Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The Role of Born-Again Identity on the Political Attitudes of Whites, Blacks, Latinos, and Asian Americans

  • Janelle S. Wong (a1)
Abstract

Together, Asian American and Latino evangelicals constitute about 13% of all evangelicals in the United States. This proportion is surely going to increase as new immigrants enter the United States from Asia and Latin America and the number of White evangelicals remains steady or even falls. But the extent and nature of the effects of evangelical identity on the political attitudes of growing numbers of Latinos and Asian Americans have not been studied systematically. This article aims to fill that gap by comparing the effects of evangelical identity on political attitudes across a range of groups to better address the conditional effects of religious identity on political orientations in an increasingly diverse context. The primary research question driving the study is does born-again identity play a consistent role across racial groups in determining political attitudes?

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Janelle S. Wong, Asian American Studies Program, University of Maryland, 1145 Cole Student Activities Building, College Park, MD 20704. E-mail: janellew@umd.edu
References
Hide All
Adkins, Todd, Layman, Geoffrey C., Campbell, David E., and Green, John C.. 2013. “Religious Group Cues and Citizen Policy Attitudes in the United States.” Politics and Religion 6:235263.
Barreto, Matt, Frasure-Yokley, Lorrie, Hancock, Ange-Marie, Manzano, Sylvia, Ramakrishnan, Karthick, Ramirez, Ricardo, Sanchez, Gabe, and Wong, Janelle. 2008. “Collaborative Multi-racial Post-election Survey (CMPS), 2008. ICPSR35163-v1.” Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2014-08-21. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35163.v1 (Accessed October 2, 2015).
Bebbington, David. 1989. Evangelicalism in Modern Britain a History from the 1730s to the 1980s. New York, NY: Routledge.
Bean, Lydia. 2014. “Compassionate Conservatives? Evangelicals, Economic Conservatism, and National Identity.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 53:164186.
Bean, Lydia, Gonzalez, Marco, and Kaufman, Jason. 2008. “Why doesn't Canada have an American-style Christian right? A Comparative Framework for Analyzing the Political Effects of Evangelical Subcultural Identity.” Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers canadiens de sociologie 33:899943.
Bhopal, Raj. 2004. “Glossary of Terms Relating to Ethnicity and Race: For Reflection and Debate.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 58:441445.
Brint, Steven, and Abrutyn, Seth. 2010. “Who's Right About the Right? Comparing Competing Explanations of the Link between White Evangelicals and Conservative Politics in the United States.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 49:328350.
Brooks, Clem, and Manza, Jeff. 1997. “The Social and Ideological Bases of Middle-Class Political Realignment in the United States, 1972 to 1992.” American Sociological Review 62:191208.
Brubaker, Rogers. 2010. “The Everyday Workings of Ethnicity in an Ethnopolitically Charged Setting: Categories, Languages, Institutions.” Paper presented at the Program on Democracy, Citizenship, and Constitutionalism. University of Pennsylvania. September, 23.
Campbell, David, and Monson, J. Quin. 2008. “The Religion Card: Gay Marriage and the 2004 Presidential Election.” Public Opinion Quarterly 72:399419.
Campbell, David, and Putnam, Robert. 2012God and Caesar in America.Foreign Affairs 91(2):3443.
Chuang, D.J. 2007. Asian American Churches: An Introductory Survey. http://leadnet.org/report_on_asian_american_churches/ (Accessed October 2, 2015)
Chen, Caroline. 2012. “Why Do Asian Americans Vote for Democrats?” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/caroline-chen/asian-american-voters_b_2231418.html/ (Accessed September 4, 2015)
Cohen, Cathy. 1999. The Boundaries of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of Black Politics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Crenshaw, Kimberle. 1989.“Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics.University of Chicago Legal Forum 139167.
Claassen, Ryan L., and Povtak, Andrew. 2010. “The Christian Right Thesis: Explaining Longitudinal Change in Participation among Evangelical Christians.” The Journal of Politics 72:215.
