Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Reconceptualizing Church and State: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Separation of Religion and State on Democracy

  • Robert Brathwaite (a1) and Andrew Bramsen (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

This article argues that the relationship between democracy and the separation of religion and state needs to be reexamined. We argue that previous studies have misconceptualized the impact that a lack of church-state separation can have on democracy, or have taken a narrow focus by concentrating on specific cases. We use principal component analysis and a large-n data set covering 125 countries to show that the separation of religion and state should be conceptualized multi-dimensionally and that it should be considered a component of democracy. Our findings show that as separation of religion and state increases, the level of democracy also increases.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Robert Brathwaite or Andrew Bramsen, University of Notre Dame, 217 O'Shaughnessy Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556. E-mail: rbrathwa@nd.edu; abramsen@nd.edu
References
Hide All
Coppedge Michael. 1994. Strong Parties and Lame Ducks: Presidential Partyarchy and Factionalism in Venezuela. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Coppedge Michael, and Reinicke Wolfgang. 1990. “Measuring Polyarchy.” Studies in Comparative International Development 25:5172.
Coppedge Michael, Alvarez Angel, and Maldonado Claudia. 2008. “Two Persistent Dimensions of Democracy: Contestation and Inclusiveness.” Journal of Politics 70: 632647.
Dahl Robert. 1971. Polyarchy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Dahl Robert. 2006. A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Esposito John L., and Voll John O.. 1996. Islam and Democracy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Esposito John L. 1998. Islam and Politics. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Fisch M. Steven. 2002. “Islam and Authoritarianism.” World Politics 55: 437.
Fox Jonathan. 2004. Religion and State Data Codebook. http://www.religionandstate.org – (Accessed on September 10, 2009).
Fox Jonathan. 2006. “World Separation of Religion and State Into the 21st century.” Comparative Political Studies 39:537569.
Fox Jonathan. 2007. “Do Democracies Have Separation of Religion and State?Canadian Journal of Political Science 40:125.
Fox Jonathan. 2008. A World Survey of Religion and the State. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Fox Jonathan, and Rynhold Jonathan. 2008. “A Jewish and Democratic State? Comparing Government Involvement in Religion in Israel with other Democracies.” Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 9:507531.
Fox Jonathan, and Sandler Shmuel. 2005. “Separation of Religion and State in the 21st Century: Comparing the Middle East and Western Democracies.” Comparative Politics 37:317335.
Freedom House. 2008. “Frredom in the World.” http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=1 (Accessed on April 20, 2008).
Goertz Gary. 2006. Social Science Concepts: A User's Guide. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Grim Brian J., and Finke Roger. 2006. “International Religion Indexes: Governmental Regulation, Government Favoritism, and Social Regulation of Religion.” Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion 2:310.
Grim Brian J., and Finke Roger. 2007. “Religious Persecution in Cross-National Context: Clashing Civilizations or Regulated Economies?” American Sociological Review 72: 633658.
Grim Brian J., and Wike Richard. (2010). “Cross-Validating Measures of Global Religious Intolerance: Comparing Coded State Department Reports with Survey Data and Expert Opinion.” Politics and Religion 3:102129.
Heston Alan, and Summers Robert, and Aten Bettina. 2006. Penn World Table Version 6.2. http://pwt.econ.upenn.edu/php_site/pwt62/pwt62_form.php (Accessed on April 20, 2008).
Horowitz Donald L. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Inglehart Ronald, and Welzel Christian. 2005. Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Lijphart Arend. 1977. Democracy in Plural Societies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Lijphart Arend. 1999. Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Lindberg Steffan. 2006. Democracy and Elections in Africa. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Linz Juan J., and Stepan Alfred. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lotta Harbom, and Wallensteen Peter. 2007. “Armed Conflicts 1989–2006 .” Journal of Peace Research 44:621632.
Marshall Monty G., and Jaggers Keith. 2007. Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2006. http://www.systemicpeace.org/polity/polity4.htm (Accessed on February 24, 2010).
Mazie Steven V. 2006. Israel's Higher Law: Religion and Liberal Democracy in the Jewish State. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Midlarsky Manus I. 1998. “Democracy and Islam: Implications for Civilizational Conflict and the Democratic Peace.” International Studies Quarterly 42: 485511.
Munck Gerardo L. 2009. Measuring Democracy: A Bridge between Scholarship and Politics. Balitmore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Muñoz Vincent Phillip. 2003. “James Madison's Principle of Religious Liberty.” American Political Science Review 97:1732.
Norris Pippa, and Inglehart Ronald. 2004. Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Pemstein Daniel, Meserve Stephen A., and Melton James. 2008. “Democratic Compromise: A Latent Variable Analysis of Ten Measures of Regime Type.” Political Analysis 18:426449.
Plato. 1984a. Apology of Socrates. In Texts on Socrates, translated with notes by West Thomas G. and West Grace Starry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 6397.
Plato. 1984b. Crito. In Texts on Socrates, translated with notes by West Thomas G. and West Grace Starry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 99114.
Price Daniel E. 1999. Islamic Political Culture, Democracy, and Human Rights. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Przeworski Adam, Alvarez Michael E.,Cheibub and Jose Antonio, and Limongi Fernando. 2000. Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950–1990. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Religion and State Project. 2004. Association of Religion Data Archives. http://www.religionandstate.org/ (Accessed on September 10, 2009).
Starke Rodney, and Finke Roger. 2000. Acts of Faith: Explaining the Human Side of Religion. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Starke Rodney. 2003. For the Glory of God. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Stepan Alfred, and Robertson Graeme B. 2003. “An ‘Arab’ More than ‘Muslim’ Electoral Gap.” Journal of Democracy 14:3044.
Stepan Alfred, and Robertson Graeme B. 2004. “Arab, Not Muslim, Exceptionalism.” Journal of Democracy 15:140146.
Stone I.F. 1988. The Trial of Socrates. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.
Trigg Roger. 2007. Religion in Public Life: Must Faith Be Privatized? Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Ward Keith. 1992. “Is a Christian State a Contradiction?” In Religion in Public Life, ed. Cohn-Sherbok Dan and McLellan David. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press.
Wilson Bryan. 1982. Religion in Sociological Perspective. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Wood James E. Jr. 2005. Church and State in Historical Perspective: A Critical Assessment and Annotated Bibliography. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Politics and Religion
  • ISSN: 1755-0483
  • EISSN: 1755-0491
  • URL: /core/journals/politics-and-religion
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 74 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 279 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.