Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 88
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Machalaba, Catherine Romanelli, Cristina and Stoett, Peter 2017. Examining the Role of Environmental Change on Emerging Infectious Diseases and Pandemics.

    Cissé, Baki El Yacoubi, Samira and Gourbière, Sébastien 2016. A cellular automaton model for the transmission of Chagas disease in heterogeneous landscape and host community. Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 40, Issue. 2, p. 782.

    Hofmeester, T R Coipan, E C van Wieren, S E Prins, H H T Takken, W and Sprong, H 2016. Few vertebrate species dominate theBorrelia burgdorferis.l. life cycle. Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 11, Issue. 4, p. 043001.

    HUANG, Z. Y. X. VAN LANGEVELDE, F. ESTRADA-PEÑA, A. SUZÁN, G. and DE BOER, W. F. 2016. The diversity–disease relationship: evidence for and criticisms of the dilution effect. Parasitology, Vol. 143, Issue. 09, p. 1075.

    Johnson, Pieter T. J. Wood, Chelsea L. Joseph, Maxwell B. Preston, Daniel L. Haas, Sarah E. Springer, Yuri P. and Ebert, Dieter 2016. Habitat heterogeneity drives the host-diversity-begets-parasite-diversity relationship: evidence from experimental and field studies. Ecology Letters, Vol. 19, Issue. 7, p. 752.

    Khalil, Hussein Ecke, Frauke Evander, Magnus Magnusson, Magnus and Hörnfeldt, Birger 2016. Declining ecosystem health and the dilution effect. Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, p. 31314.

    Levi, Taal Keesing, Felicia Holt, Robert D. Barfield, Michael and Ostfeld, Richard S. 2016. Quantifying dilution and amplification in a community of hosts for tick-borne pathogens. Ecological Applications, Vol. 26, Issue. 2, p. 484.

    Morris, Aaron Guégan, Jean-François Benbow, M. Eric Williamson, Heather Small, Pamela L. C. Quaye, Charles Boakye, Daniel Merritt, Richard W. and Gozlan, Rodolphe E. 2016. Functional Diversity as a New Framework for Understanding the Ecology of an Emerging Generalist Pathogen. EcoHealth,

    Mysterud, Atle Easterday, William Ryan Stigum, Vetle Malmer Aas, Anders Bjørnsgaard Meisingset, Erling L. and Viljugrein, Hildegunn 2016. Contrasting emergence of Lyme disease across ecosystems. Nature Communications, Vol. 7, p. 11882.

    Oosterbroek, Bram de Kraker, Joop Huynen, Maud M.T.E. and Martens, Pim 2016. Assessing ecosystem impacts on health: A tool review. Ecosystem Services, Vol. 17, p. 237.

    Redding, David W. Moses, Lina M. Cunningham, Andrew A. Wood, James Jones, Kate E. and Freckleton, Robert 2016. Environmental-mechanistic modelling of the impact of global change on human zoonotic disease emergence: a case study of Lassa fever. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 7, Issue. 6, p. 646.

    RUYTS, SANNE C. AMPOORTER, EVY COIPAN, ELENA C. BAETEN, LANDER HEYLEN, DIETER SPRONG, HEIN MATTHYSEN, ERIK and VERHEYEN, KRIS 2016. Diversifying forest communities may change Lyme disease risk: extra dimension to the dilution effect in Europe. Parasitology, Vol. 143, Issue. 10, p. 1310.

    Santiago-Alarcon, Diego MacGregor-Fors, Ian Kühnert, Katharina Segelbacher, Gernot and Schaefer, H. Martin 2016. Avian haemosporidian parasites in an urban forest and their relationship to bird size and abundance. Urban Ecosystems, Vol. 19, Issue. 1, p. 331.

    Webster, Joanne P. Gower, Charlotte M. Knowles, Sarah C. L. Molyneux, David H. and Fenton, Andy 2016. One health - an ecological and evolutionary framework for tackling Neglected Zoonotic Diseases. Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 9, Issue. 2, p. 313.

