Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 15
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Giannangelo, Carlo R. Ellis, Katherine M. Sexton, Anna E. Stoessel, Daniel and Creek, Darren J. 2016. Comprehensive Analysis of Parasite Biology: From Metabolism to Drug Discovery.

    Ochoa, Rodrigo Watowich, Stanley J. Flórez, Andrés Mesa, Carol V. Robledo, Sara M. and Muskus, Carlos 2016. Drug search for leishmaniasis: a virtual screening approach by grid computing. Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design,

    Canuto, Gisele A. B. da Cruz, Pedro L. R. Faccio, Andrea T. Klassen, Aline and Tavares, Marina F. M. 2015. Neglected diseases prioritized in Brazil under the perspective of metabolomics: A review. ELECTROPHORESIS, Vol. 36, Issue. 18, p. 2336.

    Rajasekaran, Rajalakshmi and Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe 2015. Potential therapeutic targets and the role of technology in developing novel antileishmanial drugs. Drug Discovery Today, Vol. 20, Issue. 8, p. 958.

    Canuto, Gisele A. B. Castilho-Martins, Emerson A. Tavares, Marina F. M. Rivas, Luis Barbas, Coral and López-Gonzálvez, Ángeles 2014. Multi-analytical platform metabolomic approach to study miltefosine mechanism of action and resistance in Leishmania. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 406, Issue. 14, p. 3459.

    de Azevedo, Alana Freire de Lisboa Dutra, Jorge Luís Barbosa Santos, Micheli Luize de Alexandria Santos, Darlisson Alves, Péricles Barreto de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues de Almeida, Roque Pacheco Fernandes, Marcelo Ferreira Scher, Ricardo and Fernandes, Roberta Pereira Miranda 2014. Fatty acid profiles in Leishmania spp. isolates with natural resistance to nitric oxide and trivalent antimony. Parasitology Research, Vol. 113, Issue. 1, p. 19.

    Jeelani, Ghulam and Nozaki, Tomoyoshi 2014. Metabolomic analysis of Entamoeba: applications and implications. Current Opinion in Microbiology, Vol. 20, p. 118.

    Kaur, Gagandeep and Rajput, Bhawana 2014. Comparative Analysis of the Omics Technologies Used to Study Antimonial, Amphotericin B, and Pentamidine Resistance inLeishmania. Journal of Parasitology Research, Vol. 2014, p. 1.

    Zhang, Rong Watson, David G. Wang, Lijie Westrop, Gareth D. Coombs, Graham H. and Zhang, Tong 2014. Evaluation of mobile phase characteristics on three zwitterionic columns in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode for liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry based untargeted metabolite profiling of Leishmania parasites. Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1362, p. 168.

    Berg, Maya Vanaerschot, Manu Jankevics, Andris Cuypers, Bart Breitling, Rainer and Dujardin, Jean-Claude 2013. LC-MS METABOLOMICS FROM STUDY DESIGN TO DATA-ANALYSIS – USING A VERSATILE PATHOGEN AS A TEST CASE. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, Vol. 4, Issue. 5, p. 1.

    Rohloff, Jens Hymete, Ariaya and Tariku, Yinebeb 2013.

    CHOI, J. and EL-SAYED, N. M. 2012. Functional genomics of trypanosomatids. Parasite Immunology, Vol. 34, Issue. 2-3, p. 72.

    Merlo, ME Jankevics, A Takano, E and Breitling, R 2011. Exploring the metabolic state of microorganisms using metabolomics. Bioanalysis, Vol. 3, Issue. 21, p. 2443.

    Rogers, Simon Scheltema, Richard A. Barrett, Michael and Breitling, Rainer 2011. Handbook of Statistical Systems Biology.

    Kafsack, Björn F.C. and Llinás, Manuel 2010. Eating at the Table of Another: Metabolomics of Host-Parasite Interactions. Cell Host & Microbe, Vol. 7, Issue. 2, p. 90.


