Fontenla, Santiago Rinaldi, Gabriel Smircich, Pablo and Tort, Jose F. 2017. Conservation and diversification of small RNA pathways within flatworms. BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 17, Issue. 1,
Han, Qian Jia, Bingguang Hong, Yang Cao, Xiaodan Zhai, Qi Lu, Ke Li, Hao Zhu, Chuangang Fu, Zhiqiang Shi, Yonghong and Lin, Jiaojiao 2017. Suppression of VAMP2 Alters Morphology of the Tegument and Affects Glucose uptake, Development and Reproduction of Schistosoma japonicum . Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, Issue. 1,
Vasconcelos, Elton J. R. daSilva, Lucas F. Pires, David S. Lavezzo, Guilherme M. Pereira, Adriana S. A. Amaral, Murilo S. and Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio 2017. The Schistosoma mansoni genome encodes thousands of long non-coding RNAs predicted to be functional at different parasite life-cycle stages. Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, Issue. 1,
Hahnel, Steffen Parker-Manuel, Richard Dissous, Colette Cailliau, Katia and Grevelding, Christoph G. 2017. First characterization of SmOPG1, a novel protein involved in gonad-associated processes in Schistosoma mansoni. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. 213, p. 22.
Morel, Marion Vanderstraete, Mathieu Cailliau, Katia Hahnel, Steffen Grevelding, Christoph G. Dissous, Colette and Buday, Laszlo 2016. SmShb, the SH2-Containing Adaptor Protein B of Schistosoma mansoni Regulates Venus Kinase Receptor Signaling Pathways. PLOS ONE, Vol. 11, Issue. 9, p. e0163283.
Skinner-Adams, Tina S. Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D.M. Fisher, Gillian M. Davis, Rohan A. Doolan, Denise L. and Andrews, Katherine T. 2016. Defining the targets of antiparasitic compounds. Drug Discovery Today, Vol. 21, Issue. 5, p. 725.
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Vanderstraete, Mathieu Gouignard, Nadège Cailliau, Katia Morel, Marion Hahnel, Steffen Leutner, Silke Beckmann, Svenja Grevelding, Christoph G. Dissous, Colette and Davies, Stephen John 2014. Venus Kinase Receptors Control Reproduction in the Platyhelminth Parasite Schistosoma mansoni. PLoS Pathogens, Vol. 10, Issue. 5, p. e1004138.
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Dell’Oca, Nicolás Basika, Tatiana Corvo, Ileana Castillo, Estela Brindley, Paul J. Rinaldi, Gabriel and Tort, Jose F. 2014. RNA interference in Fasciola hepatica newly excysted juveniles: Long dsRNA induces more persistent silencing than siRNA. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. 197, Issue. 1-2, p. 28.
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You, Hong McManus, Donald P. Hu, Wei Smout, Michael J. Brindley, Paul J. Gobert, Geoffrey N. and Cunningham, Charles 2013. Transcriptional Responses of In Vivo Praziquantel Exposure in Schistosomes Identifies a Functional Role for Calcium Signalling Pathway Member CamKII. PLoS Pathogens, Vol. 9, Issue. 3, p. e1003254.
Soares, Cláudia Sossai Morais, Enyara Rezende Magalhães, Lizandra G. Machado, Carla Botelho de Carvalho Moreira, Érika Bueno Teixeira, Felipe Roberti Rodrigues, Vanderlei and Yoshino, Timothy P. 2013. Molecular and functional characterization of a putative PA28γ proteasome activator orthologue in Schistosoma mansoni. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. 189, Issue. 1-2, p. 14.
Da'dara, A. A. Faghiri, Z. Krautz-Peterson, G. Bhardwaj, R. and Skelly, P. J. 2013. Schistosome Na,K-ATPase as a therapeutic target. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 107, Issue. 2, p. 74.
Britton, Collette Samarasinghe, Buddhini and Knox, David P. 2012. Ups and downs of RNA interference in parasitic nematodes. Experimental Parasitology, Vol. 132, Issue. 1, p. 56.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a potent gene silencing process that is playing an increasingly important role in investigations of gene function in schistosomes. Here we review what is known about the process in these parasites and provide an update on the methodology and machinery of RNAi. Data are presented to demonstrate that: (1) not all schistosome genes can be suppressed to the same extent, using the methods employed here; (2) while there is variation in the level of suppression achieved for one target gene (SmAP) in adult parasites, all individuals exhibit robust (>80%) suppression; (3) short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can effect suppression when delivered by soaking (and not just via electroporation, as reported previously); (4) Male/female adult pairs need not be separated prior to siRNA delivery by electroporation for effective gene suppression in both genders and (5) electroporation of siRNAs in medium is as efficient as in commercial electroporation buffer. Regarding the machinery of RNAi in schistosomes, a homologue of the C. elegans multi-membrane spanning, RNA importing protein SID-1 is identified in silico. The gene encoding this protein contains 21 exons and spans over 50 kb to potentially encode a 115,556 Mr protein (SmSID-1). These analyses, and a review of the literature, permit us to derive and present here a draft of potential RNAi pathways in schistosomes.
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