    Wood, Chelsea L. Lafferty, Kevin D. DeLeo, Giulio Young, Hillary S. Hudson, Peter J. and Kuris, Armand M. 2016. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease? Reply. Ecology, Vol. 97, Issue. 2, p. 543.

    Anderson, Neil E Mubanga, Joseph Machila, Noreen Atkinson, Peter M Dzingirai, Vupenyu and Welburn, Susan C 2015. Sleeping sickness and its relationship with development and biodiversity conservation in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 8, Issue. 1,

    Ben-Horin, Tal Bidegain, Gorka Huey, Lauren Narvaez, Diego A. and Bushek, David 2015. Parasite transmission through suspension feeding. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Vol. 131, p. 155.

    BORDES, Frédéric BLASDELL, Kim and MORAND, Serge 2015. Transmission ecology of rodent-borne diseases: New frontiers. Integrative Zoology, Vol. 10, Issue. 5, p. 424.

    Civitello, David J. Cohen, Jeremy Fatima, Hiba Halstead, Neal T. Liriano, Josue McMahon, Taegan A. Ortega, C. Nicole Sauer, Erin Louise Sehgal, Tanya Young, Suzanne and Rohr, Jason R. 2015. Biodiversity inhibits parasites: Broad evidence for the dilution effect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue. 28, p. 8667.

    Coen, Loren D. and Bishop, Melanie J. 2015. The ecology, evolution, impacts and management of host–parasite interactions of marine molluscs. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Vol. 131, p. 177.


Pangloss revisited: a critique of the dilution effect and the biodiversity-buffers-disease paradigm

  • S. E. RANDOLPH (a1) and A. D. M. DOBSON (a1) (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 16 February 2012

The twin concepts of zooprophylaxis and the dilution effect originated with vector-borne diseases (malaria), were driven forward by studies on Lyme borreliosis and have now developed into the mantra “biodiversity protects against disease”. The basic idea is that by diluting the assemblage of transmission-competent hosts with non-competent hosts, the probability of vectors feeding on transmission-competent hosts is reduced and so the abundance of infected vectors is lowered. The same principle has recently been applied to other infectious disease systems – tick-borne, insect-borne, indirectly transmitted via intermediate hosts, directly transmitted. It is claimed that the presence of extra species of various sorts, acting through a variety of distinct mechanisms, causes the prevalence of infectious agents to decrease. Examination of the theoretical and empirical evidence for this hypothesis reveals that it applies only in certain circumstances even amongst tick-borne diseases, and even less often if considering the correct metric – abundance rather than prevalence of infected vectors. Whether dilution or amplification occurs depends more on specific community composition than on biodiversity per se. We warn against raising a straw man, an untenable argument easily dismantled and dismissed. The intrinsic value of protecting biodiversity and ecosystem function outweighs this questionable utilitarian justification.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Department of Zoology, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PSUK. Tel: +44 1865 271241. Fax: +44 1865 271240. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

B. F. Allan , H. P. Dutra , L. S. Goessling , K. Barnett , J. M. Chase , R. J. Marquis , G. Pang , G. A. Storch , R. E. Thach and J. L. Orrock (2011). Invasive honeysuckle eradication reduces tick-borne disease risk by altering host dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 107, 1852318527.

B. F. Allan , L. S. Goessling , G. A. Storch and R. E. Thach (2010). Identification of reservoir hosts for Amblyomma americanum-associated zoonoses using bloodmeal analysis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 16, 433440.

B. F. Allan , F. Keesing and R. S. Ostfeld (2003). Effect of forest fragmentation on Lyme disease risk. Conservation Biology 17, 267272.

B. F. Allan , R. B. Langerhaus , W. A. Ryberg , W. J. Landesman , N. W. Griffin , R. S. Katz , B. J. Oberle , M. R. Schutzenhofer , K. N. Smyth , A. de St Maurice , L. Clark , K. R. Crooks , D. E. Hernandez , R. G. McLean , R. S. Ostfeld and J. M. Chase (2009). Ecological correlates of risk and incidence of West Nile virus in the United States. Oecologia 158, 699708.