The potential of metabolomics for Leishmania research in the post-genomics era

  • DOI:
  • Published online: 29 January 2010

The post-genomics era has provided researchers with access to a new generation of tools for the global characterization and understanding of pathogen diversity. This review provides a critical summary of published Leishmania post-genomic research efforts to date, and discusses the potential impact of the addition of metabolomics to the post-genomic toolbox. Metabolomics aims at understanding biology by comprehensive metabolite profiling. We present an overview of the design and interpretation of metabolomics experiments in the context of Leishmania research. Sample preparation, measurement techniques, and bioinformatics analysis of the generated complex datasets are discussed in detail. To illustrate the concepts and the expected results of metabolomics analyses, we also present an overview of comparative metabolic profiles of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant Leishmania donovani clinical isolates.

Corresponding author
*Address correspondence to: Rainer Breitling (, Tel: +31-50-3638088, Fax: +31-50-3637976.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

H. J. Atherton , N. J. Bailey , W. Zhang , J. Taylor , H. Major , J. Shockcor , K. Clarke and J. L. Griffin (2006). A combined 1H-NMR spectroscopy- and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic study of the PPAR-alpha null mutant mouse defines profound systemic changes in metabolism linked to the metabolic syndrome. Physiological Genomics 27, 178186. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00060.2006.

A. D. Baxevanis , R. D. Page , G. A. Petsko , L. D. Stein and G. D. Stormo (2002). Current Protocols in Bioinformatics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.

M. Bente , S. Harder , M. Wiesgigl , J. Heukeshoven , C. Gelhaus , E. Krause , J. Clos and I. Bruchhaus (2003). Developmentally induced changes of the proteome in the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Proteomics 3, 18111829. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200300462.

S. Bocker and F. Rasche (2008). Towards de novo identification of metabolites by analyzing tandem mass spectra. Bioinformatics 24, i49–55. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btn270.

R. Breitling , S. Ritchie , D. Goodenowe , M. L. Stewart and M. P. Barrett (2006). Ab initio prediction of metabolic networks using Fourier transform mass spectrometry data. Metabolomics 2, 155164. doi: 10.1007/s11306-006-0029-z.

R. Breitling , D. Vitkup and M. P. Barrett (2008). New surveyor tools for charting microbial metabolic maps. Nature Reviews, Microbiology 6, 156161. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro1797.

R. K. B. Brobey , F. C. Mei , X. Cheng and L. Soong (2006). Comparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis maps for promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania major. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 10, 16. doi: /S1413-86702006000100001.

A. K. Chavali , J. D. Whittemore , J. A. Eddy , K. T. Williams and J. A. Papin (2008). Systems analysis of metabolism in the pathogenic trypanosomatid Leishmania major. Molecular Systems Biology 4, 177. doi: 10.1038/msb.2008.15.

C. Clayton and M. Shapira (2007). Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in trypanosomes and leishmanias. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 156, 93–101. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2007.07.007.

G. Cohen-Freue , T. R. Holzer , J. D. Forney and W. R. McMaster (2007). Global gene expression in Leishmania. International Journal for Parasitology 37, 10771086. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2007.04.011.

D. P. De Souza , E. C. Saunders , M. J. McConville and V. A. Likic (2006). Progressive peak clustering in GC-MS Metabolomic experiments applied to Leishmania parasites. Bioinformatics 22, 13911396. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btl085.

M. Doyle , J. MacRae , D. De Souza , E. Saunders , M. McConville and V. Likic (2009). LeishCyc: a biochemical pathways database for Leishmania major. BMC Systems Biology 3, 57. doi: 10.1186/1752-0509-3-57.

J. Drummelsmith , V. Brochu , I. Girard , N. Messier and M. Ouellette (2003). Proteome mapping of the protozoan parasite Leishmania and application to the study of drug targets and resistance mechanisms. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics 2, 146155. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M200085-MCP200.

