Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 79
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Chang, K.-P. 2014. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences.


    Achcar, Fiona  Barrett, Michael P. and Breitling, Rainer 2013. Explicit consideration of topological and parameter uncertainty gives new insights into a well-established model of glycolysis. FEBS Journal, Vol. 280, Issue. 18, p. 4640.


    Parvatham, K. and Veerakumari, L. 2013. Drug target prediction using elementary mode analysis in Ascaris lumbricoides energy metabolism. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, Vol. 18, Issue. 3, p. 491.


    Shin, Hyun-Il Kim, Jung-Yeon Lee, Won-Ja Sohn, Youngjoo Lee, Sang-Wook Kang, Yoon-Joong and Lee, Hyeong-Woo 2013. Polymorphism of the parasite lactate dehydrogenase gene from Plasmodium vivax Korean isolates. Malaria Journal, Vol. 12, Issue. 1, p. 166.


    Chang, Kwang Poo 2012. eLS.


    Black, Samuel J. and Seed, John Richard 2010. Topley & Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections.


    MartÍnez-Palomo, Adolfo and Espinosa-Cantellano, Martha 2010. Topley & Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections.


    Iribarne, F. Paulino, M. Aguilera, S. and Tapia, O. 2009. Assaying phenothiazine derivatives as trypanothione reductase and glutathione reductase inhibitors by theoretical docking and Molecular Dynamics studies. Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling, Vol. 28, Issue. 4, p. 371.


    Mande, Shekhar C. Hol, Wim G.J. Mainfroid, Véronique Goraj, Karine Martial, Joseph A. and Kalk, Kor H. 2008. Crystal structure of recombinant human triosephosphate isomerase at 2.8 Å resolution. Triosephosphate isomerase-related human genetic disorders and comparison with the trypanosomal enzyme. Protein Science, Vol. 3, Issue. 5, p. 810.


    Vonlaufen, Nathalie Kanzok, Stefan M. Wek, Ronald C. and Sullivan Jr, William J. 2008. Stress response pathways in protozoan parasites. Cellular Microbiology, Vol. 10, Issue. 12, p. 2387.


    Zhang, Yihong Bond, Charles S. Bailey, Susan Cunningham, Mark L. Fairlamb, Alan H. and Hunter, William N. 2008. The crystal structure of trypanothione reductase from the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi at 2.3 Å resolution. Protein Science, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 52.


    Iribarne, F. González, M. Cerecetto, H. Aguilera, S. Tapia, O. and Paulino, M. 2007. Interaction energies of nitrofurans with trypanothione reductase and glutathione reductase studied by molecular docking. Journal of Molecular Structure: THEOCHEM, Vol. 818, Issue. 1-3, p. 7.


    Hayes, C. Nelson Wheelock, Åsa M. Normark, Johan Wahlgren, Mats Goto, Susumu and Wheelock, Craig E. 2006. Enlistment of omics technologies in the fight against malaria: Panacea or Pandora's Box?. Journal of Pesticide Science, Vol. 31, Issue. 3, p. 263.


    Zaidenberg, Anibal Luong, Tai Lirussi, Dario Bleiz, Jorge Buono, Maria Beatriz Del Quijano, Graciela Drut, Ricardo Kozubsky, Leonora Marron, Adriana and Buschiazzo, Hector 2006. Treatment of Experimental Chronic Chagas Disease with Trifluralin. Basic <html_ent glyph="@amp;" ascii="&amp;"/> Clinical Pharmacology <html_ent glyph="@amp;" ascii="&amp;"/> Toxicology, Vol. 98, Issue. 4, p. 351.


    Boca, Madalina Brindusa Apostolides, Zeno and Pretorius, Etheresia 2005. A validated HPLC method for determining residues of a dual active ingredient anti-malarial drug on manufacturing equipment surfaces. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Vol. 37, Issue. 3, p. 461.


    Chang, Kwang-Poo 2005. eLS.


