Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Nivkh palatalisation: articulatory causes and perceptual effects*

  • Bert Botma (a1) and Hidetoshi Shiraishi (a2)
Abstract

Nivkh, a linguistic isolate of Eastern Siberia, displays a typologically uncommon process which affects /e/ in the context of a following uvular consonant, and which reportedly results in palatalisation of the consonant preceding /e/, e.g. /pʰeq/→[pʰʲq]. Phonologically, there are indeed reasonable grounds for analysing the consonants as palatalised. Phonetically, matters are less clear. Acoustic evidence shows that the clearest correlate of palatalisation is a steep and consistent fall of F2 during the realisation of the vowel. The fact that F2 lowering is also typical before uvulars suggests that palatalisation is the result of a perceptually motivated reanalysis, whereby the palatality of /e/ has come to be associated with the preceding consonant, and the vowel has a lowered and retracted reflex.

Copyright
Corresponding author
E-mail: e.d.botma@hum.leidenuniv.nl
E-mail: hide@sgu.ac.jp.
Footnotes
Hide All
*We are grateful to our Nivkh consultants for their support and cooperation. Thanks are also due to two anonymous reviewers and to audiences at the TIN-dag (Utrecht University, February 2011), the Element Fest (University College London, March 2011), the NWO/Endangered Languages Project Conference (Leiden University, April 2011) and the 19th Manchester Phonology Meeting (May 2011) for useful comments and suggestions. We are particularly grateful to Alexei Kochetov, whose detailed comments led to substantial improvements. The fieldwork on Sakhalin undertaken by the second author was financed by JSPS Kakenhi no. 20242010 and Sapporo Gakuin University Research Grant no. SGU-BS13-205009-02.
Footnotes
References
Hide All
Abercrombie, David (1967). Elements of general phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Bateman, Nicoleta (2007). A crosslinguistic investigation of palatalization. PhD dissertation, University of California, San Diego.
Bhat, D. N. S. (1978). A general study of palatalization. In Greenberg, Joseph H., Ferguson, Charles A. & Moravcsik, Edith A. (eds.) Universals of human language. Vol. 2: Phonology. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 4792.
Blevins, Juliette (2004). Evolutionary Phonology: the emergence of sound patterns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Boersma, Paul & Weenink, David (2011). Praat: doing phonetics by computer (version 5.3.23). http://www.praat.org.
Bondarko, L. V. (1977). Zvukovoj stroj sovremennogo russkogo jazyka. [The sound structure of Modern Russian.] Moscow: Prosveshchenie.
Botma, Bert, Ewen, Colin J. & van der Torre, Erik Jan (2008). The syllabification of postvocalic liquids: an onset-specifier approach. Lingua 118. 12501270.
Botma, Bert, Smakman, Dick & Sebregts, Koen (2012). The phonetics and phonology of Dutch mid vowels before /l/. Laboratory Phonology 3. 273298.
Browman, Catherine P. & Goldstein, Louis (1986). Towards an articulatory phonology. Phonology Yearbook 3. 219252.
Browman, Catherine P. & Goldstein, Louis (1992). Articulatory phonology: an overview. Phonetica 49. 155180.
Campbell, Lyle (1974). Quichean palatalized velars. IJAL 40. 132134.
Catford, J. C. (1977). Fundamental problems in phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Derkach, Miron (1975). Acoustic cues of softness in Russian syllables and their application in automatic speech recognition. In Fant, Gunnar & Tatham, M. A. A (eds.) Auditory analysis and perception of speech. New York: Academic Press. 349358.
Deterding, David (1997). The formants of monophthong vowels in Standard Southern British English pronunciation. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 27. 4755.
Downing, Laura J. (2005). On the ambiguous segmental status of nasals in homorganic NC sequences. In van Oostendorp, Marc & de Weijer, Jeroen van (eds.) The internal organization of phonological segments. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 183216.
Elorrieta, Jabier (1991). The feature specification of uvulars. WCCFL 10. 139149.
Federal'naia sluzhba gosudarstvennoi statistiki [Federal state statistics service] (2013). Vserossiiskaia perepis' naseleniia 2010. [Russian census 2010.] Natsional'nyi sostav i vladenie iazykami, grazhdanstvo. [Language proficiency per nationality.] Available (May 2014) at http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm.
Fujimura, Osamu (1990). Toward a model of articulatory control: comments on Browman and Goldstein's paper. In Kingston, John & Beckman, Mary E. (eds.) Papers in laboratory phonology I: between the grammar and physics of speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 377381.
Gick, Bryan & Wilson, Ian (2006). Excrescent schwa and vowel laxing: cross-linguistic responses to conflicting articulatory targets. In Goldstein, Louis, Whalen, Douglas & Best, Catherine T. (eds.) Papers in Laboratory Phonology 8. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 635659.
Gruzdeva, Ekaterina (1998). Nivkh. Munich: Lincom.
Gruzdeva, Ekaterina (2002). The linguistic consequences of Nivkh language attrition. SKY Journal of Linguistics 15. 85103.
Hall, Nancy (2006). Cross-linguistic patterns of vowel intrusion. Phonology 23. 387429.
Hall, T. A. (2000). Typological generalizations concerning secondary palatalization. Lingua 110. 125.
Halle, Morris (1959). The sound pattern of Russian: a linguistic and acoustical investigation. The Hague: Mouton.