J. Drummelsmith , I. Girard , N. Trudel and M. Ouellette (2004). Differential protein expression analysis of Leishmania major reveals novel roles for methionine adenosyltransferase and S-adenosylmethionine in methotrexate resistance. Journal of Biological Chemistry 279, 3327333280. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M405183200.

J. Dujardin (2009). Structure, dynamics and function of Leishmania genome: resolving the puzzle of infection, genetics and evolution? Infection, Genetics and Evolution: Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases 9, 290297. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2008.11.007.

W. B. Dunn , N. J. C. Bailey and H. E. Johnson (2005). Measuring the metabolome: current analytical technologies. The Analyst 130, 606625.

W. B. Dunn , D. Broadhurst , M. Brown , P. N. Baker , C. W. G. Redman , L. C. Kenny and D. B. Kell (2008). Metabolic profiling of serum using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography and the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry system. Journal of Chromatography B 871, 288298. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.03.021.

K. E. Fadili , J. Drummelsmith , G. Roy , A. Jardim and M. Ouellette (2009). Down regulation of KMP-11 in Leishmania infantum axenic antimony resistant amastigotes as revealed by a proteomic screen. Experimental Parasitology 123, 5157. doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2009.05.013.

E. Fahy , M. Sud , D. Cotter and S. Subramaniam (2007). LIPID MAPS online tools for lipid research. Nucleic Acids Research 35(Web Server issue), W606–612. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkm324.

M. Faijes , A. Mars and E. Smid (2007). Comparison of quenching and extraction methodologies for metabolome analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum. Microbial Cell Factories 6, 27. doi: 10.1186/1475-2859-6-27.

A. R. Fernie , R. N. Trethewey , A. J. Krotzky and L. Willmitzer (2004). Metabolite profiling: from diagnostics to systems biology. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 5, 763769. doi: 10.1038/nrm1451.

O. Fiehn (2001). Combining genomics, metabolome analysis, and biochemical modelling to understand metabolic networks. Comparative and Functional Genomics 2, 155168. doi: 10.1002/cfg.82.

F. Gibellini , W. N. Hunter and T. K. Smith (2009). The ethanolamine branch of the Kennedy pathway is essential in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei. Molecular Microbiology 73, 826843. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06764.x.

R. Goodacre , S. Vaidyanathan , W. B. Dunn , G. G. Harrigan and D. B. Kell (2004). Metabolomics by numbers: acquiring and understanding global metabolite data. Trends in Biotechnology 22, 245252. doi: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2004.03.007.

C. Guimond , N. Trudel , C. Brochu , N. Marquis , A. E. Fadili , R. Peytavi , G. Briand , D. Richard , N. Messier , B. Papadopoulou , J. Corbeil , M. G. Bergeron , D. Legare and M. Ouellette (2003). Modulation of gene expression in Leishmania drug resistant mutants as determined by targeted DNA microarrays. Nucleic Acids Research 31, 58865896. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkg806.

N. Hall (2007). Advanced sequencing technologies and their wider impact in microbiology. Journal of Experimental Biology 210, 15181525. doi: 10.1242/jeb.001370.

J. Han , R. Danell , J. Patel , D. Gumerov , C. Scarlett , J. Speir , C. Parker , I. Rusyn , S. Zeisel and C. Borchers (2008). Towards high-throughput metabolomics using ultrahigh-field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Metabolomics 4, 128140. doi: 10.1007/s11306-008-0104-8.

M. Hardman and A. A. Makarov (2003). Interfacing the orbitrap mass analyzer to an electrospray ion source. Analytical Chemistry 75, 16991705.

T. R. Holzer , W. McMaster and J. D. Forney (2006). Expression profiling by whole-genome interspecies microarray hybridization reveals differential gene expression in procyclic promastigotes, lesion-derived amastigotes, and axenic amastigotes in Leishmania mexicana. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 146, 198218. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2005.12.009.