    Nozaki, Tomoyoshi Ali, Vahab and Tokoro, Masaharu 2005.


    Rajagopal, Lakshmi Vo, Anthony Silvestroni, Aurelio and Rubens, C. E. 2005. Regulation of purine biosynthesis by a eukaryotic-type kinase in Streptococcus agalactiae. Molecular Microbiology, Vol. 56, Issue. 5, p. 1329.


    Bork, Sabine Okamura, Masashi Boonchit, Suthisak Hirata, Haruyuki Yokoyama, Naoaki and Igarashi, Ikuo 2004. Identification of Babesia bovis l-lactate dehydrogenase as a potential chemotherapeutical target against bovine babesiosis. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. 136, Issue. 2, p. 165.


    Deb, D.K. Dahiya, P. Srivastava, K.K. Srivastava, R. and Srivastava, B.S. 2002. Selective identification of new therapeutic targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by IVIAT approach. Tuberculosis, Vol. 82, Issue. 4-5, p. 175.


    ×

Novel biochemical pathways in parasitic protozoa

  • A. H. Fairlamb (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003118200008344X
  • Published online: 01 April 2009
Abstract
SUMMARY

Throughout evolution, enzymes and their metabolites have been highly conserved. Parasites are no exception to this and differ most markedly by the absence of metabolic pathways that are present in the mammalian host. In general, parasites are metabolically lazy and rely on the metabolism of the host both for a supply of prefabricated components such as purines, fatty acids, sterols and amino acids and for the removal of end-products. Nonetheless, parasites are metabolically highly sophisticated in that (1) they retain the genetic capacity to induce many pathways, when needed, and (2) they have developed complex mechanisms for their survival in the host. Certain unique features of the metabolism of trypanosomes, leishmania, malaria and anaerobic protozoa will be discussed. This will include (1) glycolysis and electron transport with reference to the unique organelles: the glycosome and the hydrogenosome, (2) purine salvage, pyrimidine biosynthesis and folic acid metabolism and (3) polyamine and thiol metabolism with special reference to the role of the unique metabolite of trypanosomes and leishmanias, trypanothione.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R. A. Aman & C. C. Wang (1986). Absence of substrate channeling in the glycosome of Trypanosoma brucei. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 19, 110.

R. A. Aman & C. C. Wang (1987). Identification of two integral glycosomal membrane proteins in Trypanosoma brucei. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 25, 8392.

V. Bellofatto , A. H. Fairlamb , G. B. Henderson & G. A. M. Cross (1987). Biochemical changes associated with alpha-difluoromethylornithine uptake and resistance in Trypanosoma brucei. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 25, 227–38.

M. Benchimol & W. De Souza (1983). Fine structure and cytochemistry of the hydrogenosome of Tritrichomonas foetus. Journal of Protozoology 30, 422–5.

S. J. Benkovic , C. A. Fierke & A. M. Naylor (1988). Insights into enzyme function from studies on mutants of dihydrofolate reductase. Science 239, 1105–10.

S. M. Beverley , T. E. Ellenberger & J. S. Cordingley (1986). Primary structure of the gene encoding the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase of Leishmania major. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA83, 2584–8.

A. J. Bitonti , E. Cross-Dorsen & P. P. McCann (1988). Effects of alpha-difluoromethylornithine on protein synthesis and synthesis of the variant-specific glycoprotein (VSG) in Trypanosoma brucei brucei. The Biochemical Journal 250, 295–8.

I. B. R. Bowman , P. T. Grant & W. O. Kermack (1960). The metabolism of Plasmodium berghei, the malaria parasite of rodents. I. The preparation of the erythrocytic form of P. berghei separated from the host cell. Experimental Parasitology 9, 131–6.

C. Braun-Breton , M. Jendoubi , E. Brunet , L. Perrin , J. Scaife & P. L. Da Silva (1986). In vivo time course of synthesis and processing of major schizont membrane polypeptides in Plasmodium falciparum. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 20, 3343.

