Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The morphological discrimination of microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus from Mansonella ozzardi

  • R. J. POST (a1), Z. ADAMS (a1), A. J. SHELLEY (a1), M. MAIA-HERZOG (a2), A. P. A. LUNA DIAS (a2) and S. COSCARÓN (a3)...
Abstract

There is no published account which allows the morphological discrimination of microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus and M. ozzardi from each other. However, they occur together in parts of Brazil and Venezuela, and presumably there is always the possibility that migration could establish new sympatric populations in the future. The objective of this study was to evaluate simple morphological characters that might be used for species-diagnosis of microfilariae. The conclusions were that the location of microfilariae in the blood or skin, the body size and the nucleation of the nerve ring are expected to be useful first indications of species identity, but cannot be used for confident diagnosis. The structure of the cephalic armature (stained with alcian blue) seems to be species specific, but is of limited application because it is often difficult to see. However, the pattern of nucleation of the tail (as expressed by the ratio of the length of the terminal nucleus compared with the length of the tail space) is distinctive and is expected to be diagnostic.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK. Tel: +44 (0)20 7942 5593. Fax: +44 (0)20 7942 5229. E-mail: r.post@nhm.ac.uk
References
Hide All

REFERENCES

BAIN, O. (1969). Morphologie des stades larvaires d' Onchocerca volvulus chez Simulium domnosum et redescription de la microfilaire. Annales de Parasitologie 44, 6982.
CABRERA, Z., PARKHOUSE, R. M. E., FORSYTH, K., GOMEZ PRIEGO, A., PABON, R. & YARZABAL, L. (1989). Specific detection of human antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 40, 454459.
CHADEE, D. D., RAWLINS, S. C., DOON, R. & BABOOLAL, S. (1994). Presence of annular rings on Mansonella ozzardi microfilariae. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88, 356.
CHAMON, W., BRANCO, B. C., BELFORT, R., KUBOFCIK, J. & NUTMAN, T. B. (1999). Corneal lesions associated with Mansonella ozzardi in the Brazilian Amazon. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 40, S264.
CHIODINI, P. L., MOODY, A. H. & MANSER, D. W. (2001). Atlas of Medical Helminthology and Protozoology, 4th Edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
COOK, G. C. (1996). Manson's Tropical Diseases, 20th Edn. WB Saunders Company Ltd, London.
COOMBS, I. & CROMPTON, D. W. T. (1991). A Guide to Human Helminths, 1st Edn. Taylor & Francis, London.
CREWE, W. (2002). Mansonelliasis. In The Encyclopedia of Arthropod-Transmitted Infections (ed. Service, M. W.), pp. 327333. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.
EWERT, A., SMITH, J. H. & CORREDOR, A. (1981). The microfilariae of Mansonella ozzardi in human skin biopsies. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 30, 988991.
FAUST, E. C., RUSSELL, P. F. & JUNG, R. C. (1970). Craig and Faust's Clinical Parasitology, 8th Edn. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
FISCHER, P., BÜTTNER, D. W., BAMUHIIGA, J. & WILLIAMS, S. A. (1998). Detection of the filarial parasite Mansonella streptocerca in skin biopsies by a nested polymerase chain reaction-based assay. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 58, 816820.
GARCIA, L. S. (1999). Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, 1st Edn. ASM Press, Washington.
GARCIA, L. S. (2001). Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 1st Edn. ASM Press, Washington.
GARMS, R. (1985). Morphological differentiation from Onchocerca volvulus of first stage larvae of an unknown filarial species commonly found in Simulium sanctipauli s.l. in Liberia. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 36, 255256.
HAWKING, F. (1979). The distribution of human filariasis throughout the world part IV. America. Tropical Diseases Bulletin 76, 693710.
KOZEK, W. J. & RACCURT, C. (1983). Ultrastructure of Mansonella ozzardi microfilariae, with a comparison of the South American (simuliid-transmitted) and Caribbean (culicoid-transmitted) forms. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie 34, 3853.
KOZEK, W. J., EBERHARD, M. L. & RACCURT, C. (1983). Comparative morphology of Mansonella ozzardi microfilariae from Colombia and Haiti. A light microscopy study. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie 34, 3337.
LAURENCE, B. R. & SIMPSON, M. G. (1968). Cephalic and pharyngeal structures in microfilariae revealed by staining. Journal of Helminthology 42, 309330.
MAEGRAITH, B. (1980). Adams & Maegraith: Clinical Tropical Diseases, 7th Edn. Blackwell, Oxford.
MAIA-HERZOG, M., SHELLEY, A. J., BRADLEY, J. E., LUNA DIAS, A. P. A., CALVAO, R. H. S., LOWRY, C., CAMARGO, M., RUBIO, J. M., POST, R. J. & COELHO, G. E. (1999). Discovery of a new focus of human onchocerciasis in central Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 93, 235239.
MORAES, M. A. P. (1976). Mansonella ozzardi microfilariae in skin snips. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 70, 16.
MORAES, M. A. P., SHELLEY, A. J., LUNA DIAS, A. P. A. & MANGABEIRA SILVA, C. J. (1983). The concentration of Mansonella ozzardi microfilariae in the skin capillaries. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 77, 463466.
MORALES HOJAS, R., POST, R. J., SHELLEY, A. J., MAIA-HERZOG, M., COSCARON, S. & CHEKE, R. A. (2001). Characterisation of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from Onchocerca volvulus and Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) and development of a PCR-based method for their detection in skin biopsies. International Journal for Parasitology 31, 169177.
MULLER, R. (2002). Worms and Human Disease, 2nd Edn. CABI Publishing, London Wallingford.
NGU, J. L., NKENFOU, C., CAPULI, E., MCMOLI, T. E., PERLER, F., MBWAGBOR, J., TUME, C., NLATTE, B., DONFACK, J. & ASONGANY, T. (1998). Novel, sensitive and low-cost diagnostic tests for ‘river blindness’ – detection of specific antigens in tears, urine and dermal fluid. Tropical Medicine and International Health 3, 339348.
OLIVEIRA, W. R. (1963). Infestação por filárias em habitantes de Vila Pereira, território de Roraima (Brasil). Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 5, 287288.
ORIHEL, T. C. & EBERHARD, M. L. (1982). Mansonella ozzardi: a rediscription with comments on its taxonomic relationships. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 31, 11421147.
PETERS, W. & PASVOL, G. (2002). Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 5th Edn. Mosby, London.
RACCURT, C., LOWRIE, R. C., BONCY, J. & KATZ, S. P. (1982). Mansonella ozzardi in Haiti. III. A comparison of the sensitivity of four sampling methods in detecting infections. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 31, 275279.
SHELLEY, A. J., MAIA-HERZOG, M. & CALVÃO-BRITO, R. (2001). The specificity of an ELISA for detecting Onchocerca volvulus in Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 95, 171173.
SCHULZ-KEY, H. (1978). A simple technique to assess the total number of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in skin snips. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie 29, 5154.
SCHULZ-KEY, H., JEAN, B. & ALBIEZ, E. J. (1980). Investigations on female Onchocerca volvulus for the evaluation of drug trials. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie 31, 3440.
TAYLOR, H. R., MUNOZ, B., KEYVAN-LARIJANI, E. & GREENE, B. M. (1989). Reliability of detection of microfilariae in skin snips in the diagnosis of onchocerciasis. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 41, 467471.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1997). WHO Expert Committee on Onchocerciasis. Third Report. WHO Technical Report Series No. 752. WHO, Geneva.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1987). Bench Aids for the Diagnosis of Filarial Infections. WHO, Geneva.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Parasitology
  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 11 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 178 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.