C. Bogh , S. E. Clarke , G. E. L. Walraven and S. W. Lindsay (2002). Zooprophylaxis, artefact or reality? A paired-cohort study of the effect of passive zooprophylaxis on malaria in The Gambia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 96, 593596.

E. T. Borer , C. E. Mitchell , A. G. Power and E. W. Seabloom (2009). Consumers indirectly increase infection risk in grassland food webs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106, 503506.

M. J. Bouma and M. Rowland (1995). Failure of passive zooprophylaxis: cattle ownership in Parkistan is associated with a higher prevalence of malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 89, 351353.

D. Brisson , D. E. Dykhuizen and R. S. Ostfeld (2008). Conspicuous impacts of inconspicuous hosts on the Lyme disease epidemic. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 275, 227235.

J. L. Brunner and R. S. Ostfeld (2008). Multiple causes of variable tick burdens on small-mammal hosts. Ecology 89, 22592272.

C. Burri , V. Bastic , G. Maeder , E. Patalas and L. Gern (2011). Microclimate and the zoonotic cycle of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Switzerland. Journal of Medical Entomology 48, 615627.

J. C. Carlson , L. A. Dyer , F. X. Omlin and J. C. Beier (2009). Diversity cascades and malaria vectors. Journal of Medical Entomology 46, 460464.

D. J. Civitello , S. L. Flory and K. Clay (2008). Exotic grass invasion reduces survival of Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 45, 867872.

A. Costello , M. Abbas , A. Allen , S. Ball , R. Bellamy , S. Friel , N. Grace , A. Johnson , M. Kett , M. Lee , C. Levy , M. Maslin , D. McCoy , B. McGuire , H. Montgomery , D. Napier , C. Pagel , J. Patel , J. A. P. de Oliveira , N. Redclift , H. Rees , D. Rogger , J. Scott , J. Stephenson , J. Twigg , J. Wolff and C. Patterson (2009). Managing the health effects of climate change. The Lancet 373, 16931733.

T. Dalkvist , R. M. Sibly and C. J. Topping (2011). How predation and landscape fragmentation affect vole population dynamics. PLoS ONE 6, e22834.

P. Daszak , A. A. Cunningham and A. D. Hyatt (2001). Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife. Acta Tropica 78, 103116.

S. Diaz , J. Fargione , F. S. I. Chapin and D. Tilman (2006). Biodiversity loss threatens human well-being. PLoS Biology 4, 13001305.

L. J. Dizney and L. A. Ruedas (2009). Increased host species diversity and decreased prevalence of Sin Nombre virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15, 10121018.

A. P. Dobson (2004). Population dynamics of pathogens with multiple host species. The American Naturalist 164 (Suppl.) S64S78.

A. Dobson , I. Cattadori , R. D. Holt , R. S. Ostfeld , F. Keesing , K. Krichbaum , J. R. Rohr , S. E. Perkins and P. J. Hudson (2006). Sacred cows and sympathetic squirrels: the importance of biological diversity to human health. PLoS Medicine 3, 714718.

A. D. M. Dobson , T. J. R. Finnie and S. E. Randolph (2011). A modified matrix model to describe the seasonal population ecology of the European tick Ixodes ricinus. Journal of Applied Ecology 48, 10171028.

A. D. M. Dobson and S. E. Randolph (2011). Modelling the effects of recent changes in climate, host density and acaricide treatments on population dynamics of Ixodes ricinus in the UK. Journal of Applied Ecology 48, 10291037.

D. K. Dowling and L. W. Simmons (2009). Reactive oxygen species as universal constraints in life-history evolution. Proceedings of Royal Society of London, B 276, 17371745.

S. P. Elias , C. B. Lubelczyk , P. W. Rand , E. H. Lacombe , M. S. Holman and R. P. J. Smith (2006). Deer browse resistant exotic-invasive understory: an indicator of elevated human risk of exposure to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern coastal Maine woodlands. Journal of Medical Entomology 43, 11421152.

