Hostname: page-component-594f858ff7-r29tb Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-06-07T22:50:16.225Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "corePageComponentUseShareaholicInsteadOfAddThis": true, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Tracking the Latino Gender Gap: Gender Attitudes across Sex, Borders, and Generations

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 February 2012

Christina E. Bejarano
University of Kansas
Sylvia Manzano
Texas A&M University
Celeste Montoya
University of Colorado


Many cultural stereotypes exist regarding the “modernity” of values possessed by Latino immigrants, particularly in reference to gender norms. Common perceptions about Latin machismo and marianismo (the idea that women should be pure and moral) do not paint a portrait of gender egalitarian dispositions. These assessments are upheld by neomodernization theorists who specifically identify gender attitudes as a critical element of modernity. In applying a revised modernization theory to the issue of comparative gender values, Inglehart and Norris (2003, 10) hypothesize that development “brings about changed cultural attitudes toward gender equality in virtually any society that experiences the various forms of modernization linked with economic development.” The idea that gender equality norms develop gradually, as a function of modernization, gives rise to different expectations about accepted gender roles in developing countries as opposed to those in advanced industrial democracies. Another feature of this modernization process is the emergence of gender gaps in political behavior and attitudes. Inglehart and Norris (2000) distinguish between traditional gender gaps found in postcommunist and developing societies (in which women are more conservative in their behavior and cultural attitudes relative to men) and modern gender gaps evident in postindustrial societies (in which women are more progressive than men).

