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37Choi and Bowles, 2007.
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47Choi and Bowles, 2007.
48See also Bowles and Gintis, 2011.
49Choi and Bowles, 2007, p. 640.
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51For example, Roan, S., “Bitterness as mental illness?,” Los Angeles Times, 2009, May 25:.
52McCullough, 2008, p. 49.
53de Waal, F. B. and Pokorny, J. J., “Primate conflict and its relation to human forgiveness,” in Handbook of Forgiveness, Worthington, E. L., ed. (New York: Brunner-Routledge, 2005), pp. 17–35.
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56Fehr, E. and Fischbacher, U., “Third party punishment and social norms,” Evolution and Human Behavior, 2004, 25: 63–87.
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60Bloom, S. L., “Reflections on the desire for revenge,” Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2001, 2(4): 61–94.
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64Van Vugt, 2009.
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71Forsyth, D. R., Group Dynamics, 5th ed. (Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks and Cole, 2009).
72Whitley, B. E. and Kite, M. E., The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2010).
73Sherif, M., Harvey, O. J., White, B. J., Hood, W., and Sherif, C. W., Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation: The Robbers Cave Experiment (Norman, OK: University Book Exchange, 1961).
74Walker, R. S. and Bailey, D. H., “Body counts in lowland South American violence,” Evolution and Human Behavior, 2013, 34: 29–34.
75Keeley, L. H., War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).
76Olzak, S., The Dynamics of Ethnic Competition and Conflict (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992).
77See, Wimmer, A., Cederman, L. E., and Min, B., “Ethnic politics and armed conflict: A configurational analysis of a new global data set,” American Sociological Review, 2009, 74: 316–337.
78Walker, I. and Smith, H., Relative Deprivation: Specification, Development, and Integration (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
79Gurr, T. R., Why Men Rebel (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1970).
80Eidelson, R. J. and Eidelson, J. I., “Dangerous ideas. Five beliefs that propel groups toward conflict,” American Psychologist, 2003, 58(3): 182–192.
81Gonen, J. Y., The Roots of Nazi Psychology: Hitler’s Utopian Barbarism (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2000).
82Marcus, K., “Accusation in a mirror,” Loyola University Chicago Law Journal, 2012, 43(2): 357–393.
83Chirot, D., “Introduction,” in Ethnopolitical Warfare: Causes, Consequences, and Possible Solutions (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001), p. 10.
84Kramer, R. M. and Messick, D. M., “Getting by with a little help from our enemies: Collective paranoia and its role in intergroup relations,” in Intergroup Cognition and Intergroup Behavior, Sedikides, C., Shopler, J., and Insko, C. A., eds. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998).
85Bolaffi, G., Dictionary of Race, Ethnicity, and Culture (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2003), p. 332.
86Richerson, P. and Boyd, R., Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005).
87De Dreu, C. K., Greer, L. L., Van Kleef, G. A., Salvi, S., and Handgraaf, M. J., “Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2011, 108(4): 1262–1266.
88Cashdan, E., “In-group loyalty or out-group avoidance? Isolating the links between pathogens and in-group assortative sociality,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2012, 35(2): 82.
89Gil-White, F. J., “Are ethnic groups biological “species” to the human brain? Essentialism in our cognition of some social categories,” Current Anthropology, 2001, 42(4): 515–554.
90Haslam, N., “Dehumanization: An integrative review,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2006, 10(3): 252–264.
91Harris, L. and Fiske, S. T., “Dehumanizing the lowest of the low: Neuroimaging responses to extreme out-groups,” Psychological Science, 2006, 17(10): 847–853, p. 848.
92Fiske, S. T., Social Beings: Core Motives in Social Psychology (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004).
93Bandura, A., “Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1999, 3: 193–209.
94Bandura, A., “Selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency,” Journal of Moral Education, 2002, 31(2): 101–119.
95Zimbardo, P., The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil (New York: Random House, 2007).
96Šmihula, D., The Use of Force in International Relations (Fresno, CA: Veda, 2013).
97Barkan, S. and Snowden, L. L., Collective Violence (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2007).