C. S. Elton (1958). The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. Methuen, London, UK.

V. O. Ezenwa , M. S. Godsey , R. J. King and S. C. Guptill (2006). Avian diversity and West Nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk. Proceedings of Royal Society of London, B 273, 109117.

R. C. Falco , D. F. McKenna , T. J. Daniels , R. B. Nadelman , J. Nowakowski , D. Fish and G. P. Wormser (1999). Temporal relation between Ixodes scapularis abundance and risk for Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans. American Journal of Epidemiology 149, 771776.

L. Gern , A. Estrada-Peña , F. Frandsen , J. Gray , G. J. S. , T. G. T. Jaenson , F. Jongejan , O. Kahl , E. Korenberg , R. Mehl and P. A. Nuttall (1998). European reservoir hosts of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie 287, 196204.

A. R. Giardina , K. A. Schmidt , E. M. Schauber and R. S. Ostfeld (2000). Modeling the role of songbirds and rodents in the ecology of Lyme disease. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78, 21842197.

L. Gilbert , R. Norman , M. K. Laurenson , H. W. Reid and P. J. Hudson (2001). Disease persistence and apparent competition in a three-host community: an empirical and analytical study of large-scale, wild populations. Journal of Animal Ecology 70, 10531061.

G. E. Glass , B. S. Schwarz , J. M. Morgan III , D. T. Johnson , P. M. Noy and E. Israel (1995). Environmental risk factor for Lyme disease identified with geographic information systems. American Journal of Public Health 85, 944948.

J. S. Gray , O. Kahl , C. Janetzki and J. Stein (1992). Studies on the ecology of Lyme disease in a deer forest in County Galway, Ireland. Journal of Medical Entomology 29, 915920.

G. L. Hamer , L. F. Chaves , T. K. Anderson , U. D. Kitron , J. D. Brawn , M. O. Ruiz , S. R. Loss , E. D. Walker and T. L. Goldberg (2011). Fine-scale variation in vector host use and force of infection drive localized patterns of West Nile virus transmission. PLoS ONE 6, e23767.

V. Guernier , M. E. Hochberg and J.-F. Guegan (2004). Ecology drives the worldwide distribution of human diseases. PLoS Biology 2, 0740.

K. Hanincova , N. H. Ogden , M. Diuk-Wasser , C. J. Pappas , R. Iyer , D. Fish , I. Schwartz and K. Kurtenbach (2008). Fitness variation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains in mice. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74, 153157.

I. Hanski , L. Hansson and H. Henttonen (1991). Specialist predators, generalist predators, and the microtine rodent cycle. Journal of Animal Ecology 60, 353367.

N. A. Hartemink , S. A. Davis , P. Reiter , Z. Hubálek and J. A. P. Heesterbeek (2007). Importance of bird-to-bird transmission for the establishment of West Nile virus. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 7, 575584.

D. M. Hawley and S. M. Altizer (2011). Disease ecology meets ecological immunology: understanding the links between organismal immunity and infection dynamics in natural populations. Functional Ecology 25, 4860.

R. F. Hechinger and K. D. Lafferty (2005). Host diversity begets parasite diversity: bird final hosts and trematodes in snail intermediate hosts. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 272, 10591066.

R. D. Holt and J. H. Lawton (1994). The ecological consequences of shared natural enemies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 25, 495520.

A. N. Hoodless , K. Kurtenbach , P. A. Nuttall and S. E. Randolph (2002). The impact of ticks on pheasant territoriality. Oikos 96, 245250.

H. Hoogstraal (1981). Changing patterns of tick-borne diseases in modern society. Annual Review of Entomology 26, 7599.

V. Horobik , F. Keesing and R. S. Ostfeld (2007). Abundance and Borrelia burgdorferi-infection prevalence of nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks along forest-field edges. EcoHealth 3, 262268.

