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Moms Who Swing, or Why the Promise of the Gender Gap Remains Unfulfilled

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 September 2006

Susan J. Carroll
Rutgers University


In 2004, according to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the voter turnout rate for women was 60.1% compared with 56.3% for men, and across the United States 8.8 million more women than men voted. Women have voted at higher rates than men in all presidential elections since 1980, with the gap between women and men growing slightly larger in each subsequent election year. Moreover, in 2004, women outvoted men (in terms of both turnout rates and actual numbers) in every racial and ethnic group—African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and whites (Center for American Women and Politics 2005a).

© 2006 The Women and Politics Research Section of the American Political Science Association

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