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Risk Aversion, Gender, and Constitutional Change

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 September 2015

Tània Verge
Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Marc Guinjoan
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
Toni Rodon
Stanford University


Independence movements are today present in several stateless territorially concentrated nations, irrespective of their level of self-government. Among advanced industrial democracies, the stronger secessionist movements are found in Belgium, Canada, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom (Keating 1996; Sorens 2005). In the absence of a secession clause in their respective constitutions, a broad array of political parties and civil society groups have mobilized to demand a self-determination referendum as a means to let the citizenry of their territories express their will (Muñoz and Guinjoan 2013). Canada held a referendum on the secession of Quebec in 1980 and 1995. The United Kingdom called a popular vote on Scotland's independence in September 2014. In the Spanish case, Catalonia convoked a consultation in November 2014, although the central government did not recognize its legality.

Research Article
Copyright © The Women and Politics Research Section of the American Political Science Association 2015 

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