N. P. C. Horrocks , K. D. Matson and B. I. Tieleman (2011). Pathogen pressure puts immune defense into perspective. Integrative and Comparative Biology 51, 563576.

Z. Hubálek and J. Halouzka (1999). West Nile virus – a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5, 643650.

P. J. Hudson , A. Rizzoli , R. Rosa , C. Chemini , L. D. Jones and E. A. Gould (2001). Tick-borne encephalitis virus in northern Italy: molecular analysis, relationships with density and seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 15, 304313.

P.-F. Humair and L. Gern (1998). Relationship between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species, red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) and Ixodes ricinus in enzootic areas in Switzerland. Acta Tropica 69, 213227.

P. T. J. Johnson , R. B. Hartson , D. J. Larson and D. R. Sutherland (2008). Diversity and disease: community structure drives parasite transmission and host fitness. Ecology Letters 11, 10171026.

P. T. J. Johnson , P. J. Lund , R. B. Hartson and T. P. Yoshino (2009). Community diversity reduces Schistosoma mansoni transmission, host pathology and human infection risk. Proceedings of Royal Society of London, B 276, 16571663.

P. T. J. Johnson and D. W. Thieltges (2010). Diversity, decoys and the dilution effect: how ecological communities affect disease risk. Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 961970.

K. E. Jones , N. G. Patel , M. A. Levy , A. Storeygard , D. Balk , J. L. Gittleman and P. Daszak (2008). Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature, London 451, 990994.

F. Keesing , L. K. Belden , P. Daszak , A. Dobson , C. D. Harvell , R. D. Holt , P. Hudson , A. Jolles , K. E. Jones , C. E. Mitchell , S. S. Myers , T. Bogich and R. S. Ostfeld (2010). Impacts of biodiversity on the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. Nature, London 468, 647652.

F. Keesing , J. Brunner , S. Duerr , M. Killilea , K. LoGiudice , K. Schmidt , H. Vuong and R. S. Ostfeld (2009). Hosts as ecological traps for the vector of Lyme disease. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B 276, 39113919.

F. Keesing , R. D. Holt and R. S. Ostfeld (2006). Effects of species diversity on disease risk. Ecology Letters 9, 485498.

M. Kilpatrick , P. Daszak , M. J. Jones , P. P. Marra and L. D. Kramer (2006). Host heterogeneity dominates West Nile virus transmission. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 273, 23272333.

N. Komar , S. Langevin , S. Hinten , N. Nemeth , E. Edwards , D. Hettler , B. Davis , R. Bowen and M. Bunning (2003). Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9, 311322.

K. Kurtenbach , D. Carey , A. N. Hoodless , P. A. Nuttall and S. E. Randolph (1998 a). Competence of pheasants as reservoirs for Lyme disease spirochetes. Journal of Medical Entomology 35, 7781.

K. Kurtenbach , K. Hanincova , J. I. Tsao , G. Margos , D. Fish and N. H. Ogden (2006). Fundamental processes in the evolutionary ecology of Lyme borreliosis. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4, 660669.

R. S. Lane and G. B. Quistad (1998). Borreliacidal factor in the blood of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Journal of Parasitology 84, 2934.

A. Larigauderie and H. A. Mooney (2010). The Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services: moving a step closer to an IPCC-like mechanism for biodiversity. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2, 914.

K. A. Lee , L. B. Martin , D. Hasselquist , R. E. Ricklefs and M. Wikelski (2006). Contrasting adaptive immune defenses and blood parasite prevalence in closely related Passer sparrows. Oecologia 150, 383392.

K. A. Lee , M. Wikelski , W. D. Robinson , T. R. Robinson and K. C. Klasing (2008). Constitutive immune defences correlate with life-history variables in tropical birds. Journal of Animal Ecology 77, 356363.

C. Linard , P. Lamarque , P. Heyman , G. Ducoffre , V. Lutasu , K. Tersago , S. O. Vanwambeke and E. F. Lambin (2007). Determinants of the geographic distribution of Puumala virus and Lyme borreliosis infections in Belgium. International Journal of Health Geographics 6, 1529.