99Staub, E., “The origins and prevention of genocide, mass killing, and other collective violence,” Peace and Conflict Journal of Peace Psychology, 1999, 5(4): 303–336.
100Staub, E., “Genocide and mass killing: Origins, prevention, healing, and reconciliation,” Political Psychology, 2000, 21(2): 367–382.
101Jost, J. T. and Amodio, D. M., “Political ideology as motivated social cognition: Behavioral and neuroscientific evidence,” Motivation and Emotion, 2012, 36: 55–64.
102Hatemi, P. K. and McDermott, R., “A neurobiological approach to foreign policy analysis: Identifying individual differences in political violence,” Foreign Policy Analysis, 2012, 8: 111–129.
103Goldhagen, D. J., Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (New York: Vintage Books, 1997).
105Oberschall, A., “Propaganda, hate speech and mass killings,” in Propaganda, War Crimes Trials and International Law: From Speakers’ Corner to War Crimes, Dojčinović, P., ed. (New York: Routledge, 2012), p. 183.
106Marcus, K., “Accusation in a mirror,” Loyola University Chicago Law Journal, 2012, 43(2): 357–393.
107Marcus, 2012, p. 359.
108Benesch, S., “The ghost of causation in international speech crime cases,” in Propaganda, War Crimes Trials and International Law: From Speakers’ Corner to War Crimes, Dojčinović, P., ed. (New York: Routledge, 2012), pp. 254–268.
109Staub, 1999, p. 308.
110Saxon, D., “Propaganda as a crime under international humanitarian law: Theories and strategies for prosecutors,” in Propaganda, War Crimes Trials and International Law: From Speakers’ Corner to War Crimes, Dojčinović, P., ed. (New York: Routledge, 2012), p. 125.
111Bond, M. H., “Culture and aggression: From context to coercion,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2004, 8: 62–78.
112Cordes, H., Body-Gendrot, S., and Spierenburg, P., Violence in Europe: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (New York: Springer, 2009).
113Tilly, C., The Politics of Collective Violence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).
114Swann, W. B., Gomez, A., Huici, C., Morales, F., and Hixon, J. G., “Identity fusion: The interplay of personal and social identities in extreme group behavior,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2009, 96: 995–1011.
115Swann et al. 2009, p. 995.
116Barber, B. K., “Contrasting portraits of war: Youths’ varied experiences with political violence in Bosnia and Palestine,” International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2008, 32(4): 298–309.
117Swann, W. B., Gomez, A., Dovidio, J., Hart, S., and Jetten, J., “Dying and killing for one’s group: Identity fusion moderates responses to intergroup versions of the trolley problem,” Psychological Science, 2010, 21: 1176–1183.
118Swann, W. B., Gomez, A., Huici, C., Morales, F., and Hixon, J. G., “Identity fusion and self-sacrifice: Arousal as a catalyst of pro-group fighting, dying and helping behavior,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2010, 99: 824–841.
119Swann, W. B., Jensen, J., Gomez, A., Whitehouse, H., and Morales, F., “When group membership gets personal: A theory of identity fusion,” Psychological Review, 2012, 119(3): 441–456.
120Swann et al., 2009.
121Bozerlan, H., Violence in the Middle East: From Political Struggle to Self-Sacrifice (Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2004).
122Whitehouse, H., McQuinn, B., Buhrmester, M., and Swann, W. B., “Brothers in arms: Libyan revolutionaries bond like family,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2014, 111(50): 17783–17785.
123Swann, Gomez, Huici, et al., 2010, p. 825.
124Browning, C., Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (New York: HarperCollins Publishing, 1992).
126Tobeña, A., “Lethal altruists,” in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2009), vol. 1167, pp. 5–15.
127Swann et al., 2012.
128Swann et al., 2012, p. 3.
129Swann et al., 2009.
130Swann et al., 2009, p. 1009.
131Li, D., “Echoes of violence: Considerations on radio and genocide in Rwanda,” Journal of Genocide Research, 2004, 6(1): 9–27.
132Li, pp. 14–16.
133Kiper, J., “War propaganda, war crimes, and post-conflict justice in Serbia: An ethnographic account,” International Journal of Human Rights, 2015, 19(5): 572–591.
134Hitchens, C., God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything (New York: Hatchet Book Company, 2009).
135Kiper and Sosis, 2014.
137Sosis, R., “Religions as complex adaptive systems,” in Mental Religion: The Brain, Cognition, and Culture, Clements, N., ed. (Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan), in press.
138Alcorta, C. and Sosis, R., “Ritual, religion, and violence: An evolutionary perspective,” in Handbook of Religion and Violence, Juergensmeyer, M., Kitts, M., and Jerryson, M., eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013), pp. 573–596.
139Kiper and Sosis, 2014.
140Purzycki, B. and Sosis, R., “The religious system as adaptive: Cognitive flexibility, public displays, and acceptance,” in The Biological Evolution of Mind and Behavior, Voland, E. and Shiefenhovel, W., eds. (New York: Springer-Verlag Publishers, 2009), pp. 243–256.
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142R. Sosis, in press.
143R. Sosis, in press.
144Bulbulia, J. and Sosis, R., “Signaling theory and the evolution of religions,” Religion, 2011, 41(3): 363–388.
145Rappaport, R., Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
146Alcorta, C. and Sosis, R., “Ritual, emotion, and sacred symbols: the evolution of religion as an adaptive complex,” Human Nature, 2005, 16: 323–359.
147Sosis, R. and Alcorta, C., “Signaling, solidarity, and the sacred: The evolution of religious behavior,” Evolutionary Anthropology, 2003, 12: 264–274.
148Irons, W., “Religion as a hard-to-fake sign of commitment,” in Evolution and the Capacity for Commitment, Nesse, R., ed. (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001), pp. 292–309.
149Sosis, R., “Religious behaviors, badges, and bans: Signaling theory and the evolution of religion,” in Where God and Science Meet: How Brain and Evolutionary Studies Alter Our Understanding of Religion, Volume 1: Evolution, Genes, and the Religious Brain, McNamara, P., ed. (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2006), pp. 61–86.
150Bulbulia, J., “Religious costs as adaptations that signal altruistic intention,” Evolution and Cognition, 2004, 10: 19–38.
151Sosis and Alcorta, 2003, see also R. Sosis and C. Alcorta, “Militants and martyrs: Evolutionary perspectives on religion and terrorism,” in Natural Security: A Darwinian Approach to a Dangerous World, R. Sagarin and T. Taylor, eds. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008, pp. 105–124.
152Johnson, D. P., “Gods of war: The adaptive logic of religious conflict,” in The Evolution of Religion: Studies, Theories, and Critiques, Bulbulia, J., Sosis, R., Geret, C., Harris, E., and Wyman, K., eds. (Santa Margarita, CA: Collins Foundation Press, 2008), pp. 111–117.
153Alcorta and Sosis, 2013.
154Sosis, R., Kress, H., and Boster, J., “Scars of war: Evaluating alternative signaling explanations for cross-cultural variance in ritual costs,” Evolution and Human Behavior, 2007, 28(4): 234–247.
155Durkheim, E., The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (New York: Free Press, 1995), original work published, 1912.
157Alcorta and Sosis, 2005.
158Sosis, R., “Why sacred lands are not indivisible: The cognitive foundations of sacralizing land,” Journal of Terrorism Research, 2011, 2: 17–44.
159See also, Johnson, D. P. and Toft, M. D., “Grounds for war: The evolution of territorial conflict,” International Security, 2014, 38(3): 7–38.
160Lincoln, B., Death, War, and Sacrifice: Studies in Ideology and Practice (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014), original work published, 1991.
162Atran, S. and Ginges, J., “Religious and sacred imperatives in human conflict,” Science, 2012, 336: 855–857.
163Turner, V., The Ritual Process (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1969).
164Hassan, N., “An arsenal of believers,” The New Yorker, 2001, November 19: 36–41.
165van Gennep, A., The Rites of Passage , Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960; original work published, 1909.
166van Gennep, A., p. 69.