Cox, Dan. 2007. “Young White Evangelicals: Less Republican, Still Conservative.” http://www.pewforum.org/2007/09/28/young-white-evangelicals-less-republican-still-conservative/ (Accessed September 4, 2015).
Dias, Elizabeth. 2013. “Evangelicos: A Way Back for the GOP.” Time-Swampland Blog. April 8. http://swampland.time.com/2013/04/08/evangelicos-a-way-back-for-the-gop/ (Accessed September 4, 2015).
Djupe, Paul A., and Gilbert, Christopher P.. 2009. The Political Influence of Churches. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Emerson, Michael, and Smith, Christian. 2001. Divided by Faith: Evangelical Religion and the Problem of Race in America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Fowler, Robert Booth, Hertzke, Allen D., Olson, Laura R., and Den Dulk, Kevin. Religion and politics in America: Faith, Culture, and Strategic Choices. 4th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Fuller, 2013. “News: Fuller Announces New Asian American Initiative. http://fuller.edu/about/news-and-events/articles/2013/fuller-announces-new-asian-american-initiative/#sthash.dzkNjGzH.dpuf (Accessed September 4, 2015).
García Bedolla, Lisa, and Haynie, Kerry L.. 2013. “The Obama Coalition and the Future of American Politics.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 1:128133.
Gittelson, Robert. 2012. “Hispanics and Values: How the GOP and the DNC Address Hispanic Issues.” http://www.faithstreet.com/onfaith/2012/09/11/hispanics-and-values-how-thegop-and-the-dnc-address-hispanic-issues/11797 (Accessed September 4, 2015)
Greeley, Andrew M., and Hout, Michael. 2008. The Truth about Conservative Christians: What They Think and What They Believe. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Green, John. 2005. “Gauging the God Gap: Religion and Voting in US Presidential Elections.” In The Oxford Handbook of American Elections and Political Behavior, ed. Leighley, J.E. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Hadley, Amelia. 2012. “Latinos expanding their religious horizons.” USAToday. http://www.usatoday.com/news/religion/story/2012-01-07/latinos-religion-evangelical/52424512/1 (Accessed October 2, 2015)
Hankins, Barry. 2008. American Evangelicals: A Contemporary History of a Mainstream Religious Movement. Lanham, PA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Hillygus, D. Sunshine, and Shields, Todd G.. 2005. “Moral Issues and Voter Decision Making in the 2004 Presidential Election.PS: Political Science & Politics 38(2): 201209.
Huckfeldt, R. Robert, and Sprague, John. 1995. Citizens, politics and social communication: Information and influence in an election campaign. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Jacobson, Robin Dale and Wadsworth, Nancy. 2012. Faith and Race in American Political Life. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.
Jameson, Norman. 2014. “Shifting sands: Seminaries are at a crossroads.” https://baptistnews.com/ministry/organizations/item/29429-shifting-sands-seminariesare-at-a-crossroads (Accessed September 4, 2015)
Jelen, Ted G., and Wilcox, Clyde. 2003. “Causes and Consequences of Public Attitudes Toward Abortion: A Review and Research Agenda.Political Research Quarterly 56(4): 489500.
Jones, Robert. 2014. “Southern Evangelicals: Dwindling—and Taking the GOP Edge With Them; Why are Democrats keeping it close in five key Senate races? Look at changing demographics.” http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/10/the-shriking-evangelical-voter-pool/381560/ (Accessed September 4, 2015)
Jones, Robert, Cox, Daniel, and Navarro-Rivera, Juhern. 2013. 2013 Hispanic Values Survey: How Shifting Religious Identities and Experiences are Influencing Hispanic Approaches to Politics. Washington, DC: Public Religion Research Institute.
Jones, Robert, and Cox, Daniel. 2015. Report: How Race and Religion Shape Millennial Attitudes on Sexuality and Reproductive Health. Washington, DC: Public Religion Research Institute.
Kellstedt, Lyman, and Smidt, Corwin. 1991. “Measuring fundamentalism: An analysis of different operational strategies.Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 259278.
Kim, Rebecca. 2006. God's New Whiz Kids: Korean American Evangelicals on Campus. New York: New York University Press.
Kim, Sharon. 2010. A Faith of Our Own: Second-Generation Spirituality in Korean American Churches. Rutgers, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Kuo, Alexander, Malhotra, Neil, and Mo, Cecelia. 2014. “Why are Asian Americans Democrats?” http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2014/03/asian-americans-democrats104763_Page2.html#.VXt4MvlViko (Accessed September 4, 2015).
Layman, Geoffrey. 2001. The Great Divide: Religious and Cultural Conflict in American Party Politics. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Layman, Geoffrey C., and Carmines, Edward G.. 1997Cultural Conflict in American Politics: Religious Traditionalism, Postmaterialism, and U.S. Political Behavior.” The Journal of Politics 59:751777.
Layman, Geoffrey C., and Green, John C.. 2006. “Wars and rumours of wars: The contexts of cultural conflict in American political behaviour.British Journal of Political Science 36: 6189.
Lee, Taeku, and Ramakrishnan, Karthick. 2012. “Asian Americans turn Democratic.” http://articles.latimes.com/2012/nov/23/opinion/la-oe-lee-asian-american-voters20121123 (Accessed September 4, 2015).
Leighley, Jan E., and Matsubayashi, Tetsuya. 2009. “The implications of class, race, and ethnicity for political networks.” American Politics Research 37:824855.
Lewis, Andrew, and De Bernardo, Dana. 2010. “Belonging Without Belonging: Utilizing Evangelical Self-Identification to Analyze Political Attitudes and Preferences.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 49:112126.
Lugo, Luis. 2013. “The Decline of Institutional Religion.” Presentation at the Faith Angle Forum. http://www.washingtonpost.com/r/2010-2019/WashingtonPost/2013/03/25/Editorial-Opinion/Graphics/Pew-Decline-of-Institutional-Religion.pdf (Accessed October 1, 2015).
Lugo, Luis, and Pond, Allison. 2007. “Here Come ’Los Evangélicos.” Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life Report. http://www.pewforum.org/2007/06/06/here-come-los-evanglicos/ (Accessed September 4, 2015).
MacDonald, Jeffrey G. 2006. “On Immigration Issues, Big Evangelical Groups Conspicuously Mum.” http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2006/januaryweb-only/103-52.0.html (Accessed October 2, 2015).
Masuoka, Natalie, and Junn, Jane. 2013. The Politics of Belonging: Race, Public Opinion, and Immigration. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
McAdams, Erin S., and Lance, Justin Earl. 2013. “Religion's Impact on the Divergent Political Attitudes of Evangelical Protestants in the United States and Brazil.” Politics and Religion 6:483511.
McKenzie, Brian D., and Rouse, Stella M.. 2013. “Shades of Faith: Religious Foundations of Political Attitudes among African Americans, Latinos, and Whites.” American Journal of Political Science 57:218235.
Murray, Charles. 2012. “Why aren't Asians Republicans.” http://www.aei-ideas.org/2012/11/why-arent-asians-republicans/ (Accessed October 1, 2014).
Noll, Mark. 2008. “Protestant Evangelicals and Recent American Politics.” The Journal of American and Canadian Studies 25:318.
Olson, Laura R., Cadge, Wendy, and Harrison, James T.. 2006. “Religion and Public Opinion about Same-Sex Marriage.” Social Science Quarterly 87:340360.
Olson, Laura. 2012. “Religion and American Public Life.” Perspectives on Politics 10:103106.
Olson, Lauren, and Green, John C.. 2006. “The Religion Gap.” PS: Political Science & Politics 39:455459.
Omi, Michael, and Winant, Howard. 1994. Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s. New York, NY: Routledge.
Pew 2008. Report: U.S. Religious Landscapes Survey. http://www.pewforum.org/files/2013/05/report-religious-landscape-study-full.pdf (Accessed September 15, 2015).
Pew Forum. 2012. Report: How the Faithful Voted. http://www.pewfrum.org/2012/11/07/how-the-faithful-voted-2012-preliminary-exit-poll-analysis/ (Accessed September 4, 2015).
Pew Hispanic Center. 2012. “2012 National Survey of Latinos.”. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2014/04/18/2012-national-survey-of-latinos/ (Accessed September 4, 2015).
Pew Social Trends. 2012. “Pew Social Trends/Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life Asian American Survey.” http://www.pewforum.org/datasets/ (Accessed September 4, 2015).
Pew Research Center. 2011. Report: Evangelical Beliefs and Practices. http://www.pewforum.org/2011/06/22/global-survey-beliefs/ (Accessed September 4, 2015).
Pew Research Center. 2012. Report: Asian Americans, a Mosaic of Faiths. http://www.pewforum.org/2012/07/19/asian-americans-a-mosaic-of-faiths-overview/ (Accessed September 4, 2015).
Pew Research Center. 2014. Report: The Shifting Religious Identity of Latinos in the United States. http://www.pewforum.org/files/2014/05/Latinos-Religion-07-22-full-report.pdf (Accessed October 2, 2015).
Puente, David. 2007. The Rise of Pentecostal Churches. http://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=2799081 (Accessed October 2, 2015).
Public Religion Research Institute. 2014. “AVA Highlights for 2014.” http://ava.publicreligion.org/highlights#2014-2 (Accessed September 4, 2015).
Putnam, Robert D. 2010. “American Grace. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values.” http://tannerlectures.utah.edu/_documents/a-to-z/p/Putnam_10.pdf (Accessed September 4, 2015).
Putnam, Robert D., and Campbell, David E.. 2012. American Grace: How Religion Divides and Unites Us. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Ramakrishnan, Karthick, Junn, Jane, Lee, Taeku, and Wong, Janelle. 2008. National Asian Ameri-can Survey. [Computer file]. ICPSR31481-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2012-07-19. doi:10.3886/ICPSR31481.v2 (Accessed October 2, 2015).
Reed, Ralph. 2014. “Contra Media Narrative, Voters of Faith Still Matter.” http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/392135/contra-media-narrative-voters-faith-still-matter-ralph-reed (September 4, 2015).
Sherkat, Darren E., De Vries, Kylan Mattias, and Creek, Stacia. 2010. “Race, Religion, and Oppo-sition to Same-Sex Marriage.” Social Science Quarterly 91:8098.
Smidt, Corwin. 1987. “Evangelicals and the 1984 Election: Continuity or Change?American Politics Research 15:419444.
Smidt, Corwin. 2007. “Evangelical and Mainline Protestants at the Turn of the Millennium: Taking Stock and Looking Forward. In From Pews to Polling Places: Faith and Politics in the American Religious Mosaic, ed. Wilson, J. Matthew. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Smith, C., Emerson, Michael, Gallagher, Sally, Kennedy, Paul, and Sikkink, David. 1998. American Evangelicalism: Embattled and Thriving. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Strolovitch, Dara. 2007. Affirmative Advocacy: Race, Class, and Gender in Interest Group Politics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Taylor, J. Benjamin, Gershon, Sarah Allen, and Pantoja, Adrian D.. 2014. “Christian America? Understanding the Link between Churches, Attitudes, and “Being American” among Latino Immigrants.” Politics and Religion 7:339365.
Wald, Kenneth D. 2003. Religion and Politics in the United States. 4th ed. Lanham, MD.: Rowman & Littlefield.
Wallace, Sophia J. 2012. “It's Complicated: Latinos, President Obama, and the 2012 Election.” Social Science Quarterly 93:13601383.
Wilcox, Clyde, and Jelen, Ted. 1990. “Evangelicals and Political Tolerance.” American Politics Research 18:2546.
Wilcox, Clyde, and Robinson, Carin. 2010. Onward Christian Soldiers? The Religious Right in American Politics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Zogby, John. 2008. The Way We'll Be. New York, NY: Random House.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Politics and Religion
  • ISSN: 1755-0483
  • EISSN: 1755-0491
  • URL: /core/journals/politics-and-religion
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Wong Supplementary Material
Appendix

 Word (47 KB)
47 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed