oliveira Almeida Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé and Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares 2015. Advances in Development of New Treatment for Leishmaniasis. BioMed Research International, Vol. 2015, p. 1.
Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar Pawar, Harsh Renuse, Santosh Kumar, Praveen Chavan, Sandip Sathe, Gajanan Sharma, Jyoti Khobragade, Sweta Pande, Janhavee Modak, Bhakti Prasad, T.S. Keshava Harsha, H.C. Patole, Milind S. and Pandey, Akhilesh 2014. Moving from unsequenced to sequenced genome: Reanalysis of the proteome of Leishmania donovani. Journal of Proteomics, Vol. 97, p. 48.
Bhandari, Vasundhra Kumar, Dhiraj Verma, Sandeep Srividya, Gurumurthy Negi, Narendra Singh Singh, Ruchi and Salotra, Poonam 2013. Increased parasite surface antigen-2 expression in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani augments antimony resistance. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 440, Issue. 4, p. 646.
Kramer, Susanne 2012. Developmental regulation of gene expression in the absence of transcriptional control: The case of kinetoplastids. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. 181, Issue. 2, p. 61.
Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu Dey, Ranadhir Gannavaram, Sreenivas Lakhal-Naouar, Ines Duncan, Robert Salotra, Poonam and Nakhasi, Hira L. 2012. Immunity to Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Genetically Defined Live-Attenuated Parasites. Journal of Tropical Medicine, Vol. 2012, p. 1.
Gannavaram, Sreenivas Sharma, Paresh Duncan, Robert C. Salotra, Poonam Nakhasi, Hira L. and Sturtevant, Joy 2011. Mitochondrial Associated Ubiquitin Fold Modifier-1 Mediated Protein Conjugation in Leishmania donovani. PLoS ONE, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. e16156.
Alcolea, Pedro J. Alonso, Ana Gómez, Manuel J. Moreno, Inmaculada Domínguez, Mercedes Parro, Víctor and Larraga, Vicente 2010. Transcriptomics throughout the life cycle of Leishmania infantum: High down-regulation rate in the amastigote stage. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 40, Issue. 13, p. 1497.
Dey, Ranadhir Meneses, Claudio Salotra, Poonam Kamhawi, Shaden Nakhasi, Hira L. and Duncan, Robert 2010. Characterization of a Leishmania stage-specific mitochondrial membrane protein that enhances the activity of cytochrome c oxidase and its role in virulence. Molecular Microbiology, Vol. 77, Issue. 2, p. 399.
Gomez, Consuelo Esther Ramirez, M. Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes Medel, Olivia and Rodríguez, Mario A. 2010. Regulation of Gene Expression in Protozoa Parasites. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Vol. 2010, p. 1.
SCHELTEMA, RICHARD A. DECUYPERE, SASKIA T'KINDT, RUBEN DUJARDIN, JEAN-CLAUDE COOMBS, GRAHAM H. and BREITLING, RAINER 2010. The potential of metabolomics for Leishmania research in the post-genomics era. Parasitology, Vol. 137, Issue. 09, p. 1291.
Sharma, Paresh Gurumurthy, Srividya Duncan, Robert Nakhasi, Hira L. and Salotra, Poonam 2010. Comparative in vivo expression of amastigote up regulated Leishmania genes in three different forms of Leishmaniasis. Parasitology International, Vol. 59, Issue. 2, p. 262.
Singh, Ruchi Kumar, Dhiraj Duncan, Robert C. Nakhasi, Hira L. and Salotra, Poonam 2010. Overexpression of histone H2A modulates drug susceptibility in Leishmania parasites. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Vol. 36, Issue. 1, p. 50.
Rochette, Annie Raymond, Frédéric Corbeil, Jacques Ouellette, Marc and Papadopoulou, Barbara 2009. Whole-genome comparative RNA expression profiling of axenic and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania infantum. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. 165, Issue. 1, p. 32.
Sturm, Nancy R. Martinez, L.L. Isadora Trejo and Thomas, Sean 2008. Kinetoplastid genomics: The thin end of the wedge. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 8, Issue. 6, p. 901.
Leishmania donovani causes visceral disease (kala-azar), a major health problem throughout the tropics with 500 000 new cases every year. Leishmania differentiates from the promastigote to the amastigote form to establish infection in a mammalian host. To understand the process of differentiation, we assessed the global variation in gene expression in promastigotes, an intermediate stage of differentiation (PA24) and axenic amastigotes in culture using an L. donovani genomic microarray with 4224 clones printed in triplicate. During an intermediate stage of differentiation 24 h after shifting the promastigotes into amastigotes (PA24), there were 41 (∼1%) clones with expression ⩾2·0-fold higher than promastigotes, whereas in terminally differentiated amastigotes there were 130 (∼3%) such clones. Of particular interest were certain genes that exhibited a transient increase or decrease in expression at the PA24 stage. Kinases showed a transient increase, and surface molecules, PSA and amino acid permease, were prominent clones among those showing a brief decrease at the PA24 stage. The microarray results have been validated using Northern blots or RT-PCR. In summary, our results provide important clues about the genes involved in the differentiation process of L. donovani that may contribute to virulence.
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