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The syntax and prosody of apposition in Shingazidja*

  • Kathleen M. O'Connor (a1) and Cédric Patin (a1)

This paper investigates the syntax–prosody interface with respect to apposition in Shingazidja. We examine the syntactic properties of two types of apposition (restrictive and non-restrictive). While restrictive apposition appears to form a single constituent, the syntactic data for non-restrictives are ambiguous between a single constituent analysis and an analysis in which the appositive and its anchor are syntactically separate. Prosodic data confirm the single constituent analysis for restrictive apposition, and provide evidence that non-restrictive appositives are syntactically linked to their antecedent and prosodically embedded in their host clause. The phenomenon of final raising emerges as the principal indicator of intonational phrases in Shingazidja; tone shift signals phonological phrasing. Our analysis is formalised in Optimality Theory through a comparison of Align/Wrap theory and Match theory. A Match-theory account predicts the existence of recursive phonological phrasing, and we present evidence supporting this prediction.

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Portions of this article were presented at the Syntax–Phonology Interface Workshop held at the Zentrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, Berlin in November 2012. We would like to thank Seunghun Lee for the invitation to participate in this workshop. Another version of the article was presented at Bantu 5 in Paris in June 2013. We are grateful to audiences at both conferences for helpful questions and suggestions. We would also like to thank our two anonymous reviewers, as well as Lisa Selkirk and the editors of Phonology, for their comments, which allowed us to make significant improvements to the paper.

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