K. Broman , A.-L. Knupfer , M. Ropars & J. Deshusses (1983). Occurrence and role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in procyclic Trypanosoma brucei brucei glycosomes. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 8, 7987.

D. J. Bzik , L. Wu-Bo , T. Horii & J. Inselburg (1987). Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA84, 8360–4.

D. A. Carson & K.-P. Chang (1981). Phosphorylation and anti-Leishmanial activity of Formycin B. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 100, 1377–83.

U. Certa , P. Ghersa , H. Dobelli , H. Matile , H. P. Kocher , I. K. Shrivastava , A. R. Shaw & L. H. Perrin (1988). Aldolase activity of a Plasmodium falciparum protein with protective properties. Science 240, 1036–8.

A. Chapman , D. J. Linstead , D. Lloyd & J. Williams (1985). 13C-NMR reveals glycerol as an unexpected major metabolite of the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. FEBS Letters 191, 287–92.

A. B. Clarkson Jr. & F. H. Brohn (1976). Trypanosomiasis: an approach to chemotherapy by the inhibition of carbohydrate catabolism. Science 194, 204–6.

M. J. Danson , K. Conroy , A. McQuattie & K. J. Stevenson (1987). Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma brucei. The Biochemical Journal 243, 661–5.

T. N. Darling , A. E. Balber & J. J. Blum (1988). A comparative study of D-lactate, L-lactate and glycerol formation by four species of Leishmania and by Trypanosoma letvisi and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 30, 253–8.

T. N. Darling & J. J. Blum (1988). D-Lactate production by Leishmania braziliensis through the glyoxalase pathway. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 28, 121–8.

T. N. Darling , D. G. Davis , R. E. London & J. J. Blum (1987). Products of Leishmania braziliensis glucose catabolism: Release of D-lactate and, under anaerobic conditions, glycerol. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA84, 7129–33.

A. Dieckmann & A. Jung (1986). Mechanisms of sulfadoxine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 19, 143–7.

R. F. Doolittle (1988). More molecular opportunism. Nature, London336, 18.

R. C. Fahey , G. L. Newton , B. Arrick , T. Overdank-Bogart & S. B. Aley (1984). Entamoeba histolytica: a eukaryote without glutathione metabolism. Science 224, 70–2.

P. Faik , J. I. H. Walker , A. A. M. Redmill & M. J. Morgan (1988). Mouse glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and neuroleukin have identical 3′ sequences. Nature, London332, 455–7.

A. H. Fairĺamb , P. Blackburn , P. Ulrich , B. T. Chait & A. Cerami (1985). Trypanothione: a novel bis(glutathionyl)spermidine cofactor for glutathione reductase in trypanosomatids. Science 227, 1485–7.

A. H. Fairlamb & I. B. R. Bowman (1980). Uptake of the trypanocidal drug suramin by bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei and its effect on respiration and growth rate in vivo. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 1, 315–33.

A. H. Fairlamb & A. Cerami (1985). Identification of a novel, thiol-containing co-factor essential for glutathione reductase enzyme activity in trypanosomatids. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 14, 187–98.

A. H. Fairlamb , G. B. Henderson , C. J. Bacchi & A. Cerami (1987). In vivo effects of difluoromethylornithine on trypanothione and polyamine levels in bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 24, 185–91.

A. H. Fairlamb , G. B. Henderson & A. Cerami (1986). The biosynthesis of trypanothione and N1-glutathionylspermidine in Crithidia fasciculata. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 21, 247–57.

A. H. Fairlamb , G. B. Henderson & A. Cerami (1989). Trypanothione is the primary target for arsenical drugs against African trypanosomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA86, 2607–11.

A. H. Fairlamb & F. R. Opperdoes (1986). Carbohydrate metabolism in African trypanosomes, with special reference to the glycosome. In Carbohydrate Metabolism in Cultured Cells, (ed. M. J. Morgan ) pp. 183224. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation.