R. Inga , S. D. Doncker , J. Gomez , M. Lopez , R. Garcia , D. L. Ray , J. Arevalo and J. Dujardin (1998). Relation between variation in copy number of ribosomal RNA encoding genes and size of harbouring chromosomes in Leishmania of subgenus Viannia. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 92, 219228. doi: 10.1016/S0166-6851(98)00009-7.

A. C. Ivens , C. S. Peacock , E. A. Worthey , L. Murphy , G. Aggarwal , M. Berriman , E. Sisk , M. Rajandream , E. Adlem , R. Aert , A. Anupama , Z. Apostolou , P. Attipoe , N. Bason , C. Bauser , A. Beck , S. M. Beverley , G. Bianchettin , K. Borzym , G. Bothe , C. V. Bruschi , M. Collins , E. Cadag , L. Ciarloni , C. Clayton , R. M. R. Coulson , A. Cronin , A. K. Cruz , R. M. Davies , J. De Gaudenzi , D. E. Dobson , A. Duesterhoeft , G. Fazelina , N. Fosker , A. C. Frasch , A. Fraser , M. Fuchs , C. Gabel , A. Goble , A. Goffeau , D. Harris , C. Hertz-Fowler , H. Hilbert , D. Horn , Y. Huang , S. Klages , A. Knights , M. Kube , N. Larke , L. Litvin , A. Lord , T. Louie , M. Marra , D. Masuy , K. Matthews , S. Michaeli , J. C. Mottram , S. Müller-Auer , H. Munden , S. Nelson , H. Norbertczak , K. Oliver , S. O'Neil , M. Pentony , T. M. Pohl , C. Price , B. Purnelle , M. A. Quail , E. Rabbinowitsch , R. Reinhardt , M. Rieger , J. Rinta , J. Robben , L. Robertson , J. C. Ruiz , S. Rutter , D. Saunders , M. Schäfer , J. Schein , D. C. Schwartz , K. Seeger , A. Seyler , S. Sharp , H. Shin , D. Sivam , R. Squares , S. Squares , V. Tosato , C. Vogt , G. Volckaert , R. Wambutt , T. Warren , H. Wedler , J. Woodward , S. Zhou , W. Zimmermann , D. F. Smith , J. M. Blackwell , K. D. Stuart , B. Barrell and P. J. Myler (2005). The genome of the kinetoplastid parasite, Leishmania major. Science 309, 436442. doi: 10.1126/science.1112680.

A. Kamleh , M. P. Barrett , D. Wildridge , R. J. S. Burchmore , R. A. Scheltema and D. G. Watson (2008). Metabolomic profiling using Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometry with hydrophilic interaction chromatography: a method with wide applicability to analysis of biomolecules. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 22, 19121918. doi: 10.1002/rcm.3564.

M. Kanehisa , S. Goto , S. Kawashima and A. Nakaya (2002). The KEGG databases at GenomeNet. Nucleic Acids Research 30, 4246.

D. Kell and H. Westerhoff (1986). Metabolic control theory: its role in microbiology and biotechnology. FEMS Microbiology Letters 39, 305320. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1986.tb01863.x.

D. B. Kell (2004). Metabolomics and systems biology: making sense of the soup. Current Opinion in Microbiology 7, 296307. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2004.04.012.

B. O. Keller , J. Sui , A. B. Young and R. M. Whittal (2008). Interferences and contaminants encountered in modern mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta 627, 7181. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.04.043.

K. Leifso , G. Cohen-Freue , N. Dogra , A. Murray and W. R. McMaster (2007). Genomic and proteomic expression analysis of Leishmania promastigote and amastigote life stages: The Leishmania genome is constitutively expressed. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 152, 3546. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2006.11.009.

P. Leprohon , D. Legare , F. Raymond , E. Madore , G. Hardiman , J. Corbeil and M. Ouellette (2009). Gene expression modulation is associated with gene amplification, supernumerary chromosomes and chromosome loss in antimony-resistant Leishmania infantum. Nucleic Acids Research 37, 13871399. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn1069.