K. LoGiudice , S. T. K. Duerr , M. J. Newhouse , K. A. Schmidt , M. E. Killilea and R. S. Ostfeld (2008). Impact of host community composition on Lyme disease risk. Ecology 89, 28412849.

K. LoGiudice , R. S. Ostfeld , K. A. Schmidt and F. Keesing (2003). The ecology of infectious disease: Effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 100, 567571.

S. R. Loss , G. L. Hamer , E. D. Walker , M. O. Ruiz , T. L. Goldberg , U. Kitron and J. D. Brawn (2009). Avian host community structure and prevalence of West Nile virus in Chicago, Illinois. Oecologia 159, 415424.

C. F. Marina , J. G. Bond , M. Casas , J. Munoz , A. Orozco , J. Valle and T. Williams (2011). Spinosad as an effective larvicide for control of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, vectors of dengue in southern Mexico. Pest Management Science 67, 114121.

E. Marris (2010). UN body will assess ecosystems and biodiversity. Nature, London 465, 859859.

L. B. Martin , D. Hasselquist and M. Wikelski (2006). Investment in immune defense is linked to pace of life in house sparrows. Oecologia 147, 565575.

L. B. Martin , Z. M. Weil and R. J. Nelson (2007). Immune defense and reproductive pace of life in Peromyscus mice. Ecology 88, 25162528.

F.-R. Matuschka , P. Fischer , M. Heiler , D. Richter and A. Spielman (1992). Capacity of European animals as reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease spirochete. Journal of Infectious Diseases 165, 479483.

F.-R. Matuschka , T. W. Schinkel , B. Klug , A. Spielman and D. Richter (2000). Relative importance of European rabbits for Lyme disease spirochaetes. Parasitology 121, 297302.

D. L. Miller , M. J. Mauel , C. L. Baldwin , G. Burtle , D. Ingram , M. E. Hines and K. S. Frazier (2003). West Nile virus in farmed alligators. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9, 794799.

B. Murgue , S. Murri , S. Zientara , B. Durand , J.-P. Durand and H. Zeller (2001). West Nile outbreak in horses in southern France, 2000: the return after 35 years. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7, 692696.

K. Nah , Y. Kim and J. M. Lee (2010). The dilution effect of the domestic animal population on the transmission of P. vivax malaria. Journal of Theoretical Biology 266, 299306.

T. E. Nupp and R. K. Swihart (1996). Effect of forest patch area on population attributes of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in fragmented landscapes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74, 467472.

T. E. Nupp and R. K. Swihart (1998). Effects of forest fragmentation on population attributes of white-footed mice and eastern chipmunks. Journal of Mammalogy 79, 12341243.

N. H. Ogden , P. A. Nuttall and S. E. Randolph (1997). Natural Lyme disease cycles maintained via sheep by co-feeding ticks. Parasitology 115, 591599.

N. H. Ogden and J. I. Tsao (2009). Biodiversity and Lyme disease: dilution or amplification? Epidemics 1, 196206.

J. L. Orrock , B. F. Allan and C. A. Drost (2011). Biogeographic and ecological regulation of disease: prevalence of Sin Nombre virus in island mice is related to island area, precipitation, and predator richness. American Naturalist 177, 691697.

R. S. Ostfeld , C. D. Canham , K. Oggenfuss , R. J. Winchcombe and F. Keesing (2006). Climate, deer, rodents, and acorns as determinants of variation in Lyme-disease risk. PLoS Biology 4, e145.

R. S. Ostfeld and R. D. Holt (2004). Are predators good for your health? Evaluating evidence for top-down regulation of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2, 1320.

R. S. Ostfeld and F. Keesing (2000 a). Biodiversity and disease risk: the case of Lyme disease. Conservation Biology 14, 722728.

R. S. Ostfeld and F. Keesing (2000 b). The function of biodiversity in the ecology of vector-borne zoonotic diseases. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78, 20612078.