A. H. Fairlamb , F. R. Opperdoes & P. Borst (1977). New approach to screening drugs for activity against African trypanosomes. Nature, London265, 270–1.

M. J. Gardner , P. A. Bates , I. T. Ling , D. J. Moore , S. McCready , M. B. R. Gunas-Ekera , R. J. M. Wilson & D. H. Williamson (1988). Mitochondrial DNA of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 31, 1118.

C. E. Garrett , J. A. Coderre , T. D. Meek , E. P. Garvey , D. M. Claman , S. M. Beverley & D. V. Santi (1984). A bifunctional thymidylate synthetase-dihydrofolate reductasse in protozoa. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 11, 257–65.

B. F. Giffin , P. P. McCann , A. J. Bitonti & C. J. Bacchi (1986). Polyamine depletion following exposure to DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine both in vivo and in vitro initiates morphological alterations and mitochondrial activation in a monomorphic strain of Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Journal of Protozoology 33, 238–43.

F. D. Gillin , D. S. Reiner & P. P. McCann (1984). Inhibition of growth of Giardia lamblia by difluoromethylornithine, a specific inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis. Journal of Protozoology 31, 161–3.

R. W. Grady , E. J. Beinen & A. B. Clarkson Jr. (1986 a). Esters of 3,4-di-hydroxybenzoic acid, highly effective inhibitors of the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase of Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 21, 5563.

R. W. Grady , E. J. Bienen & A. B. Jr. Clarkson (1986 b). p-Alkyloxybenzhydroxamic acids, effective inhibitors of the trypanosome glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 19, 231–40.

R. Grumont , W. L. Washtien , D. Caput & D. V. Santi (1986). Bifunctional thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase from Leishmania tropica: sequence homology with corresponding monofunctional proteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA83, 5387–91.

W. E. Gutteridge , D. Dave & W. H. G. Richards (1979). Conversion of dihydroorotate to orotate in parasitic protozoa. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 582, 390401.

W. E. Gutteridge & M. J. Davies (1982). Properties of the purine phosphoribosyltransferases of Trypanosoma cruzi. FEMS Microbiology Letters 13, 207–12.

D. J. Hammond & I. B. R. Bowman (1980). Studies on glycerol kinase and its role in ATP synthesis in Trypanosoma brucei. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 2, 7791.

D. J. Hammond , J. R. Burchell & M. Pudney (1985 b). Inhibition of pyrimidine biosynthesis de novo in Plasmodium falciparum by 2-(4-t-butylcyclohexyl)-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in vitro. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 14, 97109.

D. J. Hammond & W. E. Gutteridge (1982). UMP synthesis in the Kinetoplastida. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 718, 110.

D. J. Hammond & W. E. Gutteridge (1984). Purine and pyrimidine metabolism in the trypanosomatidae. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 13, 243–61.

D. J. Hammond & W. E. Gutteridge (1983). Studies of the glycosomal orotate phosphoribosyl transferase of Trypanosoma cruzi. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 7, 319–30.

D. J. Hammond , W. E. Gutteridge & F. R. Opperdoes (1981). A novel location for two enzymes of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis in trypanosomes and Leishmania. FEBS Letters 128, 2230.

L. W. Hardy , J. S. Finer-Moore , W. R. Montfort , M. O. Jones , D. V. Santi & R. M. Stroud (1987). Atomic structure of thymidylate synthase: target for rational drug design. Science 235, 448–55.

G. B. Henderson , A. H. Fairlamb & A. Cerami (1987 a). Trypanothione dependent peroxide metabolism in Crithidia fasciculata and Trypanosoma brucei. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 24, 3945.

G. B. Henderson & A. H. Fairlamb (1987). Trypanothione metabolism: a chemotherapeutic target in trypanosomatids. Parasitology Today 3, 312–15.

G. B. Henderson , A. H. Fairlamb , P. Ulrich & A. Cerami (1987 6). Substrate specificity of the flavoprotein trypanothione disulfide reductase from Crithidia fasciculata. Biochemistry 26, 3023–7.