X. Lu , X. Zhao , C. Bai , C. Zhao , G. Lu and G. Xu (2008). LC-MS-based metabonomics analysis. Journal of Chromatography B 866, 6476. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2007.10.022.

M. J. McConville , D. de Souza , E. Saunders , V. A. Likic and T. Naderer (2007). Living in a phagolysosome; metabolism of Leishmania amastigotes. Trends in Parasitology 23, 368375. doi: 10.1016/

P. D. McDonagh , P. J. Myler and K. Stuart (2000). The unusual gene organization of Leishmania major chromosome 1 may reflect novel transcription processes. Nucleic Acids Research 28, 28002803. doi: 10.1093/nar/28.14.2800.

F. McNicoll , J. Drummelsmith , M. Müller , É. Madore , N. Boilard , M. Ouellette and B. Papadopoulou (2006). A combined proteomic and transcriptomic approach to the study of stage differentiation in Leishmania infantum. Proteomics 6, 35673581. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200500853.

O. Morozova and M. A. Marra (2008). Applications of next-generation sequencing technologies in functional genomics. Genomics 92, 255264. doi: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.07.001.

K. K. Pasikanti , P. Ho and E. Chan (2008). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in metabolic profiling of biological fluids. Journal of Chromatography B 871, 202211. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.04.033.

C. S. Peacock , K. Seeger , D. Harris , L. Murphy , J. C. Ruiz , M. A. Quail , N. Peters , E. Adlem , A. Tivey , M. Aslett , A. Kerhornou , A. Ivens , A. Fraser , M. Rajandream , T. Carver , H. Norbertczak , T. Chillingworth , Z. Hance , K. Jagels , S. Moule , D. Ormond , S. Rutter , R. Squares , S. Whitehead , E. Rabbinowitsch , C. Arrowsmith , B. White , S. Thurston , F. Bringaud , S. L. Baldauf , A. Faulconbridge , D. Jeffares , D. P. Depledge , S. O. Oyola , J. D. Hilley , L. O. Brito , L. R. O. Tosi , B. Barrell , A. K. Cruz , J. C. Mottram , D. F. Smith and M. Berriman (2007). Comparative genomic analysis of three Leishmania species that cause diverse human disease. Nature Genetics 39, 839847. doi: 10.1038/ng2053.

A. Rochette , F. Raymond , J. Ubeda , M. Smith , N. Messier , S. Boisvert , P. Rigault , J. Corbeil , M. Ouellette and B. Papadopoulou (2008). Genome-wide gene expression profiling analysis of Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum developmental stages reveals substantial differences between the two species. BMC Genomics 9, 255. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-255.

S. Rogers , R. A. Scheltema , M. Girolami and R. Breitling (2009). Probabilistic assignment of formulas to mass peaks in metabolomics experiments. Bioinformatics 25, 512518. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btn642.

D. Rosenzweig , D. Smith , F. Opperdoes , S. Stern , R. W. Olafson and D. Zilberstein (2008). Retooling Leishmania metabolism: from sand fly gut to human macrophage. FASEB Journal 22, 590602. doi: 10.1096/fj.07-9254com.

P. Salotra , R. C. Duncan , R. Singh , B. S. Raju , G. Sreenivas and H. L. Nakhasi (2006). Upregulation of surface proteins in Leishmania donovani isolated from patients of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Microbes and Infection 8, 637644. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2005.08.018.

A. Saxena , T. Lahav , N. Holl , G. Aggarwal , A. Anupama , Y. Huang , H. Volpin , P. Myler and D. Zilberstein (2007). Analysis of the Leishmania donovani transcriptome reveals an ordered progression of transient and permanent changes in gene expression during differentiation. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 152, 5365. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2006.11.011.

C. A. Sellick , R. Hansen , A. R. Maqsood , W. B. Dunn , G. M. Stephens , R. Goodacre and A. J. Dickson (2009). Effective quenching processes for physiologically valid metabolite profiling of suspension cultured mammalian cells. Analytical Chemistry 81, 174183. doi: 10.1021/ac8016899.

S. Sharma , G. Singh , H. D. Chavan and C. S. Dey (2003). Proteomic analysis of wild type and arsenite-resistant Leishmania donovani. Experimental Parasitology 123, 369376. doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2009.08.003.

G. Singh , H. D. Chavan and C. S. Dey (2008). Proteomic analysis of miltefosine-resistant Leishmania reveals the possible involvement of eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A). International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 31, 584586. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.01.032.

C. A. Smith , G. O'Maille , E. J. Want , C. Qin , S. A. Trauger , T. R. Brandon , D. E. Custodio , R. Abagyan and G. Siuzdak (2005). METLIN: a metabolite mass spectral database. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 27, 747751.

D. F. Smith , C. S. Peacock and A. K. Cruz (2007). Comparative genomics: from genotype to disease phenotype in the leishmaniases. International Journal for Parasitology 37, 11731186. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2007.05.015.

N. R. Sturm , L. I. T. Martinez and S. Thomas (2008). Kinetoplastid genomics: The thin end of the wedge. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 8, 901906. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2008.07.001.

J. Ubeda , D. Legare , F. Raymond , A. Ouameur , S. Boisvert , P. Rigault , J. Corbeil , M. Tremblay , M. Olivier , B. Papadopoulou and M. Ouellette (2008). Modulation of gene expression in drug resistant Leishmania is associated with gene amplification, gene deletion and chromosome aneuploidy. Genome Biology 9, R115. doi: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-7-r115.

M. J. van der Werf , K. M. Overkamp , B. Muilwijk , L. Coulier and T. Hankemeier (2007). Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage. Analytical Biochemistry 370, 1725. doi: 10.1016/j.ab.2007.07.022.

B. Vergnes , B. Gourbal , I. Girard , S. Sundar , J. Drummelsmith and M. Ouellette (2007). A proteomics screen implicates HSP83 and a small kinetoplastid calpain-related protein in drug resistance in Leishmania donovani clinical field isolates by modulating drug-induced programmed cell death. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics 6, 88–101. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M600319-MCP200.

S. G. Villas-Bôas and P. Bruheim (2007). Cold glycerol-saline: The promising quenching solution for accurate intracellular metabolite analysis of microbial cells. Analytical Biochemistry 370, 8797. doi: 10.1016/j.ab.2007.06.028.

Y. Wang , J. Xiao , T. O. Suzek , J. Zhang , J. Wang and S. H. Bryant (2009). PubChem: a public information system for analyzing bioactivities of small molecules. Nucleic Acids Research 37, W623–633. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp456.

C. L. Winder , W. B. Dunn , S. Schuler , D. Broadhurst , R. Jarvis , G. M. Stephens and R. Goodacre (2008). Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites. Analytical Chemistry 80, 29392948. doi: 10.1021/ac7023409.

D. S. Wishart , D. Tzur , C. Knox , R. Eisner , A. C. Guo , N. Young , D. Cheng , K. Jewell , D. Arndt , S. Sawhney , C. Fung , L. Nikolai , M. Lewis , M. Coutouly , I. Forsythe , P. Tang , S. Shrivastava , K. Jeroncic , P. Stothard , G. Amegbey , D. Block , D. D. Hau , J. Wagner , J. Miniaci , M. Clements , M. Gebremedhin , N. Guo , Y. Zhang , G. E. Duggan , G. D. MacInnis , A. M. Weljie , R. Dowlatabadi , F. Bamforth , D. Clive , R. Greiner , L. Li , T. Marrie , B. D. Sykes , H. J. Vogel and L. Querengesser (2007). HMDB: the human metabolome database. Nucleic Acids Research 35 (Database issue), D521–526. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkl923.

C. Wittmann , J. O. Krömer , P. Kiefer , T. Binz and E. Heinzle (2004). Impact of the cold shock phenomenon on quantification of intracellular metabolites in bacteria. Analytical Biochemistry 327, 135139. doi: 10.1016/j.ab.2004.01.002.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *