We have investigated the influence of heteroxenous coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina) on the predation risk of intermediate hosts. Voles infected with Frenkelia spp. were found more frequently in buzzards' (Buteo buteo) prey than among snap-trapped rodents. To eliminate the possibility of traps selecting for uninfected rodents, a laboratory experiment was performed. Mice experimentally infected with Sarcocystis dispersa seemed to be more likely caught by the final host, the long-eared owl (Asio otus); this result was confirmed by a mathematical model. Field data confirmed the adaptive value of parasite-induced changes. The increase of predation is directed towards the specific final host only or is non-specific. In the populations studied the probability of predation of parasitized individuals by the specific predator was increased.
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