G. B. Henderson , P. Ulrich , A. H. Fairlamb , I. Rosenberg , M. Pereira , M. Sela & A. Cerami (1988). ‘Subversive’ substrates for the enzyme trypanothione disulfide reductase: alternative approach to chemotherapy of Chagas' disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA85, 5374–8.

P. G. Heyworth , W. E. Gutteridge & C. D. Ginger (1982). Purine metabolism in Trichomonas vaginalis. FEBS Letters 141, 106–11.

B. M. Honigberg , D. Volkman , R. Entzeroth & E. Schloltyseck (1984). A freeze-fracture electron microscope study of Trichomonas vaginalis Donne and Tritrichomonas foetus (Riedmuller). Journal of Protozoology 31, 116–31.

M. Huber , L. Garfinkel , C. Gitler , D. Mirelman , M. Revel & S. Rozenblatt (1988). Nucleotide sequence analysis of an Entamoeba histolytica ferredoxin gene. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 31, 2734.

F. W. Jennings (1988). Chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis: the potentiation of melarsoprol by concurrent difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) treatment. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82, 572–3.

F. Kierszenbaum , J. J. Wirth , P. P. McCann & A. Sjoerdsma (1987). Arginine decarboxylase inhibitors reduce the capacity of Trypanosoma cruzi to infect and multiply in mammalian host cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA84, 4278–82.

B. G. Kim , A. Sobota , A. J. Bitonti , P. P. McCann & T. J. Byers (1987). Polyamine metabolism in Acanthamoeba: polyamine content and synthesis of ornithine, putrescine, and diaminopropane. Journal of Protozoology 34, 278–84.

A. King & D. W. Melton (1987). Characterisation of cDNA clones for hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribyltransferase from the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum: comparisons to the mammalian gene and protein Nucleic Acids Research 15, 10469–81.

R. L. Krauth-Siegel , B. Enders , G. B. Henderson , A. H. Fairlamb & R. H. Schirmer (1987). Trypanothione reductase from Trypanosoma cruzi: purification and characterization of the crystalline enzyme. European Journal of Biochemistry 164, 123128.

W. C. Kruckeberg , B. J. Sander & D. C. Sullivan (1981). Plasmodium berghei: Glycolytic enzymes of the infected mouse erythrocyte. Experimental Parasitology 51, 438–43.

J. Krungkrai , J. K. Webster & Y. Yuthavong (1989). De novo and salvage biosynthesis of pteroylpentaglutamates in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 32, 2538.

D. J. Linstead & S. Bradley (1988). The purification and properties of two soluble reduced nicotinamide: acceptor oxidoreductases from Trichomonas vaginalis. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 27, 125–34.

D. Linstead & M. A. Cranshaw (1983). The pathway of arginine catabolism in the parasitic flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 8, 241–52.

H.-S. Lo & C.-J. Chang (1982). Purification and properties of NADP-linked, alcohol dehydrogenase from Entamoeba histolytica. Journal of Parasitology 68, 372–7.

H.-S. Lo & R. E. Reeves (1980). Purification and properties of NADPH: flavin oxidoreductase from Entamoeba histolytica. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 2, 2330.

M. Marchand , A. Poliszczak , W. C. Gibson , R. K. Wierenga , F. R. Opperdoes & P. A. M. Michels (1988). Characterization of the genes for fructose-bis-phosphate aldolase in Trypanosoma brucei. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 29, 6576.

J. J. Marr & R. L. Berens (1983). Pyrazolopyrimidine metabolism in the pathogenic Trypanosomatidae. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 7, 339–56.

J. J. Marr , R. L. Berens & D. J. Nelson (1978). Antitrypanosomal effect of allopurinol: Conversion in vivo to aminopyrazolopyrimidine nucleotides by Trypanosoma cruzi. Science 201, 1018–20.

J. J. Marr & R. Docampo (1986). Chemotherapy for Chagas' disease: perspective of current therapy and considerations for future research. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 8, 884903.