Research Article
Copyright © The Women and Politics Research Section of the American Political Science Association 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Bennett, Linda L. M., and Bennett, Stephen E.. 1999. “Changing Views about Gender Equality in Politics: Gradual Change and Lingering Doubts.” In Women in Politics: Outsiders or Insiders? ed. Duke, Lois Lovelace. 3rd ed.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 3044.Google Scholar
Bolzendahl, Catherine, and Myers, Daniel. 2004. “Feminist Attitudes and Support for Gender Equality: Opinion Change of Women and Men 1974–1998.” Social Forces 83 (December): 759–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borunda, Daniel. 2010. “‘Mexodus’ Project to Focus on Migration.” El Paso Times. October 8. (accessed October 28, 2010).Google Scholar
Box Steffensmeier, Janet, de Boef, Suzanna, and Lin, Tse-Min. 2004. “The Dynamics of the Partisan Gender Gap.” American Political Science Review 98 (August): 515–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Branton, Regina. 2007. “Latino Attitudes toward Various Areas of Public Policy: The Importance of Acculturation.” Political Research Quarterly, 60(2): 293303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brewster, Karin L., and Padavic, Irene. 2000. “Change in Gender-Ideology, 1977–1996: The Contributions of Intracohort Change and Population Turnover.” Journal of Marriage and Family 62 (May): 477–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burns, Nancy, Schlozman, Kay, and Verba, Sidney. 2001. The Private Roots of Public Action: Gender, Equality and Political Participation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
DeBiaggi, Sylvia Duarte Dantas. 2002. Changing Gender Roles: Brazilian Immigrant Families in the U.S. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.Google Scholar
de la Garza, Rodolfo. 2004. “Latino Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 7 (June): 91123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erskine, Hazel. 1971. “The Polls: Women's Role.” Public Opinion Quarterly 35 (June): 275290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraga, Luis R., Garcia, John A., Hero, Rodney, Jones-Correa, Michael, Martinez-Ebers, Valerie, and Segura, Gary M.. 2006. Latino National Survey (LNS) 2006. ICPSR20862 v3. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research.Google Scholar
Gans, Herbert. 1992. “Ethnic Intervention and Acculturaion, a Bumpy-Line Approach.” Journal of American Ethnic History, 12: 4252.Google Scholar
Garcia, John A. 2003. Latino Politics in America. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
Garcia Bedolla, Lisa. 2009. Latino Politics. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
Garcia Bedolla, Lisa, Monforti, Jessica Lavariega, and Pantoja, Adrian D.. 2006. “A Second Look: Is There a Latino/a Gender Gap?Journal of Women, Politics, & Policy 28 (January): 147–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, Campbell, and Lennon, Emily. 1999. “Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign Born Population of the United States: 1850–1990.” Working Paper No. 29. Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
Gonzales, Felicia. 2008. “Hispanic Women in the United States, 2007.” Pew Hispanic Center. (accessed March 10, 2011).Google Scholar
Gordon, Milton. 1964. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion and National Origins. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Grieco, Elizabeth M., and Trevelyan, Edward N.. 2010. “Place of Birth of the Foreign Born Population: 2009.” American Survey Community Briefs, Number 09-15. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
Hirsch, Jennifer. 1999. “En el Norte la Mujer Manda: Gender, Generation, and Geography in a Mexican Transnational Community.” American Behavioral Scientist 42 (June): 1332–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holding, Reynolds. 2011. “‘Anchor Babies': No Getting Around the Constitution.” Time, February 1.,8599,2045617,00.html (accessed February 11, 2011).Google Scholar
Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierette. 2003. Gender and U.S. Immigration, Contemporary Trends. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Huntington, Samuel P. 2004. Who Are We: The Challenges to America's National Identity. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
Immigration Policy Center. 2010. “Immigrant Women in the United States.” Washington D.C. (accessed June 28, 2010).Google Scholar
Inglehart, Ronald, and Norris, Pippa. 2000. “The Developmental Theory of the Gender Gap: Women and Men's Voting Behavior in Global Perspective.” International Political Science Review 21 (October): 441–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Inglehart, Ronald, and Norris, Pippa. 2003. Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jennings, M. Kent. 2006. “The Gender Gap in Attitudes and Beliefs about the Place of Women in American Political Life: A Longitudinal Cross-Generation Analysis.” Politics & Gender 2 (2): 193219.Google Scholar
Lien, Pei-Te. 1998. “Does the Gender Gap in Political Attitudes and Behavior Vary Across Racial Groups?Political Research Quarterly 51 (December): 869–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martinez, Sanjuana. 2010. “Se Dispara el Éxodo de Ricos de México a EU.” La Jordana. December 26. (accessed February 14, 2011).Google Scholar
Montoya, Lisa J. 1996. “Latino Gender Difference in Public Opinion: Results from the Latino National Political Survey.” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 18 (May): 255–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norrander, Barbara. 1999. “The Evolution of the Gender Gap.” Public Opinion Quarterly 63 (February): 566–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parrado, Emilio, and Flippen, Chenoa. 2005. “Migration and Gender among Mexican Women.” American Sociological Review 70 (4): 606–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pedraza, Silvia. 1991. “Women and Migration: The Social Consequences of Gender.” Annual Review of Sociology 17: 303–25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pessar, Patricia, and Mahler, Sarah. 2003. “Transnational Migration: Bringing Gender In.” International Migration Review 37 (September): 812–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pew Hispanic Center. 2010. “Statistical Portrait of the Hispanics in the United States, 2009.” (accessed March 15, 2011).Google Scholar
Pew Hispanic Center. 2010. Passel, Jeffery, Wendy Wang, and Paul Taylor. “Marrying Out.”. (accessed June 15, 2010).Google Scholar
Pew Hispanic Center. 2011. “Statistical Portrait of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States, 2009.” (accessed March 15, 2011).Google Scholar
Portes, Alejandro. 1996. The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press.Google Scholar
Ramakrishnan, S. Karthick. 2004. “Second-Generation Immigrants? The 2.5 Generation.” Social Science Quarterly 85 (June): 380–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schlesinger, Mark, and Heldman, Caroline. 2001. “Gender Gap or Gender Gaps? New Support for Government Action and Policies.” Journal of Politics 63 (February): 5992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simon, Rita J., and Landis, Jean M.. 1989. “A Report: Women's and Men's Attitudes about a Woman's Place and Role.” Public Opinion Quarterly 53 (June): 265–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. 2009. Table 6. Median Age by Race and Hispanic Origin, SC-EST2008-06. Washington, DC. (accessed March 13, 2011).Google Scholar
U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. 2010. Fertility of American Women. Detailed Tables. Washington, DC. (accessed March 13, 2011).Google Scholar
U.S. Census Bureau News. 2010. Facts for Features Press Release. CB10-FF. Washington, DC. (accessed March 13, 2011).Google Scholar
Verba, Sidney, Burns, Nancy, and Schlozman, Kay L.. 1997. “Knowing and Caring About Politics: Gender and Political Engagement.” Journal of Politics 59 (December): 1051–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolbrecht, Christina. 2000. The Politics of Women's Rights: Parties, Positions, and Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
World Values Survey. 1981—2008. Official Aggregate v.20090901, 2009. World Values Survey Association. Aggregate File Producer: ASEP/JDS, Madrid. Scholar