Jakobson, Roman (1957). Notes on Gilyak. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology 29. 255281. Reprinted in Roman Jakobson (1971). Selected writings. Vol. 2: Word and language. The Hague & Paris: Mouton. 72–102.
Jakobson, Roman & Halle, Morris (1956). Fundamentals of language. The Hague: Mouton.
Janhunen, Juha & Salminen, Tapani (2000). UNESCO red book on endangered languages: Northeast Asia. Available (May 2014) at http://www.helsinki.fi/∼tasalmin/nasia_index.html.
Kochetov, Alexei (2002). Production, perception, and emergent phonotactic patterns: a case of contrastive palatalization. New York & London: Routledge.
Kochetov, Alexei (2004). Perception of place and secondary articulation contrasts in different syllable positions: language-particular and language-independent asymmetries. Language and Speech 47. 351382.
Kreinovich, Eruhim (1934). Nivkhskii (giliackii) iazyk. [The Nivkh (Gilyak) language.] Trudy po lingvistike 3. 181222.
Kreinovich, Eruhim (1937). Fonetika nivkhskogo (giliackogo) iazyka. [Phonetics of Nivkh (Gilyak).] Trudy po lingvistike 5. 1102.
Ladefoged, Peter (1993). A course in phonetics. 3rd edn.New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Ladefoged, Peter (2003). Phonetic data analysis: an introduction to fieldwork and instrumental techniques. Malden, Mass. & Oxford: Blackwell.
Ladefoged, Peter & Maddieson, Ian (1996). The sounds of the world's languages. Oxford & Malden, Mass.: Blackwell.
Lavoie, Lisa & Cohn, Abigail (1999). Sesquisyllables of English: the structure of vowelliquid syllables. In Ohala, John J., Hasegawa, Yoko, Ohala, Manjari, Granville, Daniel & Bailey, Ashlee C. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Vol. 1. Berkeley: University of California. 109112.
Levin, Juliette (1987). Between epenthetic and excrescent vowels. WCCFL 6. 187201.
McCarthy, John J. (1994). The phonetics and phonology of Semitic pharyngeals. In Keating, Patricia A. (ed.) Phonological structure and phonetic form: papers in laboratory phonology III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 191233.
Mattissen, Johanna (2003). Dependent-head synthesis in Nivkh. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Ohala, John J. (1989). Sound change is drawn from a pool of synchronic variation. In Breivik, Leiv Egil & Jahr, Ernst Håkon (eds.) Language change: contributions to the study of its causes. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 173198.
Ohala, John J. (1993). The phonetics of sound change. In Jones, Charles (ed.) Historical linguistics: problems and perspectives. London & New York: Longman. 237278.
Ohala, John J. (2005). Phonetics and historical phonology. In Joseph, Brian D. & Janda, Richard D. (eds.) The handbook of historical linguistics. Malden, Mass. & Oxford: Blackwell. 669686.
Panfilov, V. Z. (1962). Grammatika nivkhskogo iazyka. [Nivkh grammar.] Vol. 1. Moscow & Leningrad: Nauka.
Pukhta, Maria (2002). Nivkhsko–Russkii razgovornik i tematicheskii slovar'. [Nivkh–Russian conversation and daily-life thesaurus.] St Petersburg: Drofa.
Savel'eva, V. N. & Taksami, C. M. (1970). Nivkhsko–Russkii slovar'. [Nivkh–Russian dictionary.] Moscow: Sovetskaia Entsiklopediia.
Shahin, Kimary N. (2002). Postvelar harmony. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Shiraishi, Hidetoshi (2006). Topics in Nivkh phonology. PhD dissertation, University of Groningen.
Shiraishi, Hidetoshi & Botma, Bert (2012). Asymmetries and attractors in Nivkh vowel sequences. Paper presented at the Workshop on Segmental Architecture, 20th Manchester Phonology Meeting.
Shiraishi, Hidetoshi & Botma, Bert (to appear). Nivkh writing practices: literacy and vitality in an endangered language. In Smakman, Dick & Heinrich, Patrick (eds.) Globalising sociolinguistics. London: Routledge.
Shiraishi, Hidetoshi & Lok, Galina Dem'ianovna (2002–14). Sound materials of the Nivkh language. 9 vols. Sapporo: Sapporo Gakuin University. Available (May 2014) at http://ext-web.edu.sgu.ac.jp/hidetos.
Svantesson, JanOlof, Tsendina, Anna, Karlsson, Anastasia & Franzén, Vivan (2005). The phonology of Mongolian. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tangiku, Itsuji (2006). Nivufugo no hyooki. [Writing in Nivkh.] In Shiohara, Asako & Kodama, Shigeaki (eds.) Writing unwritten languages. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. 123142.
Trigo, Loren (1991). On pharynx–larynx interactions. Phonology 8. 113136.
Walsh Dickey, Laura (1997). The phonology of liquids. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Weinreich, Uriel, Labov, William & Herzog, Marvin I. (1968). Empirical foundations for a theory of language change. In Lehmann, W. P. & Malkiel, Yakov (eds.) Directions for historical linguistics: a symposium. Austin & London: University of Texas Press. 95188.
Wilson, Ian (2007). The effects of post-velar consonants on vowels in Nuu-chah-nulth: auditory, acoustic, and articulatory evidence. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 52. 4370.
Zinder, Lev. R. & Matusevich, Margarita I. (1937). Eksperimental'noe issledovanie fonem nivkhskogo iazyka. [Experimental research on the phonemes of Nivkh.] Trudy po lingvistike 5. 103151.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Phonology
  • ISSN: 0952-6757
  • EISSN: 1469-8188
  • URL: /core/journals/phonology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Botma Supplementary Material
samples

 Unknown (3.7 MB)
3.7 MB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Supplementary Material
Supplementary information supplied by authors.

 PDF (47 KB)
47 KB