J. McLaughlin & S. Aley (1985). The biochemistry and functional morpholoogy of the Entamoeba. Journal of Protozoology 32, 221–40.

A. Meister & M. E. Anderson (1983). Glutathione. Annual Review of Biochemistry 52, 711–60.

W. K. Milhous , N. F. Weatherly , J. H. Bowdre & R. E. Desjardins (1985). In vitro activities of an mechanisms of resistance to antifol antimalarial drugs. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 27, 525–30.

R. L. Miller & D. Linstead (1983). Purine and pyrimidine metabolizing activities in Trichomonas vaginalis extracts. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 7, 4151.

O. Misset & F. R. Opperdoes (1984). Simultaneous purification of hexokinase, class-1 fructose — bisphosphate aldolase, triosephosphate isomerase and phosphoglycerate kinase from Trypanosoma brucei. European Journal of Biochemistry 144, 475–83.

O. Misset & F. R. Opperdoes (1987). The phosphoglycerate kinases from Trypanosoma brucei: a comparison of the glycosomal and the cytosolic isoenzymes and their sensitivity towards suramin. European Journal of Biochemistry 162, 493500.

O. Misset , O. J. M. Bos & F. R. Opperdoes (1986). Glycolytic enzymes of Trypanosoma brucei. Simultaneous purification, intraglycosomal concentrations and physical properties. European Journal of Biochemistry 157, 441–53.

M. Muller (1988). Energy metabolism of protozoa without mitochondria. Annual Review of Microbiology 42, 465–88.

K. K. Oduro , I. B. R. Bowman , I. W. Flynn (1980). Trypanosoma brucei: preparation and some properties of a multienzyme complex catalysing part of the glycolytic pathway. Experimental Parasitology 50, 240–50.

F. R. Opperdoes (1982). The glycosome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 386, 543–5.

F. R. Opperdoes (1987). Compartmerttation of carbohydrate metabolism in trypanosomes. Annual Review of Microbiology 41, 127–51.

F. R. Opperdoes (1988). Glycosomes may provide clues to the import of peroxisomal proteins. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 13, 255–60.

F. R. Opperdoes , P. Baudhuin , I. Coppens , C. De Roe , S. W. Edwards , P. J. Weijers & O. Misset (1984). Purification, morphometric analysis, and characterization of the glycosomes (microbodies) of the protozoan hemoflagellate Trypanosoma brucei. Journal of Cell Biology 98, 1178–84.

F. R. Opperdoes & P. Borst (1977). Localization of nine glycolytic enzymes in a microbody-like organelle in Trypanosoma brucei: the glycosome. FEBS Letters 80, 360–4.

F. R. Opperdoes , P. Borst & K. Fonck (1976). The potential use of inhibitors of glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase for chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis. FEBS Letters 62, 169–72.

R. A. Pascal , N. Le Trang , A. Cerami & C. Walsh (1983). Purification and properties of dihydroorotate oxidase from Crithidia fasciculata and Trypanosoma brucei. Biochemistry 22, 171–8.

M. P. Peixoto & S. M. Beverley (1987). In vitro activity of sulfonamides and sulfones against Leishmania major promastigotes. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 31, 1575–8.

P. G. Penketh , W. P. K. Kennedy , C. L. Patton & A. C. Sartorelli (1987). Trypanosomatid hydrogen peroxidase metabolism. FEBS Letters 221, 427–31.

L. H. Perrin , B. Merkli , M. S. Gabra , J. W. Stocker , C. Chizzolini & R. Richie (1985). Immunization with a Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen induces a partial immunity in monkeys. Journal of Clinical Investigation 75, 1718–21.

R. Poulin , J. Larochelle & P. Nadeau (1984). Polyamines in Acanthamoeba castellanii: presence of an unusually high, osmotically sensitive pool of 1,3-diaminopropane. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 122, 388–93.

