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Sex-dependent toxoplasmosis-associated differences in testosterone concentration in humans

  • J. FLEGR (a1), J. LINDOVÁ (a1) (a2) and P. KODYM (a3)

Several lines of indirect evidence suggest that subjects with latent infection of the coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii have a higher concentration of testosterone than uninfected controls. Here, we searched for direct evidence of latent toxoplasmosis-associated differences in testosterone concentration among a population of 174 female and 91 male students screened for Toxoplasma infection. We have found Toxoplasma-infected men to have a higher concentration of testosterone and Toxoplasma-infected women to have a lower concentration of testosterone than Toxoplasma-free controls. The opposite direction of the testosterone shift in men compared to women can explain the observed gender specificity of behavioural shifts in Toxoplasma-infected subjects.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, CZ-128 44 Praha 2, Czech Republic. Tel: +420 221951821. Fax: +420 224919704. E-mail:
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  • ISSN: 0031-1820
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