R. S. Ostfeld and K. LoGiudice (2003). Community disassembly, biodiversity loss, and the erosion of an ecosystem service. Ecology 84, 14211427.

C. Packer , R. D. Holt , P. J. Hudson , K. D. Lafferty and A. P. Dobson (2003). Keeping herds healthy and alert: implications of predator control for infectious disease. Ecology Letters 6, 797802.

I. D. Peixoto and G. Abramson (2006). The effect of biodiversity on the hantavirus epizootic. Ecology 87, 873879.

S. E. Perkins , I. M. Cattadori , V. Tagliapietra , A. Rizzoli and P. J. Hudson (2006). Localized deer absence leads to tick amplification. Ecology 87, 19811986.

J. Piesman (2002). Ecology of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North America. In Lyme Borreliosis Biology, Epidemiology and Control (ed. J. S. Gray , O. Kahl , R. S. Lane and G. Stanek ), pp. 223250. CABI, Wallingford, UK.

A. Plyusnina , L. C. Krajinovic , J. Margaletic , J. Niemimaa , K. Nemirov , A. Lundkvist , A. Markotic , M. Miletic-Medved , T. Avsic-Zupanc , H. Henttonen and A. Plyusnin (2011). Genetic evidence for the presence of two distinct hantaviruses associated with Apodemus mice in Croatia and analysis of local strains. Journal of Medical Virology 83, 108114.

M. J. Pongsiri and J. Roman (2007). Examining the links between biodiversity and human health: an interdisciplinary research intiative at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EcoHealth 4, 8285.

M. J. Pongsiri , J. Roman , V. O. Ezenwa , T. L. Goldberg , H. S. Koren , S. C. Newbold , R. S. Ostfeld , S. K. Pattanayak and D. J. Salkeld (2009). Biodiversity loss affects global disease ecology. BioScience 59, 945954.

A. G. Power and C. E. Mitchell (2004). Pathogen spillover in disease epidemics. American Naturalist 164, S79S89.

S. E. Randolph and K. Storey (1999). Impact of microclimate on immature tick-rodent interactions (Acari: Ixodidae): implications for parasite transmission. Journal of Medical Entomology 36, 741748.

P. Reiter (2008). Global warming and malaria: knowing the horse before hitching the cart. Malaria Journal 7, S3.

A. Rizzoli , H. C. Hauffe , V. Tagliapietra , M. Neteler and R. Rosa (2009). Forest structure and roe deer abundance predict tick-borne encephalitis risk in Italy. PLoS ONE 4, e4336.

B. Roche and J.-F. Guégan (2011). Ecosystem dynamics, biological diversity and emerging infectious diseases. Comptes Rendus Biologies 334, 385392.

R. Rosa , A. Pugliese , R. Norman and P. J. Hudson (2003). Thresholds for disease persistence in models for tick-borne infections including non-viraemic transmission, extended feeding and tick aggregation. Journal of Theoretical Biology 224, 359376.

A. Saul (2003). Zooprophylaxis or zoopotentiation: the outcome of introduced animals on vector transmission is highly dependent on the mosquito mortality while searching. Malaria Journal 2, 32.

T. Sota and M. Mogi (1989). Effectiveness of zooprophylaxis in malaria control – a theoretical enquiry, with a model for mosquito populations with two bloodmeal hosts. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 3, 337345.

A. Spielman , M. L. Wilson , J. F. Levine and J. Piesman (1985). Ecology of Ixodes dammini-borne human babesiosis and Lyme disease. Annual Review of Entomology 30, 439460.

L. C. Steinbach Elwell , B. L. Kerans and J. Zickovich (2009). Host-parasite interactions and competition between tubificid species in a benthic community. Freshwater Biology 54, 16161628.

G. Suzán , N. Armien , J. N. Mills , E. Marce , G. Ceballos , M. Avila , J. Salazar-Bravo , L. A. Ruedas , B. Armien and T. L. Yates (2008). Epidemiological considerations of rodent community composition in fragmented landsacpes in Panama. Journal of Mammalogy 89, 634690.