167Alcorta, C., “Religion and the life course: Is adolescence an ‘experience expectant’ period for religious transmission?,” in Where God and Science Meet: How Brain and Evolutionary Studies Alter Our Understanding of Religion, Volume II: The Neurology of Religious Experience, McNamara, P., ed. (Westport, CT: Praeger Press, 2006), pp. 55–80.
168Alcorta, C., “Music and the miraculous: The neurophysiology of music’s emotive meaning,” in Miracles: God, Science, and Psychology in the Paranormal, Volume 3: Parapsychological Perspectives, Ellens, J. H., ed. (Westport, CT: Praeger Press, 2008), pp. 23–52.
169Whitehouse, H. and Lanman, J., “The ties that bind us: Ritual, fusion, and identification,” Current Anthropology, 2014, 55(6): 674–695.
170Turner, p. 10.
171Atran, S., “Genesis of suicide terrorism,” Science, 2003, 299(5612): 1534–1539.
172Jurgensmeyer, M., Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise in Religious Violence (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).
173Atwill, D., “Holy culture wars: Patterns of ethno-religious violence in nineteenth- and twentieth-century China,” in Belief and Bloodshed: Religion and Violence Across Time and Tradition (Lanham, MA: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2007), pp. 115–130.
174Sosis and Alcorta, 2008, p. 107.
175Sidel, J., Riots, Pogroms, Jihad: Religious Violence in Indonesia (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006).
176Sosis, R., Phillips, E., and Alcorta, C., “Sacrifice and sacred values: Evolutionary perspectives on religious terrorism,” in Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Violence, Homicide, and War, Shackelford, T. and Weeks-Schakelford, V., eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 233–253.
177Wiebe, D., “Pseudo-speciation of the human race: Religions as hazard-precaution systems,” Method and Theory in the Study of Religion, 2013, 25(4–5): 410–430.
179Sen, A., “A world not neatly divided,” New York Times, 2001, November 21: 23.
180Rogel, C., The Breakup of Yugoslavia and the War in Bosnia (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998), pp. 24–27.
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182Finian, A., The Collapse of Yugoslavia, 1991–1999 (Wellingborough, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2004).
184Remet, S., The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918–2005 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006), pp. 119, 350–361.
185Jovic, D., Yugoslavia: A State That Withered Away (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 2009), p. 32.
187Remet, 2006, p. 319.
188Remet, 2006, pp. 339–355.
189Gagnon, V. P., The Myth of Ethnic War: Serbia and Croatian in the 1990s (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006).
190Glenny, M., The Fall of Yugoslavia: The Third Balkan War (New York: Penguin Books, 1996).
191Remet, S., Balkan Babel: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2002).
194Benesch, 2012, p. 264.
195Eko, L. S., New Media, Old Regimes: Case Studies in Comparative Communication Law and Policy (Lanham, MA: Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group, 2012), pp. 380–390.
196Perica, V., Balkan Idols: Religion and Nationalism in Yugoslav States (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).
197Wilmer, F., The Social Construction of Man, the State, and War: Identity, Conflict, and Violence in Former Yugoslavia (New York: Routledge, 2002).
198Steele, D., “Religion as a fount of ethnic hostility or an agent of reconciliation?,” Religion and War, Janjic, D., ed. (Belgrade: European Movement, 1994).
200Dojčinović, 2012, p. 95.
201Oberschall, 2012, pp. 177–179.
202de la Brosse, R., Political Propaganda and the Plan to Create a “State for all Serbs”: Consequences of Using the Media for Ultra-Nationalist Ends. Expert Report to the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, 2003, http://hrp.bard.edu/slobodan-milosevic-trial-public-archive/.
203R. de la Brosse, 2003.
204Oberschall, 2012, pp. 183–85.
208MacDonald, B., Balkan Holocausts? Serbian and Croatian Victim-Centered Propaganda and the War in Yugoslavia (Manchester, UK: Manchester Press, 2002), p. 65.
209Sells, M., The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), pp. 81–82.
210Armata, J., Twilight of Impunity: The War Crimes Trial of Slobodan Milosevic (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010), p. 192.
211Tanner, M., Croatia: A Nation Forged in War (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010).