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American Muslim Political Participation Following 9/11: Religious Belief, Political Resources, Social Structures, and Political Awareness

  • John W. Ayers (a1) and C. Richard Hofstetter (a1)


Using a nationwide survey of American Muslims conducted in 2004, we evaluate models of political participation, specifically the influence of religious characteristics, political resources, social structures, and political awareness on Muslims' reported political participation. American Muslims reported extremely high rates of political participation in comparison to the general public and in this regard are model citizens. Using path analysis, our findings concluded that religious beliefs were negatively associated with political participation, while measures of religious resources were positively related to participation. Social structures had mixed influence in most cases statistically indistinguishable from zero. Political resources and measures of political awareness, specifically feelings of anxiety following 9/11, were positively associated with participation.


Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: John W. Ayers, Department of Political Science, Nasatir Hall 127, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA, 92182-4427. E-Mail:


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