S. A. Queen , D. A. Jagt & P. Reyes (1988). Properties of substrate specificity of a purine phosphoribosyltransferase from the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 30, 123–34.

P. Rainey & D. V. Santi (1983). Metabolism and mechanism of action of formycin B in Leishmania. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA80, 288–92.

R. E. Reeves (1984). Metabolism of Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn, 1903. Advances in Parasitology 23, 105–42.

R. E. Reeves , J. D. Guthrie & P. Lobelle-Rich (1980). Entamoeba histolytica: isolation of ferredoxin. Experimental Parasitology 49, 83–8.

P. Reyes , P. K. Rathod , D. J. Sanchez , J. E. K. Mrema , K. H. Rieckmann & H.-G. Heidrich (1982). Enzymes of purine and pyrimidine metabolism from the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 5, 275–90.

S. Rogers , R. Wells & M. Rechsteiner (1986). Amino acid sequences common to rapidly degraded proteins: the PEST hypothesis. Science 234, 364–8.

B. J. Sander & W. C. Kruckeberg (1981). Plasmodium berghei: glycolytic intermediate concentrations of the infected mouse erthrocyte. Experimantal Parasitology 52, 18.

S. L. Shames , A. H. Fairlamb , A. Cerami & C. T. Walsh (1986). Purification and characterization of trypanothione reductase from Crithidia fasciculata, a newly discovered member of the family of disulphide-containing flavoprotein reductases. Biochemistry 25, 3519–26.

S. L. Shames , B. E. Kimmel , O. P. Peoples , N. Agabian & C. T. Walsh (1988). Trypanothione reductase of Trypanosoma congolense: gene isolation primary sequence determination, and comparison to glutathione reductase. Biochemistry 27, 5014–19.

R. D. Slocum , A. J. Bitonti , P. P. McCann & R. P. Feirer (1988). DL-alpha-difluoromethyl[3,4-3H]arginine metabolism in tobacco and mammalian cells. The Biochemical Journal 255, 197202.

D. B. Smith , K. M. Davern , P. G. Board , W. U. Tiu , E. G. Garcia & G. F. Mitchell (1986). Mr 26000 antigen of Schistosoma japonicum recognized by resistant WEHI 129/J mice is a parasite glutathione S-transferase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA83, 8703–7.

A. Steinbuchel & M. Muller (1986 b). Anaerobic pyruvate metabolism of Trichomonas foetus and Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosomes. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 20, 5765.

C. W. Tabor & H. Tabor (1984). Polyamines. Annual Review of Biochemistry 53, 749–90.

E. Van Schaftingen , F. R. Opperdoes & H.-G. Hers (1985). Stimulation of Trypanosoma brucei pyruvate kinase by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. European Journal of Biochemistry 153, 403–6.

E. Van Schaftingen , F. R. Opperdoes & H. Hers (1987). Effects of various metabolic conditions and of the trivalent arsenical melarsen oxide on the intracellular levels of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and of glycolytic intermediates in Trypanosoma brucei. European Journal of Biochemistry 166, 653–61.

N. Visser , F. R. Opperdoes & P. Borst (1981). Subcellular compartmentation of glycolytic intermediates in Trypanosoma brucei. European Journal of Biochemistry 118, 521–6.

T. von Brand (1973). Biochemistry of Parasites, 2nd Edn.New York: Academic Press.

C. C. Wang (1983). Parasite enzymes as potential targets for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 27, 19.

C. C. Wang , R. Verham , S.-F. Tzeng , S. Aldritt & H.-W. Cheng (1983). Pyrimidine metabolism in Tritrichomonas foetus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA80, 2564–8.

E. C. Weinbach & L. S. Diamond (1974). Entamoeba histolytica: 1. Aerobic metabolism. Experimental Parasitology 35, 232–43.

N. Yarlett & C. J. Bacchi (1980). Effect of DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine on polyamine synthesis and interconversion in Trichomonas vaginalis grown in a semi-defined medium. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 31, 110.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Parasitology
  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: