Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Unravelling the phylogenetic relationships of African trypanosomes of suids

  • W. C. GIBSON (a1), J. R. STEVENS (a2), C. M. T. MWENDIA (a3), J. N. MAKUMI (a3), J. M. NGOTHO (a3) and J. M. NDUNG'U (a3)...
Abstract

African trypanosomes of the subgenera Nannomonas and Pycnomonas have been recorded from both wild and domestic suids. However, complete descriptions of some of these trypanosomes with regard to host range, pathogenicity, transmission and distribution are still lacking. Neither the recently described Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) godfreyi nor Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) congolense Tsavo have been isolated from mammalian hosts, while Trypanosoma (Pycnomonas) suis remains the rarest of the Salivarian trypanosomes. The only isolate presumed to be of the latter species is maintained at the Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute, Nairobi. We present here the results of characterization of this isolate by morphology, tsetse transmission, the use of species-specific DNA probes and DNA sequence analysis. Morphology in stained blood smears revealed a small trypanosome with a free flagellum. Experimental transmission through Glossina morsitans morsitans showed a developmental cycle typical of subgenus Nannomonas. A positive identification was obtained with species-specific PCR primers for T. congolense Tsavo; moreover, the sequence of the SSU rRNA gene was almost identical to that of T. congolense Tsavo on database. In phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA genes of Salivarian trypanosomes, T. congolense Tsavo grouped with T. simiae rather than T. congolense, suggesting that the name T. simiae Tsavo is more appropriate.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK. Tel: +0117 9288249. Fax: +0117 9257374. E-mail: w.gibson@bristol.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

JANSSEN, J. A. H. A. & WIJERS, D. J. B. (1974). Trypanosoma simiae at the Kenya coast. A correlation between virulence and the transmitting species of Glossina. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology68, 519.

LEHANE, M. J., MSANGI, A. R., WHITAKER, C. J. & LEHANE, S. M. (2000). Segregation of trypanosome species among mixed infections in Glossina pallidipes and evidence that dissection-based identification of infection types is not reliable. Parasitology120, 583592.

MAJIWA, P. A. O., MAINA, M., WAITUMBI, J. N., MIHOK, S. & ZWEYGARTH, E. (1993). Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) congolense: molecular characterization of a new genotype from Tsavo, Kenya. Parasitology106, 151162.

MASIGA, D. K., SMYTH, A. J., HAYES, P. J., BROMIDGE, T. J. & GIBSON, W. C. (1992). Sensitive detection of trypanosomes in tsetse flies by DNA amplification. International Journal for Parasitology22, 909918.

MASIGA, D. K., MCNAMARA, J. J. & GIBSON, W. C. (1996b). A repetitive DNA sequence specific for Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) godfreyi. Veterinary Parasitology 62, 2733.

MASIGA, D. K., MCNAMARA, J. J., LAVEISSIÈRE, C., TRUC, P. & GIBSON, W. C. (1996a). A high prevalence of mixed trypanosome infections in tsetse flies in Sinfra, Côte d'Ivoire, detected by DNA amplification. Parasitology112, 7580.

MASLOV, D. A., LUKES, J., JIRKU, M. & SIMPSON, L. (1996). Phylogeny of trypanosomes as inferred from the small and large subunit rRNAs: implications for the evolution of parasitism in the trypanosomatid protozoa. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology75, 197205.

MCNAMARA, J. J., DUKES, P., SNOW, W. F. & GIBSON, W. C. (1989). Use of DNA probes to identify Trypanosoma congolense and T. simiae in tsetse from The Gambia. Acta Tropica46, 5561.

MCNAMARA, J. J. & SNOW, W. F. (1991). Improved identification of Nannomonas infection in tsetse flies from The Gambia. Acta Tropica48, 127136.

MCNAMARA, J. J., MOHAMMED, G. & GIBSON, W. C. (1994). Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) godfreyi sp. nov. from tsetse flies in the Gambia: biological and biochemical characterization. Parasitology109, 497509.

MCNAMARA, J. J., LAVEISSIERE, C. & MASIGA, D. K. (1995). Multiple trypanosome infections in wild tsetse in Côte D'Ivoire detected by PCR analysis and DNA probes. Acta Tropica59, 8592.

MURTHY, V. K., DIBBERN, K. M. & CAMPBELL, D. A. (1992). PCR amplification of mini-exon genes differentiates Trypanosoma cruzi from T. rangeli. Molecular and Cellular Probes6, 237243.

NEEFS, J.-M., VAN DE PEER, Y., HENDRIKS, L. & DEWACHTER, R. (1990). Compilation of small ribosomal subunit RNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Research18, 22372243.

SOLANO, P., REIFENBERG, J. M., AMSLERDELAFOSSE, S., KABORE, I., CUISANCE, D. & DUVALLET, G. (1996). Trypanosome characterization by polymerase chain reaction in Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides from Burkina Faso. Medical and Veterinary Entomology10, 354358.

STEVENS, J., NOYES, H. & GIBSON, W. (1998). The evolution of trypanosomes infecting humans and primates. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz93, 669676.

STEVENS, J. R., NOYES, H. A., DOVER, G. A. & GIBSON, W. C. (1999a). The ancient and divergent origins of the human pathogenic trypanosomes, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi. Parasitology118, 107116.

STEVENS, J. R., TEIXEIRA, M. M. G., BINGLE, L. E. H. & GIBSON, W. C. (1999b). The taxonomic position and evolutionary relationships of Trypanosoma rangeli. International Journal for Parasitology29, 749757.

THOMPSON, J. D., HIGGINS, D. G. & GIBSON, T. J. (1994). CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, positions-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research22, 46734680.

VAN DEN BERGHE, L. & ZAGHI, A. J. (1963). Wild pigs as hosts of Glossina vanhoofi Henrard and Trypanosoma suis Ochmann in the Central African forest. Nature, London197, 11261127.

WOOLHOUSE, M. E. J., HARGROVE, J. W. & MCNAMARA, J. J. (1993). Epidemiology of trypanosome infections of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes in the Zambezi valley. Parasitology106, 479485.

WOOLHOUSE, M. E. J., MCNAMARA, J. J., HARGROVE, J. W. & BEALBY, K. A. (1996). Distribution and abundance of trypanosome (subgenus Nannomonas) infections of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes in Southern Africa. Molecular Ecology5, 1118.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Parasitology
  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 8 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 281 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.