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Immune activation and induction of memory: lessons learned from controlled human malaria infection with Plasmodium falciparum



Controlled human malaria infections (CHMIs) are a powerful tool to assess the efficacy of drugs and/or vaccine candidates, but also to study anti-malarial immune responses at well-defined time points after infection. In this review, we discuss the insights that CHMI trials have provided into early immune activation and regulation during acute infection, and the capacity to induce and maintain immunological memory. Importantly, these studies show that a single infection is sufficient to induce long-lasting parasite-specific T- and B-cell memory responses, and suggest that blood-stage induced regulatory responses can limit inflammation both in ongoing and potentially future infections. As future perspective of investigation in CHMIs, we discuss the role of innate cell subsets, the interplay between innate and adaptive immune activation and the potential modulation of these responses after natural pre-exposure.


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*Corresponding authors. Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud university medical center, Route 268, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 24 3614306. Fax: +31 24 3614666. E-mail:;


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