G. Suzán , E. Marce , J. T. Giermakowski , J. N. Mills , G. Ceballos , R. S. Ostfeld , B. Armien , J. M. Pascale and T. L. Yates (2009). Experimental evidence for reduced rodent diversity causing increased hantavirus prevalence. PLoS ONE 4, e5461.

J. P. Swaddle and S. E. Calos (2008). Increased avian diversity is associated with lower incidence of human West Nile infection: observation of the dilution effect. PLoS ONE 3, e2488.

A. Swei , R. S. Ostfeld , R. S. Lane and C. J. Briggs (2011). Impact of the experimental removal of lizards on Lyme disease risk. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 278, 29702978.

L. Talleklint and T. G. T. Jaenson (1994). Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. from mammal reservoirs to the primary vector of Lyme borreliosis, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), in Sweden. Journal of Medical Entomology 31, 880886.

L. Talleklint and T. G. T. Jaenson (1996). Relationship between Ixodes ricinus density and prevalence of infection with Borrelia-like spirochetes and density of infected ticks. Journal of Medical Entomology 33, 805811.

K. Tersago , A. Schreurs , C. Linard , R. Verhagen , S. Van Dongen and H. Leirs (2008). Population, environmental, and community effects on local bank vole (Myodes glareolus) Puumala virus infection in an area with low human incidence. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 8, 235244.

K. Tersago , R. Verhagen and H. Leirs (2011 a). Temporal variation in individual factors associated with hantavirus infection in bank voles during an epizootic: implications for Puumala virus transmission dynamics. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 11, 715721.

D. W. Thieltges , K. Reise , K. Prinz and K. T. Jensen (2009 b). Invaders interfere with native parasite-host interactions. Biological Invasions 11, 14211429.

D. Tilman , J. M. H. Knops , D. Wedin , P. B. Reich , S. A. Ritchie and E. Siemann (1997). Influence of functional diversity and composition on ecosystem processes. Science 277, 13001302.

D. Tilman , P. B. Reich and J. M. H. Knops (2006). Biodiversity and ecosystem stability in a decade-long grassland experiment. Nature, London 441, 629632.

J. I. Tsao , J. T. Wootton , J. Bunikis , M. G. Luna , D. Fish and A. G. Barbour (2004). An ecological approach to preventing human infection: vaccinating wild mouse reservoirs intervenes in the Lyme disease cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 101, 1815918164.

M. J. Turell , D. J. Dohm , M. R. Sardelis , M. L. O'Guinn , T. G. Andreadis and J. A. Blow (2005). An update on the potential of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus. Journal of Medical Entomology 42, 5762.

J. van Buskirk and R. S. Ostfeld (1995). Controlling Lyme disease by modifying the density and species composition of tick hosts,. Ecological Applications 5, 11331140.

O. Vapalahti , J. Mustonen , A. Lundkvist , H. Henttonen , A. Plyusnin and A. Vaheri (2003). Hantavirus infections in Europe. Lancet Infectious Diseases 3, 653661.

J. S. Ward and T. L. Mervosh (2008). Strategies to reduce browse damage on eastern white pine (Pinis strobus) in southern New England, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 255, 15591567.

S. C. Williams , J. S. Ward , T. E. Worthley and K. C. Stafford (III) (2009). Managing Japanese barberry (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) infestations reduces black-legged tick (Acari: Ixodidae) abundance and infection prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae). Environmental Entomology 38, 977984.

M. L. Wilson , T. S. Litwin , T. A. Gavin , M. C. Capkanis , D. C. Maclean and A. Spielman (1990). Host-dependent differences in feeding and reproduction of Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 27, 945954.

M. E. J. Woolhouse and S. Gowtage-Sequeria (2005). Host range and emerging and reemerging pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11, 18421847.

P. Zeman and J. Januska (1999). Epizootiologic background of dissimilar distribution of human cases of Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in a joint endemic area. